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JOB ANALYSIS

Job Analysis – What is it and


how is it used?

The procedure for determining the duties


and skill requirements of a job and the
kind of person who should be hired for
it.
Definition of Job Analysis

Job analysis is the process of gathering information about a job. It is, to be


more specific, a systematic investigation of the tasks and duties necessary to do a job.

Job analysis is the process of systematically identifying the tasks and duties
expected to be performed in a single job as well as the competencies-
the knowledge , skills , and abilities (KSAs) – employees must possess to be
successful in the job.

Two important outcomes of job analysis are the creation of job descriptions and the
Identification of job specifications.

Job descriptions are written summaries of the specific tasks, responsibilities, and
working conditions of a job and include a list of the job specification.

Job specifications are the specific competencies required by a jobholder to be


able to perform a job successfully.
IMPORTANT TERMS
• JOB :- It means a role performed by a person in an organization. A
job comprises of several tasks required to be performed as part of it.

• TASK :- It is an act which is performed as part of a job. It is a distinct


unit of work and yet forms an element of a job.

• DUTY :- It is an obligation for a worker to do a job as part of a legal


or moral reason. It specifies the different tasks needed to be
performed as a part of job.

• POSITION :-It is the place of an employee in the organization


structure and is commonly known by the relevant job title. It
represents the combination of tasks and duties performed by the
employee in a predetermined job location.
The job analysis process is capable of generating a wealth of information for an
organization.

This information is usually classified into three categories :-


1. Job content
2. Job context
3. Job holder’s requirement

Job content refers to the actual activities performed in the job being analyzed .

Job context refers to the conditions in which the job is done .

Job holders requirements refer to the worker’s eligibility requirements for doing a job.
According to the Boston Consulting Group, the supervisor or human resources
specialist normally collects one or more of the following types of information
via the job analysis.

 Work activities :- It includes information about the actual work activities


performed.

 Human Behaviors:- Information about human behavior such as sensing,


communicating, deciding, and writing.

 Machine , tools , equipments , and work aids :- This category includes


regarding tools used, materials processes, knowledge dealt with or
applied and services rendered.

 Performance standards

 Job context :- Information will be about physical working conditions


and the organizational and social context- for instance the number
of people with whom the employee would normally interact.

 Human requirements
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Partial job analysis questionnaire


The information about a job is usually collected through a structured
questionnaire:
JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT
Your Job Title_______________ Code__________Date_____________
Class Title_______________ Department_____________________
Your Name_________________ Facility___________________________
Superior’s Title______________ Prepared by_______________________
Superior’s Name____________ Hours Worked______AM______to AM____
PM PM
1. What is the general purpose of your job?
2. What was your last job? If it was in another organisation, please name it.
3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted?

Cont…

Job Analysis
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Partial job analysis questionnaire


4. If you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title.

5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your
supervisory duties:

 Hiring  Coaching  Promoting

 Orienting  Counseling  Compensating

 Training  Budgeting  Disciplining

 Directing  Terminating

 Developing  Measuring Performances  Other____________

6. How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work?

7. Job Duties – Please briefly describe WHAT you do and, if possible, How you do it.
Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult:

Cont…

Job Analysis
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Partial job analysis questionnaire


(a) Daily Duties
(b) Periodic Duties (Please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.)
(c) Duties Performed at Irregular Intervals

8. Education – Please check the blank that indicates the educational


requirements for the job, not your own educational background.
 No formal education required  College degree
 Less than high school diploma Education beyond graduate
 High school diploma or equivalent degree and/or professional license.
 College certificate or equivalent

List advanced degrees or specified professional license or certificate


required.
Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job.

Job Analysis
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Benefits of Job analysis

Job analysis information is useful for a variety of organisation


purposes ranging from human resource planning to career
counselling .
Good HRM demands of both the employee and the employer a
clear understanding of the duties and responsibilities to be
performed on the job.

Job Analysis
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Important benefits of Job Analysis

M u l t i f a c e t e d N a t u r e o f J o b A n a l y s i s

R e c r u it m e n t
H u m a n R e s o u r c e
P la n n in g S e le c t i o n

J o b E v a lu a t i o n P la c e m e n t

J o b D e s ig n a n d
T r a in i n g
R e d e s i g n

P e r f o r m a n c e
C o u n s e llin g
A p p r a i s a l
E m p lo y e e S a f e t y

Job Analysis
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Who should conduct job analysis?

 Job incumbents themselves

 Supervisors

 External analysts

Job Analysis
The job incumbents offer a clear view of what work is actually done as against what
work is supposed to be done.

Involvement of a job incumbent in the job analysis process increases their


acceptance of any work changes stemming from the results of analysis.

The negative side is job incumbents exaggerate the responsibility and importance
of their work.

External analyst help avoid such biased opinions. They tend to base their write ups
on a realistic view of the people, jobs and the total organization system as a whole.
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The process of Job analysis


The major steps involved in job analysis are:
 Organisational analysis
 Selection of representative positions to be analysed
 Collection of job analysis data
 Preparation of job description
 Preparation of job specification

Organization charts :- show the organization wide division


of work, how the job in question relates to other jobs, and
where the job fits in the overall organization. The chart
show the title of each position and , by means of
interconnecting lines, who reports to whom and with whom
the job incumbent communicates.
Job Analysis
The Output of Job Analysis
• Job description
– A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities,
reporting relationships, working conditions,
and supervisory responsibilities
• Job specifications
– A list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is,
the requisite education, skills, personality, and
so on.
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The Competency Approach to Job


Analysis

This approach encourages employees to develop role based


competencies (knowledge, skills and abilities needed to play diverse
roles ) that may be used in diverse work situations, instead of being
boxed into a job.

These competencies may be interpersonal communication skills,


decision making ability , conflict resolution skills , adaptability and self
motivation.

Example :- Infosys Technologies is a role based organization.

