UNITED NATIONS

UN - creation 
14 August

1941 - Atlantic Charter;  January 1942 - Declaration by the United Nations  26 June 1945 ± UN established by 50 countries in San Francisco;  24 October 1945 ± UN Charter came into force when the majority of signatories ratified Charter;  24 October ± UN Day

Membership 
192 countries;  Article 4,

paragraph 1: membership in the UN is open to all peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the Charter and are able and willing to carry out the obligations.  Article 4, paragraph 2: countries seeking membership in the UN must be approved by a vote of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council;  Lithuania: 17 September 1991

Purposes of the United Nations
1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace; 2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and selfdetermination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;

Purposes of the United Nations
3. To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms (for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion); and 4. To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.´

Main UN organs  General Assembly  ECOSOC Council  Security Council  International Court of Justice  Trusteeship Council  Secretariat .

General Assembly .

admitting new members and the UN budget are decided by two-thirds majority.   Decisions on such key issues as international peace and security. . Other matters are decided by simple majority. One ± state / one ± vote formula.General Assembly  General Assembly ² a "parliament of nations" which meets to consider the world's most pressing problems.

but its recommendations are an important indication of world opinion and represent the moral authority of the community of nations. The Assembly can not force action by any State. .

regardless of origin. which might impair friendly relations among nations. . to discuss any question relating to international peace and security and. except where a dispute or situation is being discussed by the Security Council. on the recommendation of the Security Council. to make recommendations on it. to make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation. to elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council. and. to appoint the Secretary-General.Functions and powers of GA I     to consider and make recommendations on the principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security (including the principles governing disarmament and arms regulation).

to initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation. to discuss and. cultural. to elect jointly with the Security Council the Judges of the International Court of Justice. the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all. and international collaboration in economic. . social. with the same exception.Functions and powers of GA II      Elect the members of the Economic and Social Council and additional members of the Trusteeship Council (when necessary). to consider and approve the United Nations budget and to apportion the contributions among members. the development and codification of international law. to receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs. educational and health fields. make recommendations on any question within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations.

the Assembly holds a general debate. in which member states express their views on the most pressing international issues.General Assembly At the beginning of each regular session.Economic and Financial Third Committee .Administrative and Budgetary Sixth Committee . often addressed by heads of state and government.Disarmament and International Security Second Committee .Special Political and Decolonization Fifth Committee .Legal  .  Most questions are discussed in six main committees of the General Assembly: First Committee .Social. Humanitarian and Cultural Fourth Committee .

The Security Council .

UN Security Council  Under Article 24 of the Charter. . the Security Council has primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security and the authority to act on behalf of all members of the UN.

China) and 10 nonpermanent members elected by the General Assembly for two-year term. Russia. France. rotates monthly according to the English alphabetical listing of its member States  presidency: .UN Security Council  Structure: 5 permanent members (US. UK.

Membership of the Security Council in 2008 Month Presidency End of Membership Term January February March April May June July August September October November December Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Panama Russian Federation South Africa United Kingdom United States Viet Nam Belgium Burkina Faso China Costa Rica Croatia France Indonesia Italy 31 December 2009 31 December 2008 Permanent Member 31 December 2008 Permanent Member Permanent Member 31 December 2009 31 December 2008 31 December 2009 Permanent Member 31 December 2009 31 December 2009 Permanent Member 31 December 2008 31 December 2008 .

to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary ± General.Main functions and powers of SC      to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations. to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement. . to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression. to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction.

. to take military action against an aggressor. to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken. to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas³. to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice. to recommend the admission of new Members.Functions and powers of SC       together with the Assembly. to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments.

.majority of nine votes is necessary .a majority of nine votes is necessary including the concurring votes of the five permanent members.  two categories of voting: votes on substantive issues .Voting in SC  According to the Charter. SC has the power to make decisions that all members are legally obligated under the Charter to implement.and votes on procedural issues .

2008 . 1946 .Vetoes in the Security Council.

