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Chapter 24
Distributed DBMSs - Concepts and
Design
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Chapter 24 - Objectives
Concepts.
Advantages and disadvantages of distributed
databases.
Functions and architecture for a DDBMS.
Distributed database design.
Levels of transparency.
Comparison criteria for DDBMSs.
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Concepts
Distributed Database
A logically interrelated collection of shared
data (and a description of this data). physically
distributed over a computer network.
Distributed DBMS
Software system that permits the management
of the distributed database and makes the
distribution transparent to users.
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Concepts
Collection of logically-related shared data.
Data split into fragments.
Fragments may be replicated.
Fragments/replicas allocated to sites.
Sites linked by a communications network.
Data at each site is under control of a DBMS.
DBMSs handle local applications autonomously.
Each DBMS participates in at least one global
application.
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Distributed DBMS
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Distributed Processing
A centralized database that can be accessed over
a computer network.
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Parallel DBMS
A DBMS running across multiple processors and
disks designed to execute operations in parallel.
whenever possible. to improve performance.
Based on premise that single processor systems
can no longer meet requirements for cost-effective
scalability. reliability. and performance.
Parallel DBMSs link multiple. smaller machines to
achieve same throughput as single. larger
machine. with greater scalability and reliability.
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Parallel DBMS
Main architectures for parallel DBMSs are:
Shared memory.
Shared disk.
Shared nothing.
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Parallel DBMS
(a) shared memory
(b) shared disk
(c) shared nothing
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Advantages of DDBMSs
#eflects organizational structure
Improved shareability and local autonomy
Improved availability
Improved reliability
Improved performance
Economics
Modular growth
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Disadvantages of DDBMSs
Complexity
Cost
Security
Integrity control more difficult
Lack of standards
Lack of experience
Database design more complex
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%ypes of DDBMS
omogeneous DDBMS
eterogeneous DDBMS
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omogeneous DDBMS
All sites use same DBMS product.
Much easier to design and manage.
Approach provides incremental growth and
allows increased performance.
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eterogeneous DDBMS
Sites may run different DBMS products. with
possibly different underlying data models.
Occurs when sites have implemented their own
databases and integration is considered later.
%ranslations required to allow for:
Different hardware.
Different DBMS products.
Different hardware and different DBMS
products.
%ypical solution is to use gatewavs.
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Open Database Access and Interoperability
Open Group formed a Working Group to
provide specifications that will create a database
infrastructure environment where there is:
Common SQL API that allows client applications to
be written that do not need to know vendor of DBMS
they are accessing.
Common database protocol that enables DBMS from
one vendor to communicate directly with DBMS
from another vendor without the need for a gateway.
A common network protocol that allows
communications between different DBMSs.
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Open Database Access and Interoperability
Most ambitious goal is to find a way to enable
transaction to span DBMSs from different
vendors without use of a gateway.
Group has now evolved into DBIOP Consortium
and are working in version 3 of D#DA
(Distributed #elational Database Architecture)
standard.
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Multidatabase System (MDBS)
DDBMS in which each site maintains complete
autonomy.
DBMS that resides transparently on top of
existing database and file systems and presents
a single database to its users.
Allows users to access and share data without
requiring physical database integration.
&31ederated MDBS (no local users) and
1ederated MDBS.
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Overview of Networking
Network - Interconnected collection of
autonomous computers. capable of exchanging
information.
Local Area Network (LAN) intended for connecting
computers at same site.
Wide Area Network (WAN) used when computers
or LANs need to be connected over long distances.
WAN relatively slow and less reliable than LANs.
DDBMS using LAN provides much faster response
time than one using WAN.
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Overview of Networking
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Functions of a DDBMS
Expect DDBMS to have at least the functionality
of a DBMS.
Also to have following functionality:
Extended communication services.
Extended Data Dictionary.
Distributed query processing.
Extended concurrency control.
Extended recovery services.
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#eference Architecture for DDBMS
Due to diversity. no accepted architecture
equivalent to ANSI/SPA#C 3-level architecture.
A reference architecture consists of:
Set of global external schemas.