Every position in the organization is defined in terms of skills and


attitude based competencies.
Job Analysis
Methods of Collecting Job
Analysis Information
• Interview
• Questionnaire
• Observation
• Participant diary/logs
• Other sources of information
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis
Information: The Interview
• Information sources
• Interview formats
– Individual employees
– Groups of employees – Structured (Checklist)
– Supervisors with knowledge of – Unstructured
the job
• Advantages
– Quick, direct way to find
overlooked information.
– It can uncover or clarify work
tasks which cannot be observed.
• Disadvantages
– Distorted information
– Time consuming for the analyst
and the interviewees.
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis
Information: Questionnaires
• Information source • Advantages
– Have employees fill out
– Quick and efficient way to
questionnaires to describe
gather information from
their job-related duties and
large numbers of
responsibilities.
employees.
• Questionnaire formats – It is less costly than
– Structured checklists interviewing hundreds of
– Opened-ended questions workers.
• Disadvantages
– Expense and time
consumed in preparing and
testing the questionnaire
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information:
Observation

• Information source • Advantages


– Observing and noting the – Provides first-hand information
physical activities of – Reduces distortion of
employees as they go information
about their jobs. • Disadvantages
– Example :- Assembly line – Time consuming
worker and Accounting – Difficulty in capturing entire
clerk work cycle
– Of little use if job involves a
high level of mental activity.
Methods of Collecting Job
Analysis Information: Participant
Diary/Logs
• Information source
• Advantages
– Workers keep a
– Produces a more complete
chronological diary/ log of
what they do and the time picture of the job
spent in each activity. – Employee participation
• Disadvantages
– Distortion of information
– Depends upon employees to
accurately recall their activities.
– Time consuming and frustrating
Job Analysis Techniques
Standardized approach:

• Use Functional Job Analysis (FJA) to


compare jobs by focusing on job
dimensions that apply to all jobs
• Use Position Analysis Questionnaire
(PAQ) :- The position analysis
questionnaire is a very structured job
analysis questionnaire.
The PAQ contains 194 items , each of which represents a basic element that
may or may not play an important role in the job.

The job analyst decides if each item plays a role and that also to what extent.

The advantage of the PAQ is that it provides a quantitative score or profile of any
job in terms of how that job rates on five basic activities :-

1. Having decision making/ communication / social responsibilities


2. Performing skilled activities
3. Being physically active
4. Operating vehicles / equipment
5. Processing information.

The PAQ’s real strength is thus in classifying jobs.

The PAQ results can be used to quantitatively compare jobs to one another,
and then assign pay levels for each job.
STANDARD APPROACH

Functional job analysis is an attempt to create a single job analysis instrument


that might be used to evaluate a wide array of dissimilar jobs.

FJA is based on the notion that it is possible to compare jobs that are dissimilar
in the tasks they perform by focusing on job dimensions they apply to all jobs.

The functional part of its name represents functional categories, which are broad
categories of work related activities that are applicable to all jobs and focus on three
distinct work domains related to data , people and thing

Example :- We can analyze the job of a receptionist / clerk for e.g you might label the
Job 5,6,7 which would represent copying data, speaking and handling.
TABLE 4–1 Basic Department of Labor Worker
Functions
Data People Things
0 Synthesizing 0 Mentoring 0 Setting up
1 Coordinating 1 Negotiating 1 Precision working
2 Analyzing 2 Instructing 2Operating/controlling
Basic Activities

3 Compiling 3 Supervising 3 Driving/operating


4 Computing 4 Diverting 4 Manipulating
5 Copying 5 Persuading 5 Tending
6 Comparing 6 Speaking/signaling 6 Feeding/offbearing
7 Serving 7 Handling
8 Taking instructions/helping

Note: Determine employee’s job “score” on data, people, and things by observing his
or her job and determining, for each of the three categories, which of the basic functions
illustrates the person’s job. “0” is high; “6,” “8,” and “7” are lows in each column.
Sample
Report
Based on
Department
of Labor
Job
Analysis
Technique
Job Analysis Techniques
Customized approach:
• Critical incidents approach focuses on specific descriptions of
work activities that distinguish good from poor performance
• Task inventory approach focuses on collecting information to
identify tasks needed to be performed on job
• Job element approach focuses on analyzing employee
competencies rather than on tasks to be performed
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Behavioural Factors Impacting


Job Analysis
The following behavioural factors must be taken care of while
carrying out a job analysis:
 Exaggerate the facts
 Employee anxieties
 Resistance to change

Job Analysis
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Job Description And Job Specification

The end products of job analysis are:


Job description: this is a written statement of what the job holder
does, how it is done, under what conditions it is done and why it is
done.
The main purpose of writing a job description is to differentiate the
job from other jobs and state its outer limits.
Contents :- A JD usually covers the following information :
Job Title, Job Summary, Job activities, working conditions and
social environment.

Job Analysis
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Specimen of Job Description


Title Compensation manager

Code HR/2310
Department Human Resource Department
Summary Responsible for the design and administration of employee
compensation programmes.
Duties  Conduct job analysis.
 Prepare job descriptions for current and projected
positions.
 Evaluate job descriptions and act as Chairman of Job
Evaluation Committee.
 Insure that company’s compensation rates are in tune with
the company’s philosophy.

Cont…

Job Analysis
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Specimen of Job Description


 Relate salary to the performance of each employee.
Conduct periodic salary surveys.
 Develop and administer performance appraisal
programme.
 Develop and oversee bonus and other employee
benefit plans.
 Develop an integrated HR information system.
Working conditions Normal. Eight hours per day. Five days a week.
Report to Director, Human Resource Department.

Job specification: it offers a profile of human characteristics


(knowledge, skills and abilities) needed by a person doing a job.

Job Analysis
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Specimen of job specification

Education  MBA with specialisation in HRM/MA in social work/PG


Diploma in HRM/MA in industrial psychology.
 A degree or diploma in Labour Laws is desirable.
Experience  At least 3 years’ experience in a similar position in a large
manufacturing company.
Skill, Knowledge, Abilities  Knowledge of compensation practices in competing
industries, of job analysis procedures, of compensation
survey techniques, of performance appraisal systems.
 Skill in writing job descriptions, in conducting job analysis
interviews, in making group presentations, in performing
statistical computations
 Ability to conduct meetings, to plan and prioritise work.
Work Orientation Factors  The position may require upto 15 per cent travel.
Age  Preferably below 30 years.

Job Analysis
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Job Analysis In A Jobless World


In recent times, the traditional way of jobs having a clearly-delineated
set of duties and responsibilities is being increasingly questioned. For
example, knowledge workers do not like standardized, routinised
operations to be carried out in a fixed, predetermined time schedule.
Talented ones, again, may require jobs with stretch pull and
challenge. They may want to carry out their duties in a flexible
manner.

Job Analysis
io n
f ini t De-Jobbing
De
De-jobbing is broadening the responsibilities
of the company’s jobs, and encouraging
employees not to limit themselves to what’s
on their job descriptions
- is a result of the changes taking place in
business today.
-Example :- Daimler – Chrysler moves from
traditional assembly line production to using
self managing teams , the employees jobs
move from narrowly defined to broad and
flexible.
When Daimler – Chrysler opened its new Mercedes Benz factory in Alabama, it gave
the company an opportunity to start with a clean sheet for designing a car building
system for the 21st century.

The system Daimler chose is similar to the lean production systems that Japanese
manufacturers like Toyota have long used . It emphasizes just – in – time
Inventory method.

The new system organizes employees into work teams , and emphasizes the fact that
all employees must dedicate themselves to continous improvement.

Unconstrained by detailed descriptions listing dozens of specific duties showing what


“ my job “ should be, it’s easier for employees to move from job to job as they
work on teams.

