Introduction and Tissues

Human Anatomy BIOL 1010 Liston Campus

What is Anatomy?
Anatomy (= morphology): study of body s structure Physiology: study of body s function Structure reflects Function!!! Branches of Anatomy 
   

Gross: Large structures Surface: Landmarks Histology: Cells and Tissues Developmental: Structures change through life Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth

Hierarchy of Structural Organization
Each of these build upon one another to make up the next level: Chemical level Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism

Hierarchy of Structural Organization Chemical level   Atoms combine to make molecules 4 macromolecules in the body  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic acids .

Hierarchy of Structural Organization Cellular  Made up of cells and cellular organelles (molecules)  Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic  Organelles are structures within cells that perform dedicated functions ( small organs ) http://cmweb.net/~bbecke/newell/Cells.html .pvschools.

maricopa.emc.Hierarchy of Structural Organization Tissue   Collection of cells that work together to perform a specialized function 4 basic types of tissue in the human body:  Epithelium  Connective tissue  Muscle tissue  Nervous tissue www.edu .

Hierarchy of Structural Organization
Organ 

Made up of tissue 
Heart  Brain  Liver  Pancreas, etc

Pg 181

Hierarchy of Structural Organization
Organ system (11) 

Made up of a group of related organs that work together 
         

Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive

Urinary System

Circulatory

Pg 341

Hierarchy of Structural Organization
Organism 
 

An individual human, animal, plant, etc Made up all of the organ systems Work together to sustain life

Distal Frontal = Coronal Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section Sagittal Anatomical Directions-It s all Relative!      Anatomical Planes    Pg 5 . Deep Proximal vs. Inferior (caudal) Superficial vs. Appendicular Anterior (ventral) vs.Anatomical Directions Anatomical position Regions  Axial vs. Posterior (dorsal) Medial vs. Lateral Superior (cranial) vs.

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Reference Point Anterior ± (ventral) Closer to the front surface of the body Medial ± Lying closer to the midline Superior ± (cranial) Closer to the head in relation to the entire body (More General) Superficial ± Towards the surface Proximal ± Closer to the origin of a body part (More Specific) Posterior ± (dorsal) Closer to the rear surface of the body Lateral ± Lying further away from the midline Inferior ± (caudal) Away from the head or towards the lower part of the body Deep ± Away from the surface Distal ± Further away from the origin of a body part Frontal Plane Sagittal Plane Horizontal Plane Surface of body or organ Origin of a structure .

Embryology: growth and development of the body before birth 38 weeks from conception to birth Prenatal period   Embryonic: weeks 1-8 Fetal: weeks 9-38 Skin = epidermis. bone Basic adult body plan shows by 2nd month      . dermis Outer body wall=muscle. muscle. vertebral column and spinal cord Body cavity and digestive tubes Kidney and gonads Limbs=skin.

tadpole      person Tail disappears Head enlarges Extremities form (day 28.Weeks 5-8 and Fetal Period Second month. nose. limb buds appear) Eyes. ears form Organs in place Rapid growth and maturation Organs grow and increase in complexity & competence Fetal Period   .

4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous .

Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that have a similar structure and perform a related function Four types of tissue     Epithelial = covering/lining Connective = support Muscle = movement Nervous = control Most organs contain all 4 types Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells .

EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets of cells cover a surface or line a cavity Functions Protection  Secretion  Absorption  Ion Transport  Slippery Surface  .

Basal surfaces differ Specialized contacts  Polarity  Supported by connective tissue Avascular Innervated Highly regenerative .Characteristics of Epithelium Cellularity  Composed of cells Joined by cell junctions Apical vs.