Global conceptual schema (GCS).
Fragmentation schema and allocation schema.
Set of schemas for each local DBMS conforming to 3-
level ANSI/SPA#C.
Some levels may be missing. depending on levels
of transparency supported.
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#eference Architecture for DDBMS
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#eference Architecture for MDBS
In DDBMS. GCS is union of all local conceptual
schemas.
In FMDBS. GCS is subset of local conceptual
schemas (LCS). consisting of data that each local
system agrees to share.
GCS of tightlv coupled svstem involves
integration of either parts of LCSs or local
external schemas.
FMDBS with no GCS is called looselv coupled.
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#eference Architecture for %ightly-Coupled
FMDBS
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Components of a DDBMS
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Distributed Database Design
%hree key issues:
Fragmentation.
Allocation.
#eplication.
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Distributed Database Design
Fragmentation
#elation may be divided into a number of sub-
relations. which are then distributed.
Allocation
Each fragment is stored at site with ~optimal¨
distribution.
#eplication
Copy of fragment may be maintained at
several sites.
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Fragmentation
Definition and allocation of fragments carried out
strategically to achieve:
Locality of #eference.
Improved #eliability and Availability.
Improved Performance.
Balanced Storage Capacities and Costs.
Minimal Communication Costs.
Involves analyzing most important applications.
based on quantitative/qualitative information.
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Fragmentation
Quantitative information may include:
frequency with which an application is run;
site from which an application is run;
performance criteria for transactions and
applications.
Qualitative information may include
transactions that are executed by application.
type of access (read or write). and predicates of
read operations.
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Data Allocation
Four alternative strategies regarding placement
of data:
Centralized.
Partitioned (or Fragmented).
Complete #eplication.
Selective #eplication.
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Data Allocation
Centralized: Consists of single database and DBMS
stored at one site with users distributed across
the network.
Partitioned: Database partitioned into disjoint
fragments. each fragment assigned to one site.
Complete #eplication: Consists of maintaining
complete copy of database at each site.
Selective #eplication: Combination of partitioning.
replication. and centralization.
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Comparison of Strategies for Data Distribution
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Why Fragment?
&sage
Applications work with views rather than
entire relations.
Efficiency
Data is stored close to where it is most
frequently used.
Data that is not needed by local applications is
not stored.
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Why Fragment?
Parallelism
With fragments as unit of distribution.
transaction can be divided into several
subqueries that operate on fragments.
Security
Data not required by local applications is not
stored and so not available to unauthorized
users.
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Why Fragment?
Disadvantages
Performance.
Integrity.
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Correctness of Fragmentation
%hree correctness rules:
Completeness.
#econstruction.
Disjointness.
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Correctness of Fragmentation
Completeness
If relation # is decomposed into fragments #

.
#

. ... #
3
. each data item that can be found in
# must appear in at least one fragment.
#econstruction
Must be possible to define a relational operation
that will reconstruct # from the fragments.
#econstruction for horizontal fragmentation is
&nion operation and 1oin for vertical .
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Correctness of Fragmentation
Disjointness
If data item d
i
appears in fragment #
i
. then it
should not appear in any other fragment.
Exception: vertical fragmentation. where primary
key attributes must be repeated to allow
reconstruction.
For horizontal fragmentation. data item is a tuple.
For vertical fragmentation. data item is an
attribute.
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%ypes of Fragmentation
Four types of fragmentation:
orizontal.
Vertical.
Mixed.
Derived.
Other possibility is no fragmentation:
If relation is small and not updated frequently.
may be better not to fragment relation.
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orizontal and Vertical Fragmentation
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Mixed Fragmentation
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orizontal Fragmentation
Consists of a subset of the tuples of a relation.
Defined using Selectio3 operation of relational
algebra:
9
p
(#)
For example:
P
1
÷ 9
type÷ouse`
(PropertyFor#ent)
P
2
÷ 9
type÷Flat`
(PropertyFor#ent)
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orizontal Fragmentation
%his strategy is determined by looking at
predicates used by transactions.
Involves finding set of mi3imal (complete and
releva3t) predicates.