It also encourages employees to look beyond their own jobs to find ways to improve
the plant’s operations. In just a few month’s time , for instance, one team found a $.23
Plastic prong that worked better than the previous $ 2.50 prong the plant was
Using to keep car doors open during painting.
Trends leading to De-Jobbing
Rapid product and
technological
changes
Competition

Global
Changes

Demographics
Need for De-Jobbing

This has increased the need for firms to be


responsive, flexible, and generally more
competitive.
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Job Analysis In A Jobless World

 Flatter organisations
 Work teams
 Boundary less organisations
 Reengineering exercises

Job Analysis
Flat and Boundaryless
Organizations

General
WAL
Electric
MART
Procter & Gamble I K E A
Competency-Based Job Analysis
Competency based job analysis basically means
writing job descriptions based on competencies
rather than job duties.

It emphasizes what the employee must be capable


of doing, rather than on list of the duties he or
she must perform.

Job competencies are always observable and


measurable behaviors comprising part of a job.
Traditional job analysis focuses on “ what “ is accomplished –
on duties and responsibilities .
Competency analysis focuses more on “ how “ the worker
meets the job objectives or actually accomplishes the work.

Traditional job analysis is thus job focused .


Competency based analysis is worker focused – specifically ,
what must he or she be competent to do.
Competency-Based Job
Analysis (cont’d)
• How to Write Job Competencies-Based Job
Descriptions
– Interview job incumbents and their supervisors
• Ask open-ended questions about job
responsibilities and activities.
• Identify critical incidents that pinpoint success
on the job.
– Use off-the-shelf competencies databanks
FIGURE 4–12 The Skills Matrix for One Job at BP

Note: The light blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job.
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A close look at the jobs inside


India’s best work places
 Sasken Communication Technologies: Employees enjoy considerable freedom
to think and innovate and work in their own style. There is absolutely no
monitoring of anybody. There are no attendance registers and there is no limit on
sick leaves. Every employee is trusted and management is transparent. There is
no perk that CEO Rajiv Mody enjoys that a junior employee does not.

 Hughes Software Systems: HSS makes sure that all its employees get
interesting breaks - these may take the shape of personality development
programmes, cricket matches, literature clubs, or adventure activities. One of the
employees even commented "If I don't like my boss, I can change my section."
 Monsanto India: Monsanto India is a flat organisation (three to four levels). Even
these levels are often cut short through an open culture. Everyone sits in an open
office. The workstations are the some size. The travel allowances are the same so
are the refreshments of course it sets stiff targets for employees, but trains them
with a rare rigour so that they get a fair shot at those. People identified as future
leaders are rolled over challenging positions.

Cont…

Job Analysis
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A close look at the jobs inside


India’s best work places
 Cadbury India: Fun is serious business at Cadbury India. The HR manager's
statement sums up the company's philosophy: “We believe that the day you stop
enjoying work is the day you stop contributing. We make people stretch: but we
make them stretch with a smile." The company firmly believes that a smile a day
keeps the market blues away.

 Philips Software Centre: The company's office in Bangalore, employees could


have all the comforts in the world: a variety of cuisines, a creche, a gymnasium,
bunker beds for naps, gym instructor, doctor, psychological counsellor, a dietician.
It is a whole new world of work, play, study and rest. Not surprisingly, senior
executives remain glued to their seats even after office hours. The company had
to come out with an order recently stating that nobody should stay in the office
after 9 p.m. without sufficient reason!

Job Analysis
JOB DESIGN
Job design is a way of organizing tasks, duties and
responsibilities into a productive unit of the work. The
early emphasis in HRM was to design jobs around
high specialisation and standardisation.
Job design is a key component of effectively managing
employees because it is one of the major ways to
translate company goals into the specific actions that
employees perform in their job.
Job design when done effectively helps employees focus on
the tasks and responsibilities that optimize their potential
contributions for competitive advantage.
Why Perform Job Design
• Each job is unique and adds value in
different ways
• How employees will perform their jobs will
affect employees’ contributions
• Determine if design approach will be
oriented toward achieving employee
efficiency or employee motivation
Efficiency Approach
• Scientific management pioneered by Frederick Taylor in
1911 sought to maximize efficiency
• Emphasized standardization of production processes.
• One of the most famous job designs, the assembly line ,
was based on the principles of scientific management.
• Time and motion studies were conducted. It is a
systematic evaluation of the most basic elements of the
tasks that comprise a job. Each job is broken into its basic
parts so that industrial engineers or managers can design
jobs in a way that minimizes excessive movements or
wasted time and that maximizes the time employees
spend working on core job tasks.
Question :- Just how important can job design be for a company’s success?

Henry ford implemented a mass – production assembly line in his automobile plant,
With each employee performing a single task through out the day. As each task was
completed , a mechanized assembly line moved the product along to the next worker.

Result

Production soared because of labor efficiencies of the process. The purchase price
Of the cars dropped as well. In 1912 , Ford sold roughly 89,000 cars for $600 each.
In 1916, Ford sold 585,388 cars for $350 each.

With this type of growth , it is evident that how jobs are designed can dramatically
affect a company’s bottom line.
Job specialization focused on breaking jobs down into core
elements. By focusing on the core elements of a job, a company
is able to limit the variety of tasks employee performs
and increase the efficiency with which they perform them.

Repetition is built into a job, employees are able to master


a specific task and perform it with increasing efficiency ,
which maximizes company productivity.
It increased skill and speed.

Example :- Fast food restaurant


Efficiency Approach (cont’d)
• Job simplification removes decision-making authority
from employees and place it with a supervisor.
• By removing the discretionary components of jobs,
companies are able to lower the necessary
competencies required of employees.
• Training requirements were reduced
• Lack of complexity and variety in jobs led to boredom,
fatigue, and diminished satisfaction
Motivational Approach
• Maximized employee’s drive to work as hard
as possible
• Focused on making jobs more interesting,
challenging and complex
• Job characteristics model—identified 5 job
dimensions and 3 psychological states that
affect motivation and satisfaction as well as
absenteeism, turnover and productivity.
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Job characteristics model

C o r e J o b C r it i c a l
D im e n s i o n P s y c h o lo g ic a l D im e n s io n
S t a t e s
S k i ll V a r ie t y M e a n in g f u l
T a s k I d e n t i t y w o r k w o r k m o o t fi v a t i o
T a s k S ig n i f i c a n c e
H ig h q u a l it y
w o r k p e r f o r m a
A u t o n o m y R e s p o n s i b i li t y f o r
o u t c o m e s o f t h e w w o ir t kh w o r k
F e e d b a c k H igKh n o w le d g e
a c t u a l r e s u lt s o f t hw e o r k e f f e c t i v e
w o r k a c t i v i t i e s
L o w a b s e n t e e i
E m p lo y e e g r o w t h
n e e d s s t r e n g t h

Job Design, Work Scheduling And Motivation


The three psychological states are 1) experienced meaningfulness of the work
2) Experienced responsibility for the outcomes of the work
3) Knowledge of the actual results of work activities.

