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September 10, 2004
MOTIVATION IS WHAT TURNS KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS INTO SUCCESS
There is only one way under high Heaven to get anybody to do anything. Did you ever stop to think of that? Yes, just one way. And that is by making the other person want to do it. Remember there is no other way.
What do we mean by MOTIVATION?
Stimulation of interest of a person What induces a person to act in a particular way. Goal-directed behavior
Whenever human behavior is studied, from managerial or any other point of view, subject of motivation is always there. Because motivational concepts help to account for human behavior relatively easily
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Achievement of individual and organizational goals is mutually interdependent. Employee Work Motivation Employees know that achieving organizational goals mean directly or indirectly attaining their personal goals If individual will prosper, organization will grow and the society in general will prosper. Motivation is therefore crucial for the survival of individual, organization and society as a whole.
MOTIVATION FROM INDIVIDUAL¶S POINT OF VIEW A normal working human being spends 42% of 24-hours day or 56% of the time while he is awake, in his work place or on the job. Different people manage their jobs in different ways. People finding or making their jobs ³interesting´ 1: become committed and involved, 2: make creative use of their energies and organizational resources, 3: earn more for the families, providing better resources and making them productive society members. People finding not much interest in the job 1: not committed, rather would decrease their work commitment, 2: waste personal energies and consume organizational resources for non-productive use
Job performance does not entirely depend upon the ³interest´ or ³motivation´. ³Ability´ to perform is also important. Ability ± what a person can do Motivation ± what will a person do If the job performance is only due to ability then it would increase proportionately to the increase of ability of a person. But because of human nature, the performance will not increase unless the person exercises the necessary motivation On the contrary if the person is motivated but is not having enough ability to perform, positive results cannot be expected. Yet motivation plays a major roll as learning or improving ability is facilitated by motivation.
MOTIVATION FROM AN ORGANIZATIONAL STANDPOINT Labor cost is one of the most expensive cost element in an organization. Productivity is also one of the major cost determinant Labor is potential source of productivity. If the labor is rightly motivated the productivity is bound to improve, resulting: 1: For workers, increased productivity means greater rewards. 2: For employers, higher productivity means greater profits 3: Lower cost ± benefit to consumer through lower prices Nobody denies that labor is not the only factor for improving the productivity. Technology, production methods, quality of raw materials, energy resources and many other factors contribute to improve the productivity.
Development of non-human resources also depend upon the human efforts and attitude, which largely depend upon human motivation. ___________ For the past few decades, pressure is on the entrepreneur to increase staff¶s perks, salaries and wages. Entrepreneur can give higher salaries by (1) raising price of the end product, (2) by reducing company¶s profit (3) by compromising on cost of raw materials or (4) by improving productivity. (1) Higher prices mean lower sales and reduced profit (2) Reduced profit will result in lesser capital investment (3) Cheaper raw material may result in lower quality of end product Better alternative is to improve productivity resulting in reduced cost, higher profit margin and better remuneration to staff. Motivation is the prime factor to increase labor¶s productivity.
Motivating employees with ³authority´ and ³financial rewards´ is becoming difficult. Financially better off employees have lesser dependency on any one particular organization Employees are financially better off because (1) they are entitled to certain rewards just by being employee of an organization (2) government assures certain minimum wage for the employees. Labor force is more attracted towards organizations offering attractive perks and benefits rather than any other factor. Challenge for the management is to find incentives which will induce employees to improve their performance. This needs better knowledge of motivational theories and programs for the management
MOTIVATION FROM SOCIETAL STANDPOINT Developing world is facing ³shortage´ problem. Shortage of (1) energy (2) financial resources (3) capital equipment (4) technology and many m0re. Most of under-developed or developing countries are having adequate human resources. To stay in the market, rather compete in international market, industrial organizations are forced to better utilize the available resources. In the age of ³shortage´ there is one under-tapped resource and that is ³human potential´. Effective utilization of this resource may help to offset the shortage in natural resources to some extent.
Job dis-satisfaction is another contemporary problem. All the workers cannot be motivated with higher salaries and wages, shorter working hours or longer vacations. This needs in depth and continuous study as how to motivate them to get maximum work commitment leading to high quality organizational and social life while yielding high productivity.
MOTIVATION AND PSYCHOLOGY
Action or reaction of human beings cannot be predicted with full confidence. This is because response to a stimulus is different by different human being. Even the same person responds differently to the same stimulus under different conditions. Study of human behavior is a vast subject. Different behaviors were grouped and regrouped for different studies. Subject of MOTIVATION was assigned independent roll in 1952. Since then a lot of research work has been done and theories have been developed.