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Brazil)?  South Africa . Japan.In Larger Freedom (2005):  Plan A . 1 nonpermanent. India.Security Council reform proposals  Admission of G4 (Germany. Kofi Annan . 3 non-permanent.  Plan B .plus 6 permanent.plus 8 members for 4 years term. .member?  Elimination of veto right for permanent members.

The Economic and Social Council .

Ambassador Dalius ekuolis (Lithuania) coordinates the economic and social work of the United Nations and the UN family of organizations. 6 . and 13 Western European and other States. the Council plays a key role in fostering international cooperation for development. 11 . 10 Latin American and Caribbean States. E. . elected by GA for overlapping 3-year terms. President: H. Seats based on geographical representation with: 14 African States.The Economic and Social Council      54 members.Eastern European States.Asian States.

The Trusteeship Council .

. It has amended its rules of procedure to allow it to meet as and when the occasion may require.The Trusteeship Council Was established to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories administered by seven Member States. By 1994. either as separate States or by joining neighbouring independent countries. The Trusteeship Council now consists of the five permanent members of the Security Council. all Trust Territories had attained selfgovernment or independence.

The International Court of Justice .

Consisting of 15 judges elected jointly by the General Assembly and the Security Council. Participation by States in a proceeding is voluntary. it is obligated to comply with the Court's decision. .The International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice is the main judicial organ of the UN. the Court decides disputes between countries. The Court also provides advisory opinions to the General Assembly and the Security Council upon request. but if a State agrees to participate.

The Secretariat .

from surveying economic and social trends and problems to preparing studies on human rights and sustainable development. Vienna.900 under the regular budget. Nairobi and other locations. as well as UN offices in Geneva. and a nearly equal number under special funding.  Duty stations include UN Headquarters in New York.The Secretariat The Secretariat carries out the substantive and administrative work of the United Nations: from administering peacekeeping operations to mediating international disputes.  The Secretariat consists of departments and offices with a total staff of some 8.  .

.Secretary-General  The Secretary.General is the top official of the United Nations and its chief administrative officer . escalating or spreading.  The impartiality of the Secretary-General is one of the UN's most important assets.the symbol of the Organization to the world. particularly as the foremost international mediator and peacemaker. enabling him to engage in preventive diplomacy to keep international disputes from arising.

on the recommendation of the Security Council. There is technically no limit to the number of fiveyear terms a Secretary-General may serve. The Secretary-General's selection is therefore subject to the veto of any of the five permanent members of the Council. none so far has held office for more than two terms.Election The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly. .

1982 ± 1991.UN Secretaries ± General.  Kofi Annan (Ghana).  Javier Perez de Cuellar (Peru).  Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden).  Kurt Waldheim (Austria).  Boutros Boutros ± Ghali (Egypt). 1953 ± 1961. 1946 to the present  Trygve Lie (Norway). 1946 ± 1953.  U Thant (Burma). 2007- . 1997 ± 2006  Ban Ki-moon (Republic of Korea). 1972 ± 1981. 1961 ± 1971. 1992 ± 1996.

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.  codification and development of international law.  promotion of human rights.UN actions  maintenance of international peace and security.  economic and social development.  decolonization.

PEACE AGENDA .

.Peace agenda of the United Nations Preserving world peace is a central purpose of the United Nations. UN has undertaken complex operations involving preventive diplomacy. peace-building (including humanitarian assistance). peacekeeping. peacemaking.

normally involving United Nations military and/or police personnel and frequently civilians as well. to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur. Peace building . hitherto with the consent of all the parties concerned. .is action to bring hostile parties to agreement.activities that address the underlying causes of conflict.is action to prevent disputes from arising between parties. Development assistance is a key element of peace-building. Peace-keeping is the deployment of a United Nations presence in the field. Peacemaking .    Preventive diplomacy . essentially through such peaceful means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the Charter.

if that fails.the use of diplomatic techniques to prevent disputes from arising. and. . prevent them from escalating into armed conflict if they do arise. prevent the armed conflict from spreading.Preventive diplomacy  Preventive diplomacy .

to the attention of the Security Council or of the General Assembly. or any to situation which might lead to international disagreements or give rise to a dispute and to decide whether the continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security.Institutions: Security Council  Article 34: 34: to investigate any dispute.  Article 35: any member of the United Nations may bring any dispute. or any situation of the nature referred to in Article 34. .