The five core dimensions are :-

1. Skill variety :- The degree to which a job includes different tasks and activities that
Challenge an employee’s skills and abilities.

2. Task Identity :- The degree to which the job involves completing a whole
identifiable piece of work.

3. Task Significance :- The degree to which the job has a substantial and perceivable
effect on the lives of others.

4. Autonomy :- The degree to which the job permits substantial freedom and discretion
to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to perform
the work.
Feed back :- The degree to which performing the job requirements results in the
Individual receiving direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his
performance.

The greater the existence of these five job dimensions, the more motivated employees
feel.

Growth need strength—extent to which individuals need to learn and be challenged,


a need to develop their skills beyond where they currently are, and a strong need
for accomplishment.

Employees with high growth need tend to respond more strongly to the presence of
the three psychological states than employees with low growth need.

Understanding how employees react to the absence or presence of the psychological


states and core job dimensions helps managers decide which tactic to use to improve
employee motivation and satisfaction.
Improving Motivation and Satisfaction
• Changing job tasks—modifying job to make it less
boring and more satisfying:
• Job enlargement—assigning additional tasks of a similar level
of difficulty , increasing volume or variety
• Job rotation—moving workers from one job to another in a
systematic manner (also a training tool)
• Job enrichment—increasing level of responsibility or control
over tasks of a job
• Empowerment—employees have input and authority over
how they work and participate in decisions
JOB DESIGN APPROACHES
Job rotation refers to moving employees from job to job to add
variety and reduce boredom by allowing them to perform a
variety of tasks .When an activity is no longer challenging ,
the employee would be moved to another job at the same
level that has similar skill requirements. It reduces boredom
and disinterest through diversifying the employee’s activities.
Advantages
It is an excellent means of broadening the work experience of
employees and also turning specialists into generalists.
It reduces boredom and monotony and stimulates development
of new ideas.
It permits greater understanding of other activities within the
organization.
Is rotation used only at lower levels of an
organization? Anecdotal evidence suggests that
companies successfully rotate high level employees to
train managers and increase innovation in the
company. For example, Nokia uses rotation at all
levels, such as assigning lawyers to act as country
managers or moving network engineers to handset
design. This approach is thought to bring a fresh
perspective to old problems. Wipro, India’s
information technology giant that employs about
80,000 workers, uses a three-year plan to groom
future leaders of the company by rotating them
through different jobs.
In Hindustand Unilever also incorporates job rotation – the 70% part of the
Learning principle .

People learn by exposure to a variety of jobs.

The company uses what it calls a “ 70-20-10” model for developing its work force:
70% of learning happen on the job, 20% through mentoring, and 10% through
training and course work.
JOB ENRICHMENT
Job enrichment involves adding more motivators to a job to make it
more rewarding . Job becomes enriched when it gives job holder
more decision making , planning and controlling power.

An enriched job has eight characteristics:-

 DIRECT FEEDBACK
 CLIENT RELATIONSHIP
 NEW LEARNING
 SCHEDULING OWN WORK
 UNIQUE EXPERIENCE
 CONTROL OVER RESOURCES
 DIRECT COMMUNICATION AUTHORITY
 PERSONAL ACCOUNTABILITY
A study of AT&T ‘s clerical and other telephone company employees showed a
positive improvement in job performance and satisfaction after job enrichment.

Another study with technicians , engineers and sales representatives also showed
Similar results.

Titan watches , Asea Brown Boveri(ABB), Tata Information systems,


GE plastics India and Philips empower their employees.
Employee Teams
• Groups who work collaboratively toward a
common goal
• Work teams—well defined, stable, full-time
members
• Parallel teams—cross functional group to address
problem or issue (members retain their formal
positions as well) e.g quality circles and problem
solving teams.
• Project teams—exist for limited time to accomplish
an objective
• Self-managed teams—members work
collaboratively to make decisions, hire, plan,
schedule work, and accomplish goals
Team based job designs have the potential to improve to improve employee
Interaction and social support for team members. When team members are
Cross – trained , multiple people can perform team tasks , which increases
Task variety and reduces boredom and fatigue among employees.
Strategy and Job Design
• Drives how managers structure jobs to be
performed
• May be based on teamwork in companies
focused on creativity and innovation
• May be structured to maximize efficiencies
in companies that compete on costs
Company Characteristics
and Job Design
Smaller companies:
• Have a more fluid, open-ended approach to job
design
• Need employees to perform multiple tasks and
wider array of tasks
Larger companies:
• Have more bureaucracy and specialization
• Need more rules and regulations on how work is
done
National Study of Employers indicated that smaller companies offer employees
More opportunities for workplace flexibility through flexi time, returning to work
Gradually after childbirth or adoption , and taking time off for education or training
to improve skills or phasing in to retirement.
EMPLOYEE CONCERNS AND JOB DESIGN

Two issues that are particularly important for employees are their perception
Of fairness in the job duties they perform and their needs for flexible work
Arrangements.
Employee Impact
Roles are the expectations that companies and co –
workers have regarding how employees are to allocate their
time in the performance of their job.

Employee stress may result from unclearly defined roles


• Role overload—too many expectations or demands
placed on employees
• Role underload—having too few expectations or demands
• Role ambiguity—uncertainty about daily tasks expected
and how to perform them
• Role Conflict—tension caused by incompatible or
contradictory demands
Flexible Work Arrangements
• Flextime—employees choose starting and/or ending time of their
workday as long as they work the appropriate number of hours per day
or week.
Example :- Eli Lilly , more than 5,500 employees work some version of
flexible schedule.

• Compressed workweek—reduce number of days worked (four 10-


hour days)
In this approach , employees work 4 days in a week instead of 5 days
but work for 10 hours per day rather than the typical 8 hours per day.