SOME COMMON CHALLENGES
When a common man asks ³What motivates human behavior?´ he is asking for one or combination of the following: 1: An environmental determinant which precipitates the behavior in question and leads to an action 2: The internal urge, wish, feelings, emotion, drive, instinct, want, desire, demand, purpose, interest, aspiration, plan, need or motive which gives rise to the action. 3: The incentive, goal or objective which attracted the organism The theories or models presented during the last 2 to 3 decades vary considerably, say from purely biogenic theories (changes in behavior are the result of inborn drive) to highly sociogenic theories (docility of behavior determined by cultural
One view is that man is a biological beast - slave of his bodily needs and is active only when these needs require him to provide means to their reduction. Another view is that man is a creative, self-actualizing, freeing himself from his bodily tensions incidentally, as part of an unfolding nature. Human needs (state of feeling deprived off) are body bound. But human wants (form taken by need as shaped by culture and individual personality) are much above the basic needs. Motives are the energy arising from deprivation and directed towards fulfillment of the needs
MOTIVATIONAL PROCESS AND FACTORS
Motivation refers to ³goal-directed behavior´ Selecting and directing certain actions to achieve goals. Human behavior can be classified into three major categories Motivated behavior - persistent goal orientation Frustrated behavior ± aroused when goal-directed behavior is interrupted. Physiological reflexes ± automatic responses to external stimuli During the process of motivation study we are concerned with goal directed behavior only.
Motivated behavior is influenced by (a) individual¶s characteristics like: Needs Interests Attitudes Goals (b) and by organizational conditions like Tasks Managerial practices Organizational climate To deal with such complexity we need a conceptual scheme concerning the effects of these individual and organizational variables on work motivation.
DEVELOPMENT OF MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
Motivational theories, which explain motivational process in the organizations, have been classified into three major categories: 1: Need theories of motivation
(explain the internal behavior causes)
2: Incentive theories of motivation
(explain the external determinants of behavior)
3: Cognitive theories of motivation
(describe individual differences in responding to the internal and external behavioral determinants)
Each individual has a set of needs and satisfying these needs becomes his goal. ³Need´ (1) What you feel deprived off (2) Internal state of disequilibrium, physical and psychological, which causes these individuals to pursue certain courses of action in an effort to regain equilibrium. The study of needs helps explain and predict what, why and when certain goals become important to a person. The assessment of variations in human needs and their relative strengths at a given moment helps in understanding what determines a person¶s effort and performance.
Individuals are attracted towards work organizations because these organizations provide them with various means of satisfying their needs With Salary, working conditions and job security Existence needs (biological, physical and security) By socializing and participation Affiliative needs (companionship, belonging and affection) By high profile jobs Growth needs (achievement, recognition and advancement)
INCENTIVE Stimulus existing in an organization which can influence the behavior of its members Three major categories of incentives are Substantive : financial, job security and working conditions Interactive : social, work group, leadership, supervision Effectance : Job content, growth opportunity and responsibility These incentives help to satisfy employees needs. Individuals can respond differently to the same incentive depending upon 1: how they perceive the value of organizational incentives 2: the belief that their task performance will be rewarded 3: the belief that their efforts will result in task accomplishment
An employee will be motivated to perform an organizational task when he feels that (1) the incentives (rewards) are attractive (2) his performance is a means of obtaining the rewards (3) Chance of accomplishing the required task is favorable
Motivation is the result of the interaction of needs, incentives and perceptual patterns of an individual.
Ability Reward Perception EP, PI, IN Motivation Performance
(Incentive is an anticipated reward)
EP=Task performance, PI, performance-incentive relationship IN = Incentive value of these rewards for satisfying needs
HOW TO DEVELOP MOTIVATIONAL PROGRAMS
THEORY of motivation describes a phenomenon PROGRAM specifies a course of action
While developing motivational program the following points should be kept in mind: 1: Work motivation depends on the personal commitment of an employee. An organization can influence the behavior of its employees through organizational incentives with the strategies like
A: Match organizational incentives to the needs of an employee.
B: Organizational rewards should be related to task performance C: Probability of obtaining rewards should be challenging but attainable
2: Numerous organizational properties can be applied to generate organizational incentives
A: Extrinsic incentives (salary, working conditions etc.) B: Social or interactive (group norms, trust and openness) C: Tasks (job enlargement, job enrichment and flexib. hours)
Extrinsic incentives (pay and working conditions) will motivate more to the employees who are striving for lower order needs satisfaction. Organizational climate (psychological atmosphere of an organization) has an impact on employees satisfaction and Performance.
Task leads to intrinsic motivation of an employees. Produces feeling of success, achievement and ego involvement. Meets higher order needs like self respect and self actualization.
3: The motivational programs be viewed and developed in an interactive framework. End result will be employee satisfaction and high productivity. When the individual characteristics and the organizational properties are well adjusted and there is a ³fit´ between the two, both are able to maintain reinforcing relationship.
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Whatever (positive) effort you do for your staff, it motivates them and is known as extrinsic motivation. The effort may or may not involve money. It may be in the form of direct pay increase, allowances improvement, benefits and improvement in retirement perks Announcement of reward on sales/production target achievement Medical insurance Leave package Haj or Umrah ticket Non-monetary rewards like trophy or certificate Sit and chat with the CEO Verbal appreciation or pat on the back
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION This can be called as inherent motivation, it is inner compulsion. Desire to lead, in born desire to achieve or accomplish a mission Another factor of intrinsic motivation is psychological effect caused by the management policies like: Enhanced autonomy to the employee Enriched job Being a member of highly respected group Being employee of a highly reputable organization Organizational concerns for the employees, etc. These all are catalysts for intrinsic motivation in the employees
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