Classification of Epithelium-based on number of layers and cell shape Layers   Simple Stratified  Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer  Psuedostratified Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Transitional Shapes     .

ventral body cavity Kidney tubules. intestines Respiratory passages (ciliated version) Epidermis. mouth.Types of Epithelium Simple squamous (1 layer)  Lungs. blood vessels. glands Stomach. vagina Named so according to apical cell shape Regenerate from below Deep layers cuboidal and columnar Simple cuboidal  Simple columnar  Pseudostratified columnar  Stratified squamous (>1 layer)     Transitional (not shown)   Thins when stretches Hollow urinary organs All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab . esophagus.

peritoneum .g.g. lymphatic & blood vessel Mesothelium   Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of body cavities e. pleura. pericardium.Special Epithelium Endothelium   Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels e.

over epithelial surface 1-way (ex) spermatoza Flagella:   Extra long cilia Moves cell . etc.Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine  Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane  of apical epithelial cell Increase surface area for absorption (ex) respiratory tubes Cilia:   Whip-like. motile extension of plasma membrane Moves mucus.

nothing passes spot-like junction occurring anywhere made of hollow cylinders of protein lets small molecules pass  Tight Junctions    Gap junction   .Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:    Proteins-link cells together. interdigitate Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together Cell Junctions (3 common)  Desmosomes   adhesive spots on lateral sides linked by proteins/filaments holds tissues together at apical area plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse.

non-cellular.Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium Basement membrane    Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below Made up of:  Basal lamina: thin. supportive sheet made of proteins    Superficial layer Acts as a selective filter Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells Deeper layer Support  Reticular fiber layer   .

multicellular Page 138 . Endocrine Unicellular vs.Glands Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product Products are water-based and usually contain proteins Classified as:   Exocrine vs.

pancreas.Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins Exocrine Glands      Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity Activity is local Have ducts Unicellular or Multicellular (ex) goblet cells. liver . mammary. salivary.

thyroid . pituitary. adrenal.Glands: epithelial cells that make and secrete a water-based substance w/proteins Endocrine Glands      Secrete product into blood stream Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory) No ducts (ex) pancreas.

4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous .

4 Types of Connective Tissue 1) 2) 3) 4) Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Tissue Blood .

storing & carrying nutrients.Connective Tissue (CT): most abundant and diverse tissue Four Classes Functions include connecting. fight infection CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix Some types vascularized All CT originates from mesenchyme  Embryonic connective tissue . protection.

1) Connective Tissue Proper Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT  Functions  Support and bind to other tissue  Hold body fluids  Defends against infection  Stores nutrients as fat  Each function performed by different kind of fibers and cells in specific tissue .

provide tensile strength  (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments  Elastic:  long + thin. stretch and retain shape  (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage .Fibers in Connective Tissue Fibers For Support  Reticular:  form networks for structure & support  (ex) cover capillaries  Collagen:  strongest. most numerous.

waste + oxygen to travel to cells found in ground matrix part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid Made and secreted by fibroblasts jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid    Ground Matrix (substance):    .In Connective Tissue Proper Fibroblasts:    cells that produce all fibers in CT produce + secrete protein subunits to make them produce ground matrix derived from blood in CT proper medium for nutrients.

mark molecules for destruction Mast cells-contain chemical mediators for inflammation response hite Blood Cells = neutrophils. eosinophils-fight infection Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms .Defense from Infection Areolar tissue below epithelium is body s first defense Cells travel to CT in blood     Macrophages-eat foreign particles Plasma cells-secrete antibodies. lymphocytes.

Loose CT Proper Areolar CT    All types of fibers present All typical cell types present Surrounds blood vessels and nerves .

lymph nodes. supports Found in hypodermis under skin Contains only reticular fibers Forms caverns to hold free cells.Specialized Loose CT Proper Adipose tissue    Loaded with adipocytes. spleen Reticular CT    . produces energy. highly vascularized. holds blood cells. high metabolic activity Insulates. forms internal skeleton of some organs Found in bone marrow.

Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue Contains more collagen Can resist extremely strong pulling forces Regular vs. fibrous capsules at ends of bones Dense regular Dense irregular . ligaments  Irregular-fibers thicker. parallel to pull  (eg) fascia. Irregular  Regular-fibers run same direction. tendons. run in different directions  (eg) dermis.

Components of CT Proper Summarized Cells Fibroblasts Defense cells -macrophages -white blood cells Matrix Gel-like ground substance Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers Adipocytes .

2) Cartilage Chondroblasts produce cartilage Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells  Reside in lacunae More abundant in embryo than adult Firm. meniscus Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen) NOT Innervated Perichondrium    dense. Flexible Resists compression  (eg) trachea. irregular connective tissue around cartilage growth/repair of cartilage resists expansion during compression of cartilage .

nose  Elastic  many elastic fibers in matrix too  great flexibility  (eg) external ear.Cartilage in the Body Three types:  Hyaline     most abundant fibers in matrix support via flexibility/resilience (eg) at limb joints. annulus fibrosus . epiglottis  Fibrocartilage  resists both compression and tension  (eg) meniscus. ribs.

Components of Cartilage Summarized Cells Chondrocytes Matrix Gel-like ground substance Chondroblasts Lots of water (in growing cartilage) Some have collagen and elastic fibers .

vertebrae mineral storage (eg) calcium. phosphate (inorganic component) movement (eg) walk.3) Bone Tissue: Well-vascularized Function:    (a bone is an organ)   support (eg) pelvic bowl. legs protect (eg) skull. grasp objects blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow .

kellogg.htm ...cc./skeletal.Bone Tissue Osteoblasts  Secrete organic part of bone matrix Mature bone cells Sit in lacunae Maintain bone matrix Degrade and reabsorb bone External layer of CT that surrounds bone (except at joints) Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts Osteocytes    Osteoclasts  Periosteum   Endosteum   academic.us/.mi.

mc.htm .vanderbilt./CartilageandBone03.edu/..Compact Bone External layer Osteon (Haversian system)    Parallel to the long axis of the bone Groups of concentric tubules (lamella) Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same direction  Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions  Haversian Canal runs thru center of osteon  Contains BV and nerves Interstitial lamellae www..

needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb  each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes  no canal for vessels  space filled with bone marrow  not as dense.Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer  Trabeculae: small. no direct stress at bone s center .

sternum. metacarpals. humerus .Shapes of Bones Flat = skull. patella Long = femur. clavicle Irregular = pelvis. phalanges. vertebrae Short = carpals.

seer. osteoclasts Covers trabeculae.jpg .cancer.. lines medullary cavity 2 Epiphyses   Periosteum     Endosteum   training.. osteoclasts Does not cover epiphyses Attaches to bone matrix via collagen fibers Osteoblasts.gov/./illu_long_bone.Anatomy of a Long Bone Diaphysis   Medullary Cavity Nutrient Art & Vein Epiphyseal Plates Epiphyseal Art & Vein Outer: Dense irregular CT Inner: Osteoblasts.

2 Types of Bone Formation Endochondral Ossification: All other bones     Begins with a cartilaginous model Cartilage calcifies Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify  Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years Intramembranous Ossification   Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes .

their tissue needs to be replaced  Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ .Bone Growth & Remodeling GROWTH  Appositional Growth = widening of bone  Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum  Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts  Lengthening of Bone  Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts  Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)  Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side REMODELING  Due to mechanical stresses on bones. PO4 to body fluids from bone  Osteoblasts-form new bone by secreting osteoid  Ideally osteoclasts and osteoblasts work at the same rate! .

Components of Bone Tissue Summarized Cells Osteblasts Matrix Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Collagen fibers Osteoclasts Osteocytes .