• Job sharing—two employees work part time to complete a single job


responsibilities
May be effective in attracting and retaining workers and facilitate
work/family balance
Other Impacts on Job Design

• Aging of the workforce and supply of workers

• Availability of technology (Internet, e-mail,


videoconferencing) and trend toward virtual teams
Telecommuters – employees who use technology such
as the internet, videoconferencing and e-mail to connect
to their jobs from remote locations.E.g AT&T

• Globalization with employees in multiple countries i.e


virtual teams.
Job Design and Stress
• 40% of employees claim jobs are
“extremely stressful”
• When we design a job , the level of stress
employee experience is of paramount
importance.
• Reasons included heavy workload,
infrequent breaks, long hours, routine work
with little meaning or uncertain expectations,
lack of control
How to Change an Organization
to Prevent Job Stress
Physical Conditions
of Job Design

Eliminate the following unpleasant


conditions:
• Extreme hot or cold temperatures
• Lack of privacy
• Extensive noise
Solutions to Address Job Stress
• Ergonomics—design of tasks, jobs, environments to make them
compatible with needs, abilities and limitations of people.
• Topics such as posture, repetitive movements, safety and health
are the primary focus of physical ergonomics.
Ergonomists examine how individuals interact with machine , tools,
and equipment in an attempt to minimize the physical demands
of a particular job that may lead to high levels of stress, fatigue
and possible injury.
Discussion question
• You are a manager at a local fast food
restaurant. Your cashiers are
becoming dissatisfied with their jobs,
for several reasons. How could you:
– Help them perform the job more
efficiently?
– Increase the motivating potential of the
job?
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Fed Ex Corporation is a company which takes training and development seriously.
It spends $ 155 million on training each year, The company allocated nearly 1523
man – hours every year on training and development. Each employee spends 4 to 6
weeks a year in compulsory training. There is also voluntary course of 15 days in
Class rooms. Every employee is also entitled to an additional $ 2500 as tuition refund.
This encourages many employees pursue short term online courses to the
employees.
Fed Ex has a clear strategy with respect to training and development. It believes that
training in house personnel is much more effective and economical than lateral
Training.

LG Electronics has made it mandatory for its staff to do two modules a month and
each module has a test that has to be cleared. Every three months a summary of all
the tests is made and prizes are doled out to encourage people to learn.

The American Society of Training and Development (ASTD ) Says new organizations
Typically deliver 20-30 percent of training via technology

Cisco uses web –based training as an integral tool to make employees more
productive because it is available anytime , anywhere.
GE believes in on –the job approach for training its employees. It trains customer
service operators on the job so that the benefits of listening , thinking and
responding occur on the job.

GE’s answer centre in Louisvelle , Kentucky , is open 24 hours a day. It employs 180
Telephone representatives, 150 customer service representatives and 30 technicians.
IT Handles two million calls from customers each year. Each representative is trained
and is able to handle about 100 calls a day , each one lasting about 3 to 5 minutes .
After learning about the firm’s products, the representative is trained on the telephone.
Communication and telephone skills are observed and critiqued.
9-2

Need For Training


Training is the systematic process of providing employees with the
competencies – Knowledge , skills , and abilities- required to do their
current jobs.
Example :- An employee might need to learn to use new computer
software to do his job. This employee would need to be trained on the
new software.

Features of Training
 Increases knowledge and skills for doing a particular job
 Focuses attention on the individual job.e.g banks in the country
 Concentrates on individual employees
 Gives importance to short term performance
Training is essential for job success. It can lead to higher
production, fewer mistakes, greater job satisfaction and lower
turnover.
Training
9-3

Need For Training


 helps new recruits to perform assigned tasks effectively
 helps existing employees to prepare for higher level jobs
 enables existing employees to keep in touch with latest developments
( prevention of skill obsolescence)
 permits employees to cope with changes brought in by frequent transfers
 makes employees more versatile, mobile, flexible and useful to the organization
 bridges the gap what the employee has and what the job demands allows an
employee to gain acceptance from peer groups readily
 To increase productivity and quality
To improve organizational climate :- Organizational climate refers to the overall
relations and effective orientation of the employees towards the organization
.Training is essential to maintain and sustain positive orientation .
To prevent accidents.
To avoid boredom, monotony and fatigue.
Example :- Most of the public sector banks are implementing Core Banking
Solutions (CBS) and for this purpose they are providing the training
Training
9-4

Training vs. Development


Training is concerned with teaching specific job related skills and behavior.
In addition to training employees for their current jobs, companies also invest
a lot of resources in developing employees for other jobs. For instance,
Lockheed Martin invests a lot of resources in leadership development to
prepare high potential employees. Development is future focused and aims
to prepare employees to take on additional responsibilities in different jobs,
usually at higher level.

Training vs. Development

Training
9-5

Training vs. Education

Training, more or less, is job oriented (skill) learning. Education, on the


other hand, is a person-oriented, theory-based knowledge whose main
purpose is to improve the understanding of a particular subject (a kind of
conceptual learning).

Training Pitfalls
Here is a checklist to avoid training pitfalls
 Attempting to teach too quickly
 Trying to teach too much
 Viewing all trainees as the same
 Giving very little time to practice
 Offering very little to the trainee in the form of encouragement, praise
or reward

Training
Purposes of Training
• Induction :- Training can be used by organizations for
inducting new recruits into the organization. The initial
period plays a predominant role in the
assimilation/association of the organization. The induction
training is used by organizations for acclimatization and also
introducing to policies / procedures of the organization.
Example :- Wipro Corporation , the Chairman , Azim Premji.
• The Container views employee orientation as a key training
activity. Over the years , the company’s orientation has
evolved into a week long program called “ Foundation
week”. The Container store among the top companies on
the list of Fortune’s 100 best companies to work for in
America.
•Competency development and identification of training needs :- It is known fact that
identification of training needs and competency development are increasingly
recognized as imperative to stay alive in competition.

The bank had identified five areas – marketing, credit, cash management services,
treasury and HRM. The employees were selected through a through a written
Examination and an interview and the selected candidates were given extensive
Training in the training college and also the work places.

Simulation :- Incase of technical subjects and complicated projects, it would not be


feasible for the employees to be trained on the job, and in such cases , organizations
Simulated work conditions to train the employees. Example :- Aviation industry.
Private sector organizations take their employees on trekking trips and expeditions
to build rapport among them and also to improve their ability to adapt to new
Challenges or situations.
9-6

Learning Principles: The Philosophy


of Training
Training efforts are invariably based on certain learning oriented guidelines:
 Modelling: It is simply copying someone else's behaviour. (like showing the
videotapes of desired behaviour while at work)
 Motivation: For learning to happen, it is important to motivate the trainee first.
 Reinforcement: If behaviour is rewarded, it probably will be repeated.
Positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desired behaviours.
 Feedback: Feedback helps an employee find where he stands. People learn
best if reinforcement is given as soon as possible.
 Spaced practice: Learning takes place easily if the practice sessions are
spread over a period of time.
 Whole learning: Employees learn better if the job information is given as an
entire logical process.
 Active practice: Learning is enhanced when trainees are provided ample
opportunities to repeat the task.
 Relevance: training should be as real as possible so that trainees can
successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs
 Environment: employees learn faster in comfortable environments

Training
Research has confirmed that people remember 10% of what they had read,
20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they see and hear:
70% of what they say and 90% of what they say while also performing the task.

Learning and memory are high when there is active involvement of the participant.

Different training methods are used for different types of learning.


For example , cognitive learning stresses visual and audio experience to gain
Understanding. It may involve reading , lectures , audiovisuals presentations,
case problems, etc.

