Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong

)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Nuclear Energy
Read Web Pages :
1. Nuclear Energy-Fission and Fusion http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter13.html 2. Nuclear Fission

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/fission.h
3. Nuclear Fusion
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/fusion.html#c1 http://wapp4.taipower.com.tw/nsis/

4. 台灣電力公司-核能資訊透明化資訊系統
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 1

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Uranium
 Uranium ore, a solid,
is mined and converted to a fuel  Uranium is not a fossil fuel

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 2

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Nuclear Power
 Nuclear
fission ( 核分裂 / 核裂變 ),or the splitting of atoms of U235, releases energy, which is used to heat water, which produces steam which drives turbines to produce electricity. sun

 This type of energy does NOT come from the  Uranium is mined; but because very little of it is
needed compared to coal or oil, the mining itself is not as big an environmental concern as it is for the other conventional fuels. © Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 3

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Einstein Equation

E=mc2
where: E = energy m = mass c = speed of light

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 4

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Nuclear Fission
• • • • If a massive nucleus like uranium-235 breaks apart (fissions), then there will be a net yield of energy because the sum of the masses of the fragments will be less than the mass of the uranium nucleus. That decrease in mass comes off in the form of energy according to the Einstein equation. The fission of U-235 in reactors is triggered by the absorption of a low energy neutron, often termed a “slow neutron”. Other fissionable isotopes which can be induced to fission by slow neutrons are plutonium-239, uranium-233, and thorium-232.

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 5

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Uranium-235 Fission
 A slow neutron can be captured by
a uranium-235 nucleus, rendering it unstable toward nuclear fission.  A fast neutron will not be captured, so neutrons must be slowed down by moderation to increase their capture probability in fission reactors.  A single fission event can yield over 200 million times the energy of the neutron which triggered it.

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 6

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Uranium-235 Fission

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 7

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Uranium-235 Fission

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 8

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Chain Reaction
If at least one neutron from each fission strikes another U-235 nucleus and initiates fission, then the chain reaction is sustained.

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 9

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Advantage of Nuclear Power
 Lack of pollution-causing emissions, such as
particulates, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. In addition, since nothing is burned, there is no CO2 production.

 Nuclear power supplies are almost unlimited.

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 10

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Disadvantage of Nuclear Power
 Costs: nuclear power has higher power overall lifetime
costs compared to thermal power plants.

 Safety: nuclear power has perceived adverse safety,
environmental and health effects, heightened by the 1979 Three Mile Island and 1986 Chernobyl reactor accidents.

 Proliferation: nuclear power entails potential security
risks, notably the possible misuse of commercial or associated nuclear facilities and operations to acquire technology and materials as a precursor to the acquisition of a nuclear weapons capability. term management of radioactive wastes.

 Waste: nuclear power has unresolved challenges in long-

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 11

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Three Mile Island Incident ( 三里 島事件
)

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 12

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Three Mile Island Incident

(cont)

The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant near Middletown, Pennsylvania, on March 28, 1979, was the most serious in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history, even though it led to no deaths or injuries to plant workers or members of the nearby community. But it brought about sweeping changes involving emergency response planning, reactor operator training, human factors engineering, radiation protection, and many other areas of nuclear power plant operations. It also caused the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to tighten and heighten its regulatory oversight. Resultant changes in the nuclear power industry and at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) had the effect of enhancing safety. The sequence of certain events -- equipment malfunctions, design related problems and worker errors -- led to a partial meltdown of the TMI-2 reactor core but only very small off-site releases of radioactivity.

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 13

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
On April 25th−26th, 1986 the World's worst nuclear power accident occurred at Chernobyl ( 切爾諾貝爾 ) in the former USSR (now Ukraine). The Chernobyl nuclear power plant located 80 miles north of Kiev had 4 reactors and whilst testing reactor number 4 numerous safety procedures were disregarded. At 1:23am the chain reaction in the reactor became out of control creating explosions and a fireball which blew off the reactor's heavy steel and concrete lid. The Chernobyl accident killed more than 30 people immediately, and as a result of the high radiation levels in the surrounding 20-mile radius, 135,00 people had to be evacuated.
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 14

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)

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Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

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Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Nuclear Fusion
In the core of the sun at temperatures of 10-15 million degrees Celsius, Hydrogen is converted to Helium providing enough energy to sustain life on earth
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 17

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Nuclear Fusion ( 核溶合 / 核聚
• If變 ) nuclei are forced together, they will fuse with a yield light of energy because the mass of the combination will be less than the sum of the masses of the individual nuclei. • That decrease in mass comes off in the form of energy according to the Einstein equation. • For potential nuclear energy sources for the Earth, the deuterium-tritium (isotopes of Hydrogen) fusion reaction contained by some kind of magnetic confinement seems the most likely path. (Over 100 million deg. C is needed for the reaction)

Nuclear fusion is still in the research stage
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 18

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Deuterium-Tritium Fusion
• The most promising of the hydrogen fusion reactions which is the fusion of deuterium and tritium. The reaction yields 17.6 MeV of energy but requires a temperature of approximately 40 million Kelvins to ignite it. The deuterium is abundant, but tritium must be either bred from lithium or gotten in the operation of the deuterium cycle.
Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 19

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong.

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

Advantages of Fusion
A vast, new source of energy Fuels are plentiful Inherently safe since any malfunction results in a rapid shutdown No atmospheric pollution leading to acid rain or "greenhouse" effect Radioactivity of the reactor structure, caused by the neutrons, decays rapidly and can be minimised by careful selection of low-activation materials. Provision for geological time-span disposal is not needed

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Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 20

Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong)

EEC6120 Introduction to Electrical Supply and Installation

The End
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