.Institutions: General Assembly  Articles 10 to 14: broad powers of discussion and recommendation.

 various actions undertaken at the request of interested parties.General  functions delegated by the Security Council and General Assembly under Article 98.  factors: capacities for the collection and analysis of information.Institutions: Secretary . recourses. political support form UN members. disputing parties should accept the actions of SG. or on the Secretary ± General¶s own initiative under article 99. .

conciliation. development projects. negotiation.  Preventive .  other useful measures: preventive deployment. preventive disarmament.Alternative to costly politico military operations action refers to measures to prevent disputes from arising. to resolve them before they escalate into conflicts or to limit the spread of conflicts when they occur.  forms: mediation.

 Secretary-General. preventive diplomacy means help to contain it and resolve its underlying causes.the most desirable and efficient toll which helps to ease tensions before they result in conflict .Agenda for Peace diplomacy . SecretaryGeneral Assembly and regional organisations.  Preventive . Security Council.or. if conflict breaks out.

Agenda for Peace measures to build confidence: systematic exchange of military missions. formation of regional or subregional risk reduction centres. arrangements for the free flow of information.  early warning: information should be synthesised with political indicators.  .  preventive deployment.  fact finding: timely and accurate knowledge of the facts .  demilitarised zones: question of usefulness of these zones.

longmeasures. .³a culture of reaction to a culture of prevention´  operational prevention .  structural prevention .  UN activities must encompass both short and long-term measures.action in the face of a crisis.action to address the root causes of conflict.

 economic measures: ³carrot and stick´ diplomacy. government administrations of short duration. . human rights abuses.  deployment of peacekeepers: UNPREDEP 1992 ± 1999. the deterioration of public services.Operational prevention  fact finding and early warning: crises can be predicted through indicators such as demographic pressure. a lack of democratic practices.

Structural prevention  disarmament: to reduce the number of smallsmall-arms and light weapons in conflictconflictprone zones. . economic and social solutions necessary to build stable societies.  development assistance: helps facilitate political.

sea. 42 Action by air.UN CHARTER  Chapter VI ± Peaceful Settlement of Disputes (negotiation enquiry. 41 Measures not involving the use of armed forces Art. or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security  Chapter VIII . Art. arbitration. conciliation. judicial settlement)  Chapter VII ± Collective Security Provisions.Regional arrangements . mediation.

 Uniformed personnel (including 74.  International civilian personnel: 5.397 military observers) 87.177  Local civilian personnel: 12.076 troops.461  UN Volunteers: 1.484 police and 2.  contributing countries: 119.  16 currently.UN Peacekeeping Operations  63 Operations since 1948.908  Total number of fatalities in peace operations since . 11.957.

Financial aspects  Approved budgets for the period from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009: $ 7.1 billion.  Estimated total cost of operations from 1948 to 30 June 2008: $ 54 billion  Outstanding contributions to peacekeeping (31 May 2008): $ 1.8 billion .

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‡ Force Commander has operational control over military component .Command and Control in UN Peacekeeping Operations Security Council authorizes new operation SG has Executive authority over Peacekeeping Operations Executive authority delegated to Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations ‡ Special Representative of the SG has overall authority in the field.

Ethiopia 5. Ghana 6.Jordan 8653 8221 3577 3445 3181 2937 2486 2448 2323 1867 17. USA 30. China 20. India 7. Bangladesh 3. Nepal 10. UK 26. South Africa 9. Pakistan 2. Nigeria 4. Spain 906 563 563 430 340 27 .Top 10 Troop Contributing Countries (total 100 countries ± 31Aug 2004) 1. Russia 66. Uruguay 8. France 21.

.Conflict prevention  Conflict prevention is one of the aims of the United Nations provided in the Charter that states that on of the aims of United Nations is to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace.

³a culture of reaction to a culture of prevention´   Operational Prevention . development assistance. .action in the face of a crisis: fact ± finding and early warning.action to address the root causes of conflict: disarmament. deployment of peacekeepers. economic measures. Structural Prevention .

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