# Capital Budgeting and Cost Analysis

Chapter 21

Introduction

Capital budgeting methods deal with how to select projects (or programs) that increase rather than decrease the capital (value) of a business. These methods assist managers in analyzing projects that span multiple years.

Learning Objectives
Adopt the project-by-project orientation of capital budgeting when evaluating projects spanning multiple years Follow the six stages of capital budgeting for a project Use and evaluate the two main discounted cashflow (DCF) methods the net present value (NPV) method and the internal rate-of-return (IRR) method

Learning Objectives 4 5 6 Identify relevant cash inflows and outflows for capital-budgeting decisions that use DCF methods Use and evaluate the payback method Use and evaluate the accrual accounting rate-of-return (AARR) method .

Learning Objectives 7 8 Identify and reduce conflicts from using DCF for capital budgeting and accrual accounting for performance evaluation Incorporate depreciation deductions into the computation of after-tax cash flows in capital budgeting .

Learning Objective 1 Adopt the project-byproject orientation of capital budgeting when evaluating projects spanning multiple years .

.Cost Analysis  1 2  There are two different dimensions of cost analysis: A project dimension An accounting period dimension The accounting system that corresponds to the project dimension is termed life-cycle costing.

This accumulation extends the accrual accounting system that measures income on a period-by-period basis to a system that computes cash flow or income over the entire project covering many accounting periods.Cost Analysis   Life-cycle costing accumulates revenues and costs on a project-by-project basis. .

Cost Analysis Project D Project C Project B Project A 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 .

.Cost Analysis  The life of the project is usually longer than one year. so capital budgeting decisions consider revenues and costs over relatively long periods.

.Capital Budgeting Capital budgeting is the making of long-run planning decisions for investments in projects and programs. It is a decision-making and control tool that focuses primarily on projects or programs that span multiple years.

Search stage. To explore alternative capital investments that will achieve organization objectives. . To distinguish which types of capital expenditure projects are necessary to accomplish organization objectives.Capital Budgeting Capital budgeting is a six-stage process: Identification stage.

Capital Budgeting Information-acquisition stage. . To choose projects for implementation. Financing stage. To obtain project funding. Selection stage. To consider the expected costs and the expected benefits of alternative capital investments. To get projects underway and monitor their performance. Implementation and control stage.

but management focuses on one machine as being particularly suitable.Capital Budgeting     Healthy Living is a non-profit organization. The search stage yields several alternative models. Management identifies a need to consider the purchase of new. One of its goals is to improve the diagnostic capabilities of its Miami facility. state-of-the-art equipment. .

000.Capital Budgeting    The administration next begins to acquire information to do more detailed evaluation.000) plus an additional cash investment in working capital (supplies and spare parts) of \$5. The required net initial investment consists of the cost of the new machine (\$245. . Management expects the new machine to have a three-year useful life and a \$0 terminal disposal price at the end of the three years.

Operating cash flows are assumed to occur at the end of the year.000. .000. and \$110.Capital Budgeting    This proposed investment will yield net cash savings of \$125.000 over its life. The working capital investment of \$5.000 is expected to be recovered at the end of year 3. \$130.

Improved diagnoses and patient care Reduced inconvenience of transporting patients to other facilities for diagnoses .Capital Budgeting  Management also identifies the following nonfinancial quantitative and qualitative benefits of investing in the new diagnostic machine.

In the selection stage.Capital Budgeting    Nonfinancial benefits are not incorporated into the analysis. Assume that the required rate of return for Healthy Living is 10%. management must decide whether Healthy Living should purchase the new machine. .

Learning Objective 3 Use and evaluate the two main discounted cash-flow (DCF) methods the net present value (NPV) method and the internal rate-ofreturn (IRR) method .

. The discounted cash-flow methods incorporate the time value of money.Discounted Cash Flow   Discounted cash-flow (DCF) methods measure all expected future cash inflows and outflows of a project as if they occurred at a single point in time.

.Discounted Cash Flow    The time value of money means that a dollar received today is worth more than a dollar received at any future time. Why? Because it can earn income and become greater in the future.

Discounted Cash Flow  1 2 There are two main DCF methods: Net present value (NPV) method Internal rate-of-return (IRR) method .

Net Present Value  

The NPV method computes the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by discounting all expected cash flows to the present point in time, using the required rate of return. Management s minimum desired rate of return is also called the discount rate, hurdle rate, required rate of return, or cost of capital.

Net Present Value  

Only projects with a zero or positive net present value are acceptable. What is the the net present value of the diagnostic machine?

Net Present Value
Net initial investment (\$250,000) Annual cash inflow Sketch of Relevant Cash Flows 0 1 2 3

\$125,000 \$130,000 \$115,000

Net Present Value Net Cash NPV of Net Year 10% Col.000 \$113.370 .751 115.380 3 0.370 Investment 250.365 Total PV of net cash inflows \$307.000 107.000 Net present value of project \$ 57.625 2 0.909 \$125. Inflows Cash Inflows 1 0.000 86.826 130.

