Today you are You, that is truer than true.

There is no one alive who is Youer than You!

Lets Define !
y ´A biometric A

is a physiological or behavioral characteristic of a human being that can distinguish one person from another and that theoretically can be used for identification or verification of identity.µ y The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure).

PIN) ² Something they are (human body) y .How are people identified? People are identified by three basic means: y ² Something they have (identity document or token) y ² Something they know (password.

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g. stolen or forgotten Password or PIN may be forgotten or guessed by the imposters 25% of people seem to write their PIN on their ATM card Estimates of annual identity fraud damages: $56..25% of internet transactions revenues.or PossesionKnowledgeKnowledge-based Approaches y y y y y y y y y y Card may be lost. date of birth) to open credit card accounts. 0. withdraw money from accounts and take out loans .S. alone in 2005* 0.Problems with Possesion.6 billion in credit card transactions in U.08% of off-line revenues $1 billion in fraudulent cellular phone use $3 billion in ATM withdrawals ‡ The traditional approaches are unable to differentiate between an authorized person and an impostor Identity Theft: Identity thieves steal PIN (e.

81% of users select a common password and 30% write their passwords down or store them in a file.Too Many Passworrds tto Rememberr!! Rememberr!! Heavy web users have an average of 21 passwords. (2002 NTA Monitor Password Survey) .

.ID ALTERNATIVES BIOMETRICS! Identity recognition: Something you Something you have know Commonly used biometrics: Something you are /produce.

In the 1890s. . as reported by explorer Joao de Barros. a method of bodily measurement whichgot named after him. He developed 'Bertillonage'. an anthropologist named Alphonse Bertillion sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study.HISTORY y y Possibly the first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in China in the 14th century.

MODES  VERIFICATION:Is she the who she claims to be?  IDENTIFICATION:Who is this person? DB Enroll Query (Verify/Identify) .

PROCESS .

speed. Performance ² accuracy.PARAMETERS y y y y y y Universality ² each person should have the characteristic. Permanence ² measures how well a biometric resists aging and other variance over time. Collectability ² ease of acquisition for measurement. Acceptability ² degree of approval of a technology. and robustness of technology used. Uniqueness ² is how well the biometric separates individuals from another. .

Examples include. Palm print. DNA. face recognition. which has largely replaced retina. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics. gait. Examples include. and odour/scent. but are not limited to fingerprint. and voice. y Behavioral : They are related to the behavior of a person. but are not limited to typing rhythm. iris recognition.CLASSIFICATION Physiological: They are related to the shape of the body. hand geometry. y .

y Fingerprints do not change as one ages. y Many differences in the way friction ridges are patterned. y . fingers. broken and forked. which makes fingerprints unique. y These ridges are called Friction Ridges as these serve the function of grippers so you can hold an object without slippage. feet and toes is covered with concentric raised patterns called Ridges.FINGERPRINTS Skin on the inside surface of our hands.

FEATURES Pattern Area: area of the fingerprint that contains all the global features.  . y Ridge count: The number of ridges between the delta and the core.  Core point: Located at the approximate center of the finger impression. y Delta: It is a definite fixed point used to facilitate ridge counting and tracing.

rise to a ridge in the center and exit out the opposite side (has no delta) Whorl: at least one ridge makes a 360 degree circle in the center of the print (has two deltas) .RIDGE PATTERNS Loop: one or more ridges make a loop and then exit the same side they entered (has only one delta) Arches: ridges enter from one side.

y A ridge ending is defined as the point where the ridge ends abruptly and the ridge bifurcation is the point where the ridge splits into two or more branches. y .MINUTIAE The uniqueness of a fingerprint can be determined by the pattern of ridges and furrows as well as minutiae points. y Minutiae points are the local ridge characteristics that occur either at a ridge ending or a ridge bifurcation.

DATA STORAGE AND MATCHING .

FINGERPRINT SCANNING .