Set of predicates is complete. if and only if. any
two tuples in same fragment are referenced with
same probability by any application.
Predicate is releva3t if there is at least one
application that accesses fragments differently.
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Vertical Fragmentation
Consists of a subset of attributes of a relation.
Defined using !rojectio3 operation of relational
algebra:
a
a1. ... .an
(#)
For example:
S
1
÷ a
staffNo. position. sex. DOB. salary
(Staff)
S
2
÷ a
staffNo. fName. lName. branchNo
(Staff)
Determined by establishing a11i3itv of one
attribute to another.
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Mixed Fragmentation
Consists of a horizontal fragment that is vertically
fragmented. or a vertical fragment that is
horizontally fragmented.
Defined using Selectio3 and !rojectio3 operations
of relational algebra:
9
p
(a
a1. ... .an
(#)) or
a
a1. ... .an
(o
p
(#))
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Example - Mixed Fragmentation
S
1
÷ a
staffNo. position. sex. DOB. salary
(Staff)
S
2
÷ a
staffNo. fName. lName. branchNo
(Staff)
S
21
÷ 9
branchNo÷B003`
(S
2
)
S
22
÷ 9
branchNo÷B005`
(S
2
)
S
23
÷ 9
branchNo÷B007`
(S
2
)
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Derived orizontal Fragmentation
A horizontal fragment that is based on horizontal
fragmentation of a parent relation.
Ensures that fragments that are frequently joined
together are at same site.
Defined using Semijoi3 operation of relational
algebra:
#
i
÷ #

S
i
. 1 A i A w
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Example - Derived orizontal Fragmentation
S
3
÷ 9
branchNo÷B003`
(Staff)
S
4
÷ 9
branchNo÷B005`
(Staff)
S
5
÷ 9
branchNo÷B007`
(Staff)
Could use derived fragmentation for Property:
P
i
÷ PropertyFor#ent
branchNo
S
i
. 3 A i A 5
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Derived orizontal Fragmentation
If relation contains more than one foreign key.
need to select one as parent.
Choice can be based on fragmentation used
most frequently or fragmentation with better
join characteristics.
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Distributed Database Design Methodology
1. &se normal methodology to produce a design for the
global relations.
2. Examine topology of system to determine where
databases will be located.
3. Analyze most important transactions and identify
appropriateness of horizontal/vertical fragmentation.
4. Decide which relations are not to be fragmented.
5. Examine relations on 1 side of relationships and
determine a suitable fragmentation schema. #elations
on many side may be suitable for derived
fragmentation.
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%ransparencies in a DDBMS
Distribution %ransparency
Fragmentation %ransparency
Location %ransparency
#eplication %ransparency
Local Mapping %ransparency
Naming %ransparency
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%ransparencies in a DDBMS
%ransaction %ransparency
Concurrency %ransparency
Failure %ransparency
Performance %ransparency
DBMS %ransparency
DBMS %ransparency
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Distribution %ransparency
Distribution transparency allows user to perceive
database as single. logical entity.
If DDBMS exhibits distribution transparency.
user does not need to know:
data is fragmented (fragmentation transparency).
location of data items (location transparency).
otherwise call this local mapping transparency.
With replication transparency. user is unaware
of replication of fragments .
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Naming %ransparency
Each item in a DDB must have a unique name.
DDBMS must ensure that no two sites create a
database object with same name.
One solution is to create central name server.
owever. this results in:
loss of some local autonomy;
central site may become a bottleneck;
low availability; if the central site fails.
remaining sites cannot create any new objects.
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Naming %ransparency
Alternative solution - prefix object with identifier of
site that created it.
For example. Branch created at site S
1
might be
named S1.B#ANC.
Also need to identify each fragment and its copies.
%hus. copy 2 of fragment 3 of Branch created at site
S
1
might be referred to as S1.B#ANC.F3.C2.
owever. this results in loss of distribution
transparency.
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Naming %ransparency
An approach that resolves these problems uses
aliases for each database object.
%hus. S1.B#ANC.F3.C2 might be known as
LocalBranch by user at site S
1
.