000 per year for three years. and have a residual value of \$4. .000 at the end of the third year.370.Net Present Value   This project is acceptable because its net present value is \$57. Assume that Healthy Living is considering another investment that will generate \$80.

The working capital investment of \$5. Healthy Living expects a return of 10%.Net Present Value     The cost of this investment is \$250. Should the investment be made? .000 including working capital.000 is expected to be recovered at the end of year 3.

719 Investment 250.751 9.960 3 0.000 \$198.281) .000 Net present value of project (\$44.Net Present Value   No.759 Total PV of net cash inflows \$205. Inflows Cash Inflows 1-3 2.487 \$80. Net Cash NPV of Net Years 10% Col. the net present value is negative.000 6.

. The internal rate-of-return (IRR) method calculates the discount rate at which the present value of expected cash inflows from a project equals the present value of expected cash outflows.  ..Internal Rate of Return. is another model using discounted cash flows.

Internal Rate of Return   Investment = Expected annual net cash inflow × PV annuity factor Investment ÷ Expected annual net cash inflow = PV annuity factor .

Internal Rate of Return    Assume that Healthy Living is considering investing \$303.000 = 3.280 ÷ \$80.280 in a scanning machine that will yield net cash savings of \$80.000 per year over its five-year life. What is the IRR of this project? \$303.791 (PV annuity factor) .

791 is in the 10% column for a 5 period row in this example.Internal Rate of Return    The annuity table shows that 3. Therefore. Healthy Living should undertake this project. 10% is the internal rate of return of this project. If the minimum desired rate of return is 10% or less. .

Comparison of NPV and IRR    The NPV method has the important advantage that the end result of the computations is expressed in dollars and not in a percentage. . Individual projects can be added to see the effect of accepting a combination of projects. It can be used in situations where the required rate of return varies over the life of the project.

.Comparison of NPV and IRR  The IRR of individual projects cannot be added or averaged to derive the IRR of a combination of projects.

Learning Objective 4 Identify relevant cash inflows and outflows for capital-budgeting decisions that use DCF methods .

Relevant Cash Flows   1 2 3 Relevant cash flows are expected future cash flows that differ among the alternatives. Capital investment projects typically have three major categories of cash flows: Net initial investment Cash flow from operations Cash flow from terminal disposal of assets and recovery of working capital .

net initial investment components are: Initial asset investment Initial working capital investment Current disposal value of old asset .Relevant Cash Flows  1 2 3 Typically.

000 Initial working capital investment \$ 5.Net Initial Investment   The original Healthy Living example included the following: Initial machine investment \$245.000 Current disposal value of old machine 0 .

DCF is based on inflows and outflows of cash. from savings in cash operating costs. . or. as in the Healthy Living example. Depreciation is irrelevant in DCF analysis because it is a noncash allocation of costs.Cash Flow From Operations    Cash inflows may result from producing and selling additional goods or services.

Terminal Disposal Price   At the end of the machine s useful life the terminal disposal price may be zero or an amount considerably less than the initial machine investment. . The original Healthy Living example assumed zero disposal value of the new diagnostic machine.

000 that Healthy Living will recover in year 3.Working Capital Recovery   The initial investment in working capital is usually fully recouped when the project is terminated. . The relevant working capital cash inflow is the \$5.

Learning Objective 5 Use and evaluate the payback method .

the initial investment in a project. in the form of expected future cash flows.Payback Method  Payback measures the time it will take to recoup. .

and zero predicted residual value. with an estimated useful life of 11 years.Payback Method   Assume that Healthy Living is considering buying some equipment (Machine 1) for \$210. . Managers expect use of the equipment to generate \$35.000.000 of net cash inflows from operations per year.

000 = 7 years 7 years is the payback period.Payback Method    How long would it take to recover the investment? \$210. .000 ÷ \$35.

000 = 5 years Which piece of equipment is preferable? . there is another one (Machine 2) that also costs \$210. What is the payback period? \$210.000 per year during its five-year life.Payback Method     Suppose that an alternative to the \$210.000 ÷ \$42.000 but will save \$42.000 piece of equipment.

.000.Payback Method   Machine 1 is preferable because it will continue to generate net cash inflows for four years after its payback period. This will give the company an additional net cash inflow of \$140.

and \$110. The initial investment is \$250.000. calculations must take a cumulative form.000 over its life. Assume that Healthy Living s diagnostic machine investment is going to yield net cash savings of \$160. \$180.Payback Method     When cash flows are uneven.000. What is the payback period? .000.

Recovery of the amount invested occurs in Year 2.Payback Method   Year 1 brings in \$160.000. .

000 net cash inflow in Year 2 1 year + 0.000 needed to complete recovery \$180.Payback Method  = +   Payback 1 year \$90.5 year = 1.5 years or. 1 year and 6 months .

Learning Objective 6 Use and evaluate the accrual accounting rateof-return (AARR) method .