Affective learning ( attitudes, values , and interest acquisition) may best be learned
through field trips, role –playing , open –ended discussion , counseling ,
or reflection.

Psychomotor skills ( eye- hand coordination , finger dexterity, etc) are best
acquired through practice. Therefore, the value of multi – sensory learning
exercises should be emphasized.
Learning Styles
How people prefer to absorb and process new
information:
• Auditory learners hear information and process and
remember it (lectures, discussions)
• Visual learners need to see information (charts,
pictures)
• Tactile learners need to interact with the material
they are learning (writing activities, take notes)
• Kinesthetic learners need to be doing something
rather than hear or see the materials (roles plays,
simulations)
Other Impacts on
Training Success
• Learning agility—characteristic of employees
who seek new experiences and opportunities
to learn new skills .Learning agility can be used
in the selection process
• Self-efficacy—confidence the employee has
that he/she can do something
• Interest in training program—drives motivation
to learn, employees see how they can benefit
from training
9-7

Areas And Types of Training

Training is generally offered in the following areas

Areas of training
 Knowledge
 Technical skills
 Social skills
 Techniques

Training
9-8

Areas And Types of Training

The various types of training that are commonly employed in


present-day organisations may be listed thus.
Types of training
 Skills training: here certain basic skills like reading, writing, computing, speaking,
listening, problem solving etc are taught
 Refresher training: here the focus is on short term courses that would help employees
learn about latest developments in their respective fields
 Cross functional training: this helps employees perform operations in areas other than
their assigned job.
 Team training: this is concerned with how team members should communicate with
each other, how they should cooperate to get ahead, how they should handle conflictful
situations, how to find their way using collective wisdom etc.
 Creativity training: this helps employees to think unconventionally, break the rules,
take risks, go out of the box and develop unexpected solutions.
 Diversity training: it aims to create better cross cultural sensitivity with the aim of
fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationships among a firm's employees
 Literacy training: this is generally offered to those employees with weak reading,
writing or arithmetic skills.

Training
9-9

How to be more creative?

 Thermax: At Thermax (over 1200 employees nearly Rs. 600 crore turnover, 6 per
cent attrition rate) high-potential individuals are given greater exposure, high
visibility and asked to chart out a career vision through an ongoing dialogue.
 GCPL: Godrej Consumer Products Ltd’s (1052 employees, nearly Rs. 500 crore
sales) talent management system allows bright employees to acquire a wide
variety of skills through job rotation (e.g., sales systems, project management skills,
IT skills, Team building skills etc.). Outstanding performers get salary increase
instantaneously.
 Sapient Corporation: (914 employees with over $ 202 million global sales). At
Sapient employees work on 48-50 projects at any given time. Some of these are
executed entirely by the local employees from their Gurgaon and Bangalore offices.
 Johnson & Johnson: (1419 employees with over $ 41,000 million global sales)
J&J constantly encourages its employees to upgrade their skills and knowledge
through short-term programmes at institutes like the IIMs, XLRI etc. apart from
rotating employees on challenging tasks.

Cont…

Training
9-10

How to be more creative?

 Monsanto India: (354 employees with nearly $ 5,000 global sales) Monsanto
sets stiff targets for employees, but trains employees with a rare rigour so that
they get a fair shot at those. People identified as future leaders are given internal
international positions.
 P&G: (Over Rs. 750 crore sales and powerful brands like Vicks, Tide, Ariel,
Pantene, Whishper, Pampers, Head and Shoulders, etc.) P&G relies on the
promote-from-within philosophy’. It hires freshers straight out of B-school, trains and
empowers them to handle challenging jobs from day 1. Says a new recruit from
IIM Ahmedabad: “I am two months old in the company and already handling a
new brand launch”.

[BT-Hewitt Study, 2003; BT-Mercer-TNS Study, 2004; Grow Talent Study, B. World, 1.9.2003 and 6.12.2004]

Training
9-11

A Systematic Approach To Training

A systematic approach to training would consist of three phases: training


needs assessment, implementation and evaluation

Training needs assessment


Training efforts must aim at meeting the needs of the organisation and the
individual employees. This, essentially, involves three types of analysis:
a. Organisational analysis: This is a study of the entire organisation in
terms of its objectives, utilisation of resources to achieve objectives etc.
 Analysis of objectives
 Resource utilisation analysis
 Environmental scanning
 Organisational climate analysis

Training
9-12

Training needs assessment

b. Task or role analysis: this is a detailed examination of a job, its


components, its various operations and conditions under which it has to be
performed.

c. Person analysis: here the focus is on the individual in a given job;


whether training is needed, whether the employee is capable of being
trained, and the areas where the training is needed. 00

Training
9-13

Data sources used in training needs


assessment
Organisational Analysis Task Analysis Person Analysis
Organisational goals and objectives Job descriptions Performance data or appraisals
Personnel inventories Job specifications Work sampling
Skills inventories Performance standards Interviews
Organisational climate analysis Performing the job Questionnaires
Efficiency indexes Work sampling Tests (KASOCs)
Changes in systems or subsystems Reviewing literature on Customer/employee
(e.g., equipment) the job attitude surveys
Management requests Asking questions about Training progress
the job
Exit interviews Training committees Rating scales
MBO or work planning systems Analysis of operating CIT
problems
Customer survey/satisfaction data Diaries
Devised situations (e.g., role
play)
Assessment centers
MBO or work planning systems

Training
9-14

Training needs assessment

d. Identify training objectives: Training objectives can be of three


types

Objectives of training
O B J E C T IV E

I n n o v a t iv e P r o b le m s S o lv in g R
 A n t ic i p a t in g p r T o r ba l i en mi n sg c l e r k s Ot or i e n t a t io n
b e f o r e t h e y o c cr eu dr u c e c o m p l a i n t s
 T e a m b u i l d i n g T r a i n i n g s u p e r vR i es oc ur s r r i n g t r a in in
s e s s wi o i nt h s e com m u n ic a tio n s i n in te r v ie w e r s
d e p a r t m e n t s r e d u c e g r i e v a n c e t os
 R e f r e s h e r c o u r s
s a f e t y p r o c e d u r e

Training
9-15

Training needs assessment

e. Training methods: Formal training methods include on the job training


covering job instruction training, coaching, mentoring, job rotation,
apprenticeship training, committee assignments etc and off the job
training including lectures, conference, simulation exercises and
programmed instruction.
f. Evaluation: Evaluation helps in controlling and correcting the training
programme.