DDBMS has task of mapping an alias to
appropriate database object.
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%ransaction %ransparency
Ensures that all distributed transactions maintain
distributed database`s integrity and consistency.
Distributed transaction accesses data stored at
more than one location.
Each transaction is divided into number of
subtransactions. one for each site that has to be
accessed.
DDBMS must ensure the indivisibility of both the
global transaction and each of the subtransactions.
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Example - Distributed %ransaction
% prints out names of all staff. using schema
defined above as S
1
. S
2
. S
21
. S
22
. and S
23
. Define
three subtransactions %
S3
. %
S5
. and %
S7
to
represent agents at sites 3. 5. and 7.
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Concurrency %ransparency
All transactions must execute independently and
be logically consistent with results obtained if
transactions executed one at a time. in some
arbitrary serial order.
Same fundamental principles as for centralized
DBMS.
DDBMS must ensure both global and local
transactions do not interfere with each other.
Similarly. DDBMS must ensure consistency of all
subtransactions of global transaction.
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Classification of %ransactions
In IBM`s Distributed #elational Database
Architecture (D#DA). four types of transactions:
#emote request
#emote unit of work
Distributed unit of work
Distributed request.
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Classification of %ransactions
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Concurrency %ransparency
#eplication makes concurrency more complex.
If a copy of a replicated data item is updated.
update must be propagated to all copies.
Could propagate changes as part of original
transaction. making it an atomic operation.
owever. if one site holding copy is not
reachable. then transaction is delayed until site is
reachable.
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Concurrency %ransparency
Could limit update propagation to only those
sites currently available. #emaining sites
updated when they become available again.
Could allow updates to copies to happen
asynchronously. sometime after the original
update. Delay in regaining consistency may
range from a few seconds to several hours.
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Failure %ransparency
DDBMS must ensure atomicity and durability of
global transaction.
Means ensuring that subtransactions of global
transaction either all commit or all abort.
%hus. DDBMS must synchronize global
transaction to ensure that all subtransactions
have completed successfully before recording a
final COMMI% for global transaction.
Must do this in presence of site and network
failures.
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Performance %ransparency
DDBMS must perform as if it were a centralized
DBMS.
DDBMS should not suffer any performance
degradation due to distributed architecture.
DDBMS should determine most cost-effective
strategy to execute a request.
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Performance %ransparency
Distributed Query Processor (DQP) maps data
request into ordered sequence of operations on
local databases.
Must consider fragmentation. replication. and
allocation schemas.
DQP has to decide:
which fragment to access;
which copy of a fragment to use;
which location to use.
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Performance %ransparency
DQP produces execution strategy optimized with
respect to some cost function.
%ypically. costs associated with a distributed
request include:
I/O cost;
CP& cost;
communication cost.
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Performance %ransparency - Example
Property(propNo. city) 10000 records in London
Client(clientNo.maxPrice) 100000 records in Glasgow
Viewing(propNo. clientNo) 1000000 records in London
SELEC% p.propNo
F#OM Property p INNE# 1OIN
(Client c INNE# 1OIN Viewing v ON c.clientNo ÷ v.clientNo)
ON p.propNo ÷ v.propNo
WE#E p.city÷Aberdeen` AND c.maxPrice > 200000;
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Performance %ransparency - Example
Assume:
Each tuple in each relation is 100 characters
long.
10 renters with maximum price greater than
£200.000.
100 000 viewings for properties in Aberdeen.
Computation time negligible compared to
communication time.
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Performance %ransparency - Example
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Date`s 12 #ules for a DDBMS
0. Fundamental Principle
%o the user. a distributed system should look exactly
like a nondistributed system.
1. Local Autonomy
2. No #eliance on a Central Site
3. Continuous Operation
4. Location Independence
5. Fragmentation Independence
6. #eplication Independence
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Date`s 12 #ules for a DDBMS
7. Distributed Query Processing
8. Distributed %ransaction Processing
9. ardware Independence
10. Operating System Independence
11. Network Independence
12. Database Independence
Last four rules are ideals.
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