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sticking of a balloon to the wall after rubbing it on your head. getting an electric shock off your door knob. lightening effect.
All these things happen because of
What is Static Electricity?
When electricity is present on the surface of a non-conductive body, nonwhere it is trapped or prevented from escaping, it is called static electricity The body on which this electricity is evident is said to be ³charged´. Electricity is prevented from escaping & therefore called non-mobile or non³static´.
Static electricity occurs when there is a build up of electric charge on the surface of a material. It is called static electricity because the charges don¶t move. The electricity we use everyday involves moving charges.
What is charge?
To understand charge we have to look at things on an extremely small scale. We have to try and understand things that we can¶t even see with the most powerful microscope.
Everything we see around us everyday is made of atoms. We can¶t see individual atoms because they are so small. In fact the diameter of an atom is about 0.0000000001m In the air in your classroom there are about 1500000000000000000000000000 atoms.
What is inside the atom?
The atom is made of 3 sorts of particles. The electron The proton The neutron
We can imagine each as a tiny little ball.
Inside an atom
The protons and neutrons sit together in a lump in the middle called the nucleus.
The electrons orbit around the nucleus, a bit like the planets orbiting the Sun.
Most of the atom is empty space if atoms were the size of football fields, the nucleus would be a grain of sand in the middle and the electrons would be orbiting around the edge. .
The electron is negatively charged. The proton is positively charged. The neutron has no charge, it is neutral.
Most things have the same number of electrons and protons in them. They don¶t have any overall charge.
How do charges behave?
What do you know about magnets? 2 north poles will repel each other, but a north and a south put together will attract one another.
opposites attract, likes repel.
How do charges behave?
Exactly the same thing happens with charges. 2 positive charges put together will repel each other. Put a positive charge near a negative charge and they will attract each other. A charged object may even attract a neutral one.
Static electricity is caused when certain materials are rubbed against each other. Electrons can be rubbed off one material and on to another. The material that has got extra electrons is now negatively charged The material which has lost electrons is positively charged.
It is this imbalance of positive and negative charges that causes: Balloons to stick to walls. Your hair to stand on end when brush your hair on a dry day. And the electric shock you sometimes get from the door handle.
Some Typical Situation Capable Of Production
Flow of non conducting liquids through pipes. Process of agitating & mixing. Running of tyres. Splash filling of liquids. Pulverized material passing. Running of flat belts.
Conditions For Ignition
Static Generation Accumulation of separate charges Electrical potential difference Spark discharge Ignitable mixture
Classification of flammable liquid
Static generating ability Resistivity
Rare or Freak Accident?
The photo before shows the results of a static electricity discharge at a Chevron gasoline station in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA (January, 2003)
It started from static electricity. The customer, a teenage girl, started pumping gasoline using the automatic filler, and got back in the vehicle. When the pump clicked off, she got back out of the car and didn't ground herself. She said she saw a blue flame jump from her hand to the pump nozzle. The photos show the damage to the vehicle and nearby equipment. The girl was not injured.
July 2007 Valley Center, Kansas
Ignition inside a 15,000 gal. storage tank during unloading of a road tanker Liquid involved was VM&P Naphtha investigation concluded most likely ignition source was ungrounded component of the level gauge
Static Generation in Liquids
Charge separation between liquid and pipe wall leads to a net flow of charge Conductive liquids lose this charge quickly in grounded containers Non-conductive liquids can Nonaccumulate charge in properly grounded containers
Static Generation in Liquids
Charge Accumulates in liquid receiver Liquid surface voltage increases as liquid level builds, passing through a maximum, usually when tank is about 1/3 full Charged Liquid can cause sparks
Grounding & bonding Increasing the conductance of floors, footwear and tyres Humidification Ionization
Static Accumulating Liquids
Liquid conductivity must be measured
Special instruments are required (Relatively) Inexpensive)
The units of liquid conductivity are ³Siemens´ per meter The Siemens is the SI equivalent to a ³Mho´ (Inverse Ohm)
The Hazards of Water ³Bottoms´
³Bottoms´ are accumulated water in a storage tank Applies primarily to ³side filled´ storage tanks because large water slugs from the floor are more likely to be enter and circulated around the tank As tank is being filled, ³slugs´ of water may be launched into the charged liquid and make their way to the free surface
What should be added to the MSDS?
Include a representative conductivity measurement for all static accumulating liquids Identify low conductivity liquids as ³Static Accumulators´ ³This liquid may accumulate static electricity even when transferred into properly grounded containers´
³Bonding and Grounding may be insufficient to remove static electricity ³Static Electricity accumulation may be significantly increased by the presence of small quantities of water ³If water is present or suspected, restrict liquid flow velocity according
What causes lightning?
Lightning is actually just static electricity on a much larger scale. The rubbing is caused by air moving around In thunderclouds bottom is usually negative and top is positive.
When the lightning flash happens it heats the air to a temperature 5 times hotter than the surface of the sun. This causes nearby air to expand and vibrate forming the sound we hear as thunder.
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