Accrual Accounting Rate-of-Return Method   The accrual accounting rate-of-return (AARR) method divides an accounting measure of income by an accounting measure of investment. This method is also called the accounting rate of return. .

no residual value.000. and a useful life of 5 years.280. What is the average operating income? . expected annual net cash savings of \$80. The IRR of this machine is 10%.Accrual Accounting Rate-of-Return Method    Recall the scanning machine with a cost \$303.

38% \$303.280 . \$80.Accrual Accounting Rate-of-Return Method      Straight-line depreciation is \$60.656 = \$19.656 per year.656 = 6.344.000 \$60. Average operating income is \$19.344 What is the AARR? AARR = \$80.000 \$60.

. Projects whose AARR exceeds an accrual accounting required rate of return for the project are considered desirable.Accrual Accounting Rate-of-Return Method   An AARR of 6.38% indicates the rate at which a dollar of investment generates operating income.

Accrual Accounting Rate-of-Return Method   The AARR method is similar to the IRR method in that both methods calculate a rate-of-return percentage. the IRR method calculates return on the basis of cash flows and the time value of money. . While the AARR calculates return using operating income numbers after considering accruals.

Learning Objective 7 Identify and reduce conflicts from using DCF for capital budgeting and accrual accounting for performance evaluation .

Performance Evaluation    A manager who uses DCF methods to make capital budgeting decisions can face goal congruence problems if AARR is used for performance evaluation.38% will be rejected. Suppose top management uses the AARR to judge performance if the minimum desired rate of return is 10%. . A machine with an AARR of 6.

Frequently. the optimal decision made using a DCF method will not report good operating income results in the project s early years on the basis of the AARR.Performance Evaluation   The AARR is low because the investment increases the denominator and. as a result of depreciation. also reduces the numerator (operating income) in the AARR computation. .

.Performance Evaluation  The conflict between using AARR and DCF methods to evaluate performance can be reduced by evaluating managers on a project-by-project basis.

it is a deductible cost for calculating tax outflow. Taxes saved as a result of depreciation deductions increase cash flows in discounted cash-flow (DCF) computations. .Income-Tax Considerations Although depreciation is a noncash expense.

The tax effects of cash inflows and outflows occur at the same time that the inflows and outflows occur. The company uses straight-line depreciation.Income-Tax Considerations Assume Miami Transit is considering the replacement of an old piece of equipment with new. The income tax rate is 40%. more modern equipment. .

Income-Tax Considerations Old equipment: Current book value Current disposal price Terminal disposal price (5 years) Annual depreciation Working capital \$50.000 \$ 5.000 0 \$10.000 \$ 3.000 .

000 Deduct current book value of old equipment Loss on disposal of 50.000 × 0.000 How much is the tax savings? \$47.000 equipment \$47.800 .Income-Tax Considerations    Current disposal price of old equipment \$ 3.40 = \$18.

000 Tax savings on loss 18.800 .800 Total \$21.Income-Tax Considerations   What is the after-tax cash flow from current disposal of old equipment? Current disposal price \$ 3.

000 Working capital 15.Income-Tax Considerations New equipment Current book value \$225.000 \$ \$ .000 Current disposal price is irrelevant Terminal disposal price (5 years) 0 Annual depreciation 45.

000 Add increase in working capital 10.000 Deduct after-tax cash flow from current disposal of old equipment 21.Income-Tax Considerations   How much is the net investment for the new equipment? Current cost \$225.200 .800 Net investment \$213.

Income-Tax Considerations    Assume \$90.000 Annual after-tax flow from operations \$54. What is the after-tax flow from operations? Cash flow from operations \$90.000 .000 pretax annual cash flow from operations (excluding depreciation effect).000 Deduct income tax (40%) 36.

Income-Tax Considerations   What is the difference in depreciation deduction? Annual depreciation of new equipment \$45.000 Difference \$35.000 .000 Deduct annual depreciation of old equipment 10.

000 Multiply by tax rate Income tax cash savings × .40 from additional depreciation \$14.000 .Income-Tax Considerations   What is the annual increase in income tax savings from depreciation? Increase in depreciation \$35.

Income-Tax Considerations   What is the cash flow from operations. net of income taxes \$68. net of income taxes? Annual after-tax flow from operations \$54.000 Income tax cash savings from additional depreciation 14.000 Cash flow from operations.000 .

What is the net present value of the new equipment incorporating income taxes? .Income-Tax Considerations   Miami Transit requires 14% rate of return on its investments.

Income-Tax Considerations Net Cash NPV of Net Years 14% Col.200 Net present value of new equipment \$ 25.436 .000 5.433 \$68.190 Total PV of net cash inflows \$238.636 Investment 213.000 \$233.519 10.444 5 0. Inflows Cash Inflows 1-5 3.

to summarize the difference in the future net cash inflows from an intangible asset at two different points in time. Top management can use a capital budgeting tool.Intangible Assets Intangible assets are critical to most organizations. . These assets have the potential to yield net cash inflows many years into the future. such as NPV.