Future Trends In design & construction of bridges

FUTURE TRENDS IN DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES

by Shiv Kumar Director/IRICEN

Introduction
Unprecedented developments both in the bridge technology as well as towards appearance. appearance. Technically, very long span bridges can be built with presentpresent-day materials. Spans are becoming bigger e.g. materials. bridge on Chenab river in J & K, one of the longest arch span (480m) in the world. (Fig.1) 480m) world. (Fig. Consideration of the entire life cycle justify driving the span upwards. upwards. Society increasingly willing to pay for the convenience and aesthetics of long span bridges. bridges. CableCable-stayed bridges encroaching on the type of spans traditionally associated with suspension bridges. e.g. bridges. Longest cable stayed bridge constructed in the world in Japan (Tatara ± 890m span). (Fig.2) 890m span). (Fig. 1,000m barrier breached by Stonecutters bridge in 000m Hongkong and Sutong bridge in China and 1,200m span 200m already planned. Growth in smaller suspension bridges planned. with spans of perhaps 100m to 500m. 100m 500m

‡ The µwow¶ factor can come with something that is both original and simple in concept e. the engineer to make it work. (Fig.g. ‡ Greater awareness of the importance of a bridge design that properly fits its setting e.4) . the architect to interpret. Bow String Girder Bridge across Thane Creek in Mumbai region provides a visual treat to the rail commuters.Emerging trends in the design and construction of bridges Architectural Appearance ‡ Appearance plays a far greater role in bridge design today than it did a few years ago. much-praised Gateshead Millennium Bridge (Fig.g.3) ‡ A client wants an artist to dictate the design.

Solutions envisaged like wrapping columns with glass/carbon fiber. techniques for risk assessment. means of predicting seismic response . structural fuses to dissipate energy. ‡ Massive increase in armoury of tools to protect bridges. ‡ Developments in areas such as understanding of seismic activity. . energy absorbing devices. ‡ Earthquake not a force but a deformation. New concept to provide sufficient capacity in deformation and allow bridge to move instead of trying to resist force.Emerging trends in the design and construction of bridges Security hazard ‡ Multi-hazard protection growing importance against blasts and earthquakes.

adding features such as helixes around the cables. Significant progress made by reducing the size of strand systems . cross-cables or µaiguilles¶ as used on the cable-stayed Pont de Normandie bridge in France. 5) Today¶s spinning equipment is competitive with preformed parallel wire strand systems.Emerging trends in the design and construction of bridges (contd.) Increased Span ‡ ‡ Developments in cable technology a key parameter to increasing the span.Solutions such as tuned mass dampers. (Fig. Damping important for long spans . ‡ ‡ .

‡ ‡ .Emerging trends in the design and construction of bridges (contd. Larger piles can have a long unsupported length enabling the footing to be constructed far closer to the water surface. ‡ Equipment developed for handling and driving piles of large diameter upto 4m and length more than 100m. Use of large diameter piles made it possible to position the pile cap further above the river bed.) Taller Bridges . Improvements in drill hole stability while drilling huge diameter holes.

‡ .) Getting stronger ‡ Introduction of a new material will only be successful if a new concept of structure can be developed to use that material e. Together with concrete by way of prestressed concrete made long span concrete bridges possible. Steel made long span trusses box girders possible.g. Ultra-high performance materials intoduced such as VSL¶s cementitious material Ductal which is nearer steel than concrete. High strength wires made suspension bridges possible.Emerging trends in the design and construction of bridges (contd. use of stone to build arches.

. 6) erected from the ground up in just 21 consecutive hours Lake Ray Hubbard Bridge in Dallas. USA used pre-cast bent caps (Fig. pier and superstructure units enable construction of bridges not in years but in months and weeks e. abutment.8) ‡ Pre-cast units eliminate costly field formwork as well as extend seasonal construction time.7) for all the 43 pier caps reducing construction time from 8-9 days to 1 day for each pier cap(Fig. Puerto Rico (Fig.Emerging trends in the design and construction of bridges (contd.) Precast Components ‡ Pre-cast foundation. San Juan.g.

‡ FRP bridge decks gaining popularity in USA.g. ‡ Different types of applications for composites e. FRP decks. plates and strips. .Emerging trends in the design and construction of bridges(contd. stainless steel . ‡ For rehabilitation also e. wraps to provide seismic protection and enclosures to protect structures. use in post-tensioning.g.) New materials ‡ Use of advanced composites started e.g. composite rods to replace the top mat of steel reinforcement effectively increasing the cover to steel. stay cables.

Emerging trends in the design and construction of bridges (contd. ‡ Change in the bridge deck design e. ‡ Introduction of enhanced protection through use of electrically isolated systems .g.its replacement could become more complex and expensive. there would normally be some kind of supporting structure generally topped by a concrete deck which could easily be replaced but now in the modern bridge. the deck is part of the structure and holding it up . in the traditional design. plastic ducts.) Increasing durability ‡ Increased durability being demanded e. .g.

Another one under construction at Chirayatand near Patna. (Fig. .Emerging trends in the design and construction of bridges (contd. so far one cable stay bridge constructed spanning across railway track near Bangalore. ‡ Significant growth expected in demand for long span bridges .9).) Conclusion ‡ In India.

Thank You .

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