Training
9-16

On The Job Training Methods

 Job instruction training (JIT): This is training directly received on the


job. Here the trainee receives an overview of the job. The trainer actually
demonstrates the hob and the trainee is asked to copy the trainer’s way.
The trainee, finally, tries to perform the job independently.
Merits and demerits of job instruction
training
M e r it s D e m e r it s
 T r a in e e le a r n s f a s t t h r o uT g h h e pt r r a a i nc te i ce e s ha on ud l d o bb se
I f t h e t r a i n e r i s n o t g o o
k n o w le d g e a n d s k il ls
 I t i s e c o n o m i c a l a s it d o
e W s h n i l oe t l er e a q r nu i i nr e g , a t rn a y i n s e p e e
s e t t i n g s . A ls o , m is t a k e s c a n b e c o r r e c t e d i m m
 T h e t r a in e e g a in s c o n f i d E e x n p c ee r i q e u n i c c ek dl y w a so r hk e r s
d o e s t h e w o r k h im s e l f i n a c t u a l s e t t in g w it h
h e l p f r o m s u p e r v is o r.
 I t i s m o s t s u it a b le f o r u n s k i ll e d a n d s e m i- s k ill e
w h e r e t h e jo b o p e r a t i o n s a r e s im p l e ; e a s y t o
Training
9-17

On The Job Training Methods

 Coaching: Here the supervisor explains things and answers questions;


throws light on why things are done the way they are; offers a model for
trainees to copy, conducts lot of decision making meetings, and allows
trainees freedom to commit mistakes and learn .Coaching, thus, requires
lot of teaching skills.

 Mentoring: The use of an experienced person to teach and train


someone with less knowledge and experience in a given area is known as
mentoring. The mentor nurtures, supports and guides the efforts of young
persons by giving appropriate information, feedback and encouragement
whenever required.

Training
9-18

Functions of Mentoring
G o o d m e n t o r s . . . . . . G o o d m e n t e e s . . . . . .
 L is t e n a n d u n d e r s t a n d  L i s t e n
 C h a ll e n g e a n d s t i m u la t e  A c t o n A d v i c e
le a r n i n g  S h o w c o m l em a i rt mn e n t t o
 C o a c h
 C h e c k e g o a t t h e d o o r
 B u i l d s e l f - c o n f i d eS nu c c e c e s s f u l A s k f o r f e e d b a c k
 P r o v i d e w i s e c o uM n es ne tl o r in g
 A r e o p e n m in d e d
 T e a c h b y e x a m p l e
 A r e w il li n g t o c h a n g e
 A c t a s r o le m o d e l
 A r e p r o a c t i v e
 S h a r e e x p e r i e n c e s
 O f f e r e n c o u r a g e m e n t

Merits and demerits of Mentoring


M e r i t s D e m e r i t s

 T h e r e i s a n e x c e ll e n t o I p t p mo r a t uy n ci t ry e t a o t e l e af e r ne l i n g s o f j e
t h r o u g h c o n t i n u o u s i n t e r a c t
a r e n o t a b l e t o s h o w e q u a ll y
 C o n s t a n t g u id a n c e h e  l p I f s m t h e e n mt o er s n t f e o er m o v e r ly s t r o n
t o b e o n t r a c k , u s i n g f a c i li t i e s t o g o o d t
a d v a n t a g e . T h is c a n h a v e a d e m o r a li s i n g
a f f e c t in g t h e i r w o r k p e r f o r m a

Training
9-19

On The Job Training Methods

 Job rotation: This kind of training involves the movement of trainee from
one job to another.

Merits and demerits of Job rotation

Merits Demerits
 Improves participant’s job skills, job satisfaction Increased workload for participants
 Provides valuable opportunities to network within Constant job change may produce
the organisation stress and anxiety
 Offers faster promotions and higher salaries to Mere multiplication of duties do not
quick learners enrich the life of a trainee
 Lateral transfers may be beneficial in rekindling Development costs may shoot up when
enthusiasm and developing new talents trainees commit mistakes, handle tasks
less optimally

Training
9-20

On The Job Training Methods

 Apprenticeship training: Most craft workers such as plumbers,


carpenters etc are trained through formal apprenticeship
programmes. In this method, the trainees are put under the guidance of
a master worker typically for 2-5 years.

 Committee assignments: In this method, trainees are asked to solve


an actual organisational programme working along with other trainees.

Training
9-21

Off The Job Training Methods


 Vestibule training: It occurs off the job on equipment or methods that
are highly similar to those used on the job.

 Role playing: This is a development technique requiring the trainee to


assume a role in a given situation and act out behaviours associated with
that role.

 Lecture method: Here the instructor organises the study material on a


specific topic and offers it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk.

 Conference or discussion method: In this method the trainer delivers


a lecture and involves the trainees in a discussion so that the doubts
about the job to be undertaken get clarified.

 Programmed instruction: This is an approach that puts material to be


learned into highly organised logical sequences that require the trainees
to respond
Training
9-22

Evaluation of A Training Programme

Training can be evaluated at five levels: reaction, learning, behaviour,


organisation and results.
Important decision points in training evaluation may be listed thus;

Important decision points in planning


training evaluation
 Should an evaluation be made?
 Who should evaluate?
 What is the purpose of evaluation?
 What will be measured?
 How comprehensive will the evaluation be?
 Who has the authority and responsibility?
 What are the sources of data?
 How will the data be collected and evaluated?
 How will the data be analysed and reported?

Training
9-23

Methods of evaluation

 Questionnaires
 Tests
 Interviews
 Studies
 Human resource factors
 Cost benefit analysis
 Feedback.

Training
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Case Study of TCS
• TCS have an energetic and open workplace
environment, and a collaborative culture that's
based on teamwork. Pulling together is a central
tenet of TCS work ethic
• Energetic and full of enthusiasm, we enjoy our day
(and night) at work. Life at TCS is a stimulating and
exciting experience. Not only do our offices have the
best infrastructure and technology, our colleagues
have a knack of working hard — and partying harder.
• This is the level of enthusiasm and employee
satisfaction in TCS.
The doors are always open at
TCS.
• Senior colleagues follow an open-door policy
in which any associate can approach the
CEO and senior management with work-
related problems.
• Communication is a big word at TCS and
every employee will be regularly taking part
in web casts and chat sessions through
which important corporate issues or
decisions on real-time basis are shared with
associates worldwide.
• TCS also have institutionalized open-house sessions
and engagement programmes in which associates at
all levels meet and discuss various work issues.
• In addition, TCSers can also take part in one-on-one
sessions where they can interact privately with senior
management. These sessions are helpful in providing
mentorship, as well as understanding real-life issues
that colleagues face at work. The queries and
discussions are formally recorded and followed up.
• L&D Mission - "To enhance the
competency capital of TCS, through co-
creation of learning experience
continuously and consistently, so as to
facilitate delivery of world-class human
capability to the customer, enabling the
company to achieve its vision".
• TCS invests about 4 per cent of its annual
revenues in Learning and Development, to build
competency capital within the company in cutting
edge technologies, domain and functional areas.
• Special emphasis is placed on providing
necessary learning interventions to associates
with potential of being leaders in the company .
• TCS has state of the art training facilities in all its
delivery centers. The centers are equipped with
world-class infrastructure.
• The Corporate Learning Centre at Trivandrum is
one of the best in class centers that houses the
Leadership Institute as well.
• At TCS learning is a continuous activity
and associates have a plethora of learning
programs to choose from.
• Programs have been devised for all levels,
be it fresh graduates or senior managers
who manage large accounts.
• All the learning programs are mapped to
competencies and address learning needs
at different proficiency levels.
• Learning and Development managers
closely work with business to develop and
deliver programs that will make our
associates deliver value-for-money to our
customers.
Initial Learning Program
(ILP)
• TCS Initial Learning Program is designed to
provide a smooth transition from Campus to
Corporate environment.
• The program is designed to transform
graduate engineers into IT consultants with
global mindset.
• The participants are put through a rigorous
47-day program that has good mix of
technical skills and soft skills.
Continuous Learning Program
(CLP)
• Continuous Learning Program (CLP) is a
manifestation of commitment to the continuous
growth of associates, in line with core value of
Learning & Sharing.
• Programs under the CLP umbrella arise out of
business strategies, project needs, technology &
business directions and individual aspirations, and
span across Technologies, Domains, Processes and
Soft-skills.
• Addressing this complete spectrum of inputs ensures
a fine balance between the long-term, medium-term
and short-term requirements of the organization.
Leadership Development Programs LDP