4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue Function:    Transports waste. axial skeleton. girdles. hormones through cardiovascular system Helps regulate body temperature Protects body by fighting infection Derived from mesenchyme Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells   Occurs in red bone marrow In adults. nutrients. gases. proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur .

oxygen-transporting most abundant in blood no organelles.Blood Cells Erythrocytes: (RBC) small. filled w/hemoglobin pick up O2 at lungs. initiates clotting Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells . transport to rest of body Platelets = Thrombocytes: fragments of cytoplasm plug small tears in vessel walls. 5 types fight against infectious microorganisms stored in bone marrow for emergencies .

Components of Blood Summarized Cells Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Leukocytes (white blood cells) Matrix Plasma (liquid matrix) NO fibers Platelets .

4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous .

Cardiac.Muscle Tissue Muscle cells/fibers   Elongated Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin Movement Maintenance of posture Joint Stabilization Heat Generation FUNCTION     Three types: Skeletal. Smooth .

us/..cc. fascia..mi.htm ./muscular.kellogg. skin Origin & Insertion academic.Skeletal Muscle Tissue (each skeletal muscle is an organ) Cells    Long and cylindrical. in bundles Multinucleate Obvious Striations Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary Connective Tissue Components:    Endomysium-surrounds fibers Perimysium-surrounds bundles Epimysium-surrounds the muscle Attached to bones.

Cardiac Muscle Cells     Branching.answers. chains of cells Single or Binucleated Striations Connected by Intercalated discs Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary Myocardium-heart muscle  Pumps blood through vessels Endomysium: surrounding cells www.com Connective Tissue Component  .

Smooth Muscle Tissue Cells Single cells. uninucleate No striations Smooth Muscle-Involuntary 2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis) Lines hollow organs. blood vessels Connective Tissue Component Endomysium: surrounds cells .

4 Types of Tissue 1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous .

com .morphonix. dendrite.Nervous Tissue Neurons: specialized nerve cells conduct impulses  Cell body. axon Interneuron: between motor & sensory neuron in CNS Characterized by:    No mitosis (cell replication) Longevity High metabolic rate www.

Nervous Tissue: control Support cells (= Glial): nourishment. nerves . spinal cord. protection      Satellite cells-surround cell bodies within ganglia Schwann cells-surround axons Microglia-phagocytes Oligodendrocytes-produce myelin sheaths around axons Ependymal cells-line brain/spinal cord.help circulate CSF Brain. ciliated. insulation.

urea.Integumentary System Functions  Protection  Mechanical. UV     Cushions & insulates deeper organs Prevention of water loss Thermoregulation Excretion  Salts. thermal. chemical. water  Sensory reception .

jpg .Microanatomy ..uptodate..com/.Layers of the Skin Epidermis  Epithelium Dermis  Connective tissue Loose connective tissue Anchors skin to bone or muscle Hair follicles Sweat and Sebaceous glands Nails Hypodermis / subcutis   Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis    www./Melanoma_anatomy.

com .Cell Layers of the Epidermis Stratum corneum  Dead keratinocytes Only in thick skin Dead keratinocytes Water proofing Resists tears and tension Sensory receptors Melanocytes Keratinocytes (in all layers) Stratum lucidum   Stratum granulosum  Stratum spinosum  Stratum basale    15minbeauty.blogspot.

.uptodate.Layers of the Dermis Highly innervated Highly vascularized Collagen & Elastic fibers 2 layers:  Papillary layer (20%)     Areolar CT Collagen Innervation Hair follicles  Reticular layer (80%)  DICT  Glands  2.jpg  Smooth muscle fibers  Innervation .com/../Melanoma_anatomy.5 million sweat glands!! www.

Insulation . etc.Hypodermis Also called superficial fascia Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue Functions    Store fat Anchor skin to muscle.

Structure of Tubular Organs LUMEN Tunica Mucosa    Lamina epithelialis Lamina propria Lamina muscularis mucosa Tunica Submucosa Tunica Muscularis   Inner circular Outer longitudinal Adventitia covers organ directly Serosa suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity Tunica Adventitia / Serosa   Pg 347 .

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