Factors that cause fingerprint systems to fail? Cold finger y Dry or oily finger y High or low humidity y Angle of placement y Pressure of placement y Manual activity that would affect fingerprints (construction. gardening) y .

y Iris pattern possesses a high degree of randomness: extremely accurate biometric y Identical twins have different iris patterns. even the left and right eye have different iris pattrens. y .IRIS Iris code developed by John Daugman at Cambridge University.

specular reflections.IDENTIFICATION PROCESS y y y y y y y y Locate and zoom in on the iris Take a detailed picture Identify boundaries of the iris and pupil (black hole) Un-warp to remove viewing angle effects Remove noise ² eyelashes. etc Apply polar-to-rectangular transformation Compactly encode Match new data to library stored in the database .

IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM Large-scale trial of iris recognition system at Heathrow Airport for immigration control (no passports) National Geographic used iris ID to confirm they had really found the girl in the famous picture .

FACTORS THAT CAUSE IRIS RECOGNITION TO FAIL Too much movement of Head or Eye y Glasses y Colored Contacts y .

e.SIGNATURE y Biometric signature recognition systems will measure and analyze the physical activity of signing. the pressure applied and the speed. Some systems may also compare visual images of signatures. such as the stroke order. i. the image of the signature. . but the core of a signature biometric system is behavioral.e. how it is signed rather than visual. i.

BENEFITS While it is easy to copy the image of a signature. it is extremely difficult to mimick the behavior of signing y Low False Acceptance Rates (FAR) y People are used to sign documents. so signature recognition systems are not perceived to be invasive y WEAKNESS People may not always sign in a consistent manner .

HAND GEOMETRY y y y Hand geometry is a biometric that identifies users by the shape of their hands. In large populations. Hand geometry readers measure a user's hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file. Since hand geometry is not thought to be as unique as fingerprints or irises. It remains popular. Viable hand geometry devices have been manufactured since the early 1980s. Hand geometry is very reliable when combined with other forms of identification. hand geometry is not suitable for so-called one-tomany applications. . in which a user is identified from his biometric without any other identification. making hand geometry the first biometric to find widespread computerized use. fingerprinting and iris recognition remain the preferred technology for high-security applications. such as identification cards or personal identification numbers. common applications include access control and time-and-attendance operations.

y The major advantage is that most people can use it and as such. y Believed to be a highly stable pattern over the adult lifespan. Disadvantages:y Use requires some training.Advantages:y Easy to capture. the acceptance rate is good. y System requires a large amount of physical space. .

the area surrounding the cheekbones.FACE y The dimensions. upper outlines of the eye sockets. the location of the nose and eyes. mouth. nose. shape and porportions of the face: Distance between the eyes. and jaw edges. the sides of the mouth. proportions and physical attributes of a person's face are unique. y . Biometric facial recognition systems will measure and analyze the overall structure.

ISSUES WITH FACE RECOGNITION .

hats. y Commonly available sensors (cameras). glasses. Disadvantages:y Face can be obstructed by hair.Advantages:y No contact required. y Identification across expression . scarves etc. y Difficult to distinguish between twins.

and cannot be exactly replicated. y .VOICE Our voices are unique to each person (including twins). y Speech includes two components: a physiological component (the voice tract) and a behavioural component (the accent).

. as a result of age or illness).g.Advantages:y Simple and cost-effective technological application. y Can be used for remote authentication. Disadvantages:y Voice and language usage change over time (e.

OTHER MODALITIES EAR y RETINA y GAIT y TYPING PATTERNS y BODY ODOUR y LIP MOTION y DNA y .

PERFORMANCE y y y y y y y false accept rate or false match rate (FAR or FMR) false reject rate or false non-match rate (FRR or FNMR) receiver operating characteristic or relative operating characteristic (ROC) equal error rate or crossover error rate (EER or CER) failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER) failure to capture rate (FTC) template capacity .

CONCLUSION y y y y Better security than tokens/ pins/passwords Most Viable is Fingerprint Technology Most Accurate is Iris Scanning Technology Biggest problems: Performance Public acceptance Expensive .

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