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EEC6120

Introduction to Electrical Supply


Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Nuclear Energy
Read Web Pages :

1. Nuclear Energy-Fission and Fusion


http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter13.html

2. Nuclear Fission

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/fission.h
3. Nuclear Fusion
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/fusion.html#c1

4. 台灣電力公司-核能資訊透明化資訊系統
http://wapp4.taipower.com.tw/nsis/

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 1
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Uranium

 Uranium ore, a solid,


is mined and converted
to a fuel
 Uranium is not a fossil
fuel

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 2
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Nuclear Power
 Nuclear fission ( 核分裂 / 核裂變 ),or the
splitting of atoms of U235, releases energy,
which is used to heat water, which produces
steam which drives turbines to produce
electricity.

 This type of energy does NOT come from the


sun

 Uranium is mined; but because very little of it is


needed compared to coal or oil, the mining itself
is not as big an environmental concern as it is for
the other conventional fuels.
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 3
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Einstein Equation

E=mc2

where:
E = energy
m = mass
c = speed of light

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 4
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Nuclear Fission
• If a massive nucleus like uranium-235 breaks apart (fissions), then
there will be a net yield of energy because the sum of the masses of
the fragments will be less than the mass of the uranium nucleus.
• That decrease in mass comes off in the form of energy according to
the Einstein equation.
• The fission of U-235 in reactors is triggered by the absorption of a
low energy neutron, often termed a “slow neutron”.
• Other fissionable isotopes which can be induced to fission by slow
neutrons are plutonium-239, uranium-233, and thorium-232.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 5
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Uranium-235 Fission
 A slow neutron can be captured by
a uranium-235 nucleus, rendering
it unstable toward nuclear fission.
 A fast neutron will not be
captured, so neutrons must be
slowed down by moderation to
increase their capture probability
in fission reactors.
 A single fission event can yield
over 200 million times the energy
of the neutron which triggered it.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 6
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Uranium-235 Fission

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 7
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Uranium-235 Fission

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 8
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Chain Reaction
If at least one neutron from each fission strikes another U-235
nucleus and initiates fission, then the chain reaction is sustained.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 9
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Advantage of Nuclear Power

 Lack of pollution-causing emissions, such as


particulates, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides.
In addition, since nothing is burned, there is no
CO2 production.

 Nuclear power supplies are almost unlimited.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 10
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Disadvantage of Nuclear Power


 Costs: nuclear power has higher power overall lifetime
costs compared to thermal power plants.

 Safety: nuclear power has perceived adverse safety,


environmental and health effects, heightened by the 1979
Three Mile Island and 1986 Chernobyl reactor accidents.

 Proliferation: nuclear power entails potential security


risks, notably the possible misuse of commercial or
associated nuclear facilities and operations to acquire
technology and materials as a precursor to the acquisition
of a nuclear weapons capability.

 Waste: nuclear power has unresolved challenges in long-


term management of radioactive wastes.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 11
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Three Mile Island Incident ( 三里 島事件


)

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 12
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Three Mile Island Incident (cont)


The accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power
plant near Middletown, Pennsylvania, on March 28, 1979, was the
most serious in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant operating history,
even though it led to no deaths or injuries to plant workers or members
of the nearby community. But it brought about sweeping changes
involving emergency response planning, reactor operator training,
human factors engineering, radiation protection, and many other areas
of nuclear power plant operations. It also caused the U.S. Nuclear
Regulatory Commission to tighten and heighten its regulatory
oversight. Resultant changes in the nuclear power industry and at the
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) had the effect of
enhancing safety.

The sequence of certain events -- equipment malfunctions, design


related problems and worker errors -- led to a partial meltdown of the
TMI-2 reactor core but only very small off-site releases of
radioactivity.
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 13
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Chernobyl Nuclear Accident


On April 25th−26th, 1986 the World's worst
nuclear power accident occurred at Chernobyl
( 切爾諾貝爾 ) in the former USSR (now
Ukraine). The Chernobyl nuclear power plant
located 80 miles north of Kiev had 4 reactors
and whilst testing reactor number 4 numerous
safety procedures were disregarded. At 1:23am
the chain reaction in the reactor became out of
control creating explosions and a fireball
which blew off the reactor's heavy steel and
concrete lid.

The Chernobyl accident killed more than 30


people immediately, and as a result of the high
radiation levels in the surrounding 20-mile
radius, 135,00 people had to be evacuated.
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 14
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 15
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 16
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Nuclear Fusion
In the core of the sun at temperatures of 10-15 million
degrees Celsius, Hydrogen is converted to Helium providing
enough energy to sustain life on earth

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 17
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Nuclear Fusion ( 核溶合 / 核聚


• If變 ) nuclei are forced together, they will fuse with a yield
light
of energy because the mass of the combination will be less
than the sum of the masses of the individual nuclei.

• That decrease in mass comes off in the form of energy


according to the Einstein equation.

• For potential nuclear energy sources for the Earth, the


deuterium-tritium (isotopes of Hydrogen) fusion reaction
contained by some kind of magnetic confinement seems the
most likely path. (Over 100 million deg. C is needed for the
reaction)

Nuclear fusion is still in the research stage


© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 18
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Deuterium-Tritium Fusion
• The most promising of the
hydrogen fusion reactions
which is the fusion of
deuterium and tritium.
• The reaction yields 17.6 MeV
of energy but requires a
temperature of approximately
40 million Kelvins to ignite it.
• The deuterium is abundant,
but tritium must be either bred
from lithium or gotten in the
operation of the deuterium
cycle.

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 19
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

Advantages of Fusion
A vast, new source of energy
Fuels are plentiful
Inherently safe since any malfunction results in a rapid
shutdown
No atmospheric pollution leading to acid rain or
"greenhouse" effect
Radioactivity of the reactor structure, caused by the
neutrons, decays rapidly and can be minimised by
careful selection of low-activation materials. Provision
for geological time-span disposal is not needed

© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 20
EEC6120
Introduction to Electrical Supply
Department of Electrical Engineering (Haking Wong) and Installation

The
End
© Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong. Non-renewable Energy / Nuclear Energy / page 21