• TCS strive to create leaders at all levels


of the organization. The leadership
development program strives to meet this
ever-growing demand for leaders.
• At TCS we offer a basket of Leadership
Development Programs.
• Associates are carefully assessed for
leadership potential and then put through
rigorous branded programs.
• TCS also encourages associates to attend
various programs at premier B Schools
across the globe.
Foreign Language Initiative
(FLI)
• Foreign Language initiative is to
help the associates communicate
effectively with the customers.
• Under this initiative associates are
encouraged to learn one or more
foreign languages. This initiative
also helps associates to use
English effectively for business
communication.
Other Initiatives
• TCS is striving to build an
organizational culture that
encompasses the best of occupational
and national cultures of all the
geographies it operate in.
• A new offering in the space of Diversity
Management and Cultural sensitization
is being planned to prepare its
associates meet the challenges posed
by globalization of its business.
Workplace Learning

• Apart from all these initiatives TCS


encourages "workplace learning".
Associates are encouraged to learn while
at work.
• To facilitate this, TCS has subscribed a
huge library of e-Learning courses and
online books. The classroom session and
e-Learning materials complement each
other.
Specialized Training
• Specialized type of training, it
provides to its current employees.
Which are of two types
– first one is on the basis of customer
response. In which they make survey,
whether their customers are satisfied or
not. The whole company is customer
oriented they want to satisfy their
customer at any cost.
– They provide training to their sales
force for satisfaction of the customer.

Specialized Training
• In addition to above company provide
training for any new project to its employees.
It may provide training either before the
projects starts or during the project.
• Tata consultancy services runs six training
centres all over the country.
• Thiruvanantpuram is the hub for training
programme in TCS.
What an idea! Cos using
case-study contests to
develop growth plans
• Firms Like Pepsi, Tatas And Suzlon
Feel Such Competitions Generate
Fresh Business Ideas
Tata Administrative Services
(TAS)
• Tata Administrative Services (TAS) for
instance, conducts Tata Business
Leadership Awards that has generated a
great deal of interest among young
management students since it was launched
in 2002.
• The company found the quality of case
studies in such contests tends to be of high
grade. Sometimes, the ideas are just in line
with what the company had been thinking,
says Rajesh Dahiya, Head, TAS.
Tata Administrative Services
(TAS) contd..
• “It’s amazing the way these youngsters
think and innovate,” he adds. “A great
ideation platform not only gives fresh
perspectives, it broadens our scope as well
and helps us to look at things differently.”
For instance, , the team from IIM-Lucknow
suggested Tata Tea make an overseas
acquisition and the company did make
some acquisitions in that space.
Tata Administrative Services
(TAS) contd..
• So now, Tata Group encourages it managers to be in touch
with these ‘ideators’ and actively engage with their thought
process.
• The company also sees it as a great way to connect with
their potential employees.
• The response from the students has been amazing too.
• The increasing interest has led Tata Group to open up the
contest to employees as well and this year for the first time
800-900 employees participated with their ideas.
• The theme was ‘Globalization- Identifying global growth
opportunities for the Tata Group’.
PepsiCo India
• PepsiCo India’s on-going ‘Taste the Success’
contest is a similar initiative.
• As a part of the contest, participants will address
two key areas —
– What are the barriers to unlocking beverage per
capita growth in India and three top ideas to
unplug the beverage potential of India shining?
– Secondly, which categories should PepsiCo enter
and is PepsiCo strategy of balanced portfolio the
one that it should continue to follow?
PepsiCo India
contd…
• Winners will get the opportunity to present and discuss
their case study with Indra Nooyi, Chairman & CEO,
PepsiCo in New York and if the business strategy is
found feasible, students will get an opportunity to get
engaged as advisors with PepsiCo business to
operationalise their ideas.
• The first runners-up will get a cash award of Rs 1,00,000
while the second runnersup will get Rs 50,000.
• The top 6 finalist teams will get a chance to appear for a
preplacement interview. Till now, says Pepsi-Co, it has
received more than 200 entries from various B-schools
for the contest.
PepsiCo India
contd…
• Amit Kapoor, Professor, Business
Strategy, MDI, Gurgaon, who has
designed the case for Pepsi, has got
several other requests to design cases
and judge them.
• He has been approached by at least 4-5
companies for this. “It’s a new thing
and companies are picking it up fast as
this serves multiple purposes from
idea generation, employer branding to
hiring talent,” he says.
Dabur
• Dabur’s success with its case study
contest — Navigator — last year has
encouraged the herbal major to take it
further.
• The contest was aimed at searching
innovative ideas and business
strategies to achieve its Vision 2010,
besides reinventing itself as a
contemporary company.
Dabur (contd..)
• “Through the Navigator, we were looking
at suggestions in terms of growing our
business, both organic and inorganic,”
says Sunil Duggal, CEO of Dabur India.
• “Besides, this exercise of outsourcing
business strategy gives a fresh
perspective to the organization. In fact, we
intend to make this an annual event with,
more live case study contests.”
Suzlon
• No surprise then, Suzlon has
floated a live project contest on
‘Establishment of School of Climate
Change Studies at Chandigarh’. It
plans to pick around two students
from FMS for the purpose.
Summary
• The contests give cos a new perspective on
growth plan
• The Dabur contest, Navigator, helped it find
innovative ideas
• TAS conducts the Tata Business
Leadership Awards every year
• Winners of Pepsi contest will present their
case study to CEO Indra Nooyi in New York
• Suzlon Energy has floated a project contest
in Chandigarh