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Recycling Methods – Benefits and Hazards
3R Environmental Services Private Ltd. (‘3RE’)
WEEE | DEFINITION
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-Waste) is a term used to describe appliances and/or equipment that contain electrically powered components and:
• those that have become obsolete and/or have reached their end-of-life • those that have lost their utility to the original user, due to advancement in technology and change in fashion
3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.
WEEE| CATEGORIES † As per theEuropeanUniondirective2002/96/ECof theEuropeanParliam andof thecouncil of 27January 2003onwaste ent electrical and electronic equipm ent. 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. 3 .
articlebase. 2010 (www. 4 . OBSOLESCENCE TIME FRAME Electronic Goods Mobile Phone Personal Computer Camera Television Refrigerator Washing Machine IT Accessories Estimated Obsolescence Time Frame 1 to 3 years 2 years 3 to 5 years 10 to 15 years 10 to 15 years 10 to 15 years Very Fast Source: E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA.com/e-wastemanagement) 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. Posted on June 20.WEEE | EST.
WEEE | COMPOSITION OF WEEE WEEE contains both valuable materials (secondary raw materials) as well as hazardous materials which require special handling and recycling methods 5 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. .
6 .WEEE | MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.
7 .WEEE | QUANTUM OF WEEE | INDIA 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.
WEEE | QUANTUM OF WEEE | BANGALORE 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. 8 .
Once this equipment reaches end-of-life. Direct Sale to scrap dealers and recyclers 2. These equipment are Custom Bonded. De-bond the equipment by paying the customs duty 2. Exchange programs for some electronic items 2.WEEE | DISPOSAL CHANNELS • ICT Companies. public sector companies (including Customs Department) and other companies. Donate the equipment to charitable institutions 3. Physical destruction of the goods BPO. Hardware Companies. dispose their end-of-life WEEE through: 1. 9 . Auction • • Households dispose their WEEE through: 1. registered as Export Oriented Units (EOU) import hardware as per the EXIM policy (2000). Sale to scrap/rag pickers 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. the regulation provides the ICT companies 3 options to release this equipment: 1.
10 .WEEE | DISPOSAL CHANNELS | ISSUES 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.
11 .WEEE | COLLECTION CHANNELS C ur re nt C oll ec tio n C ha nn el s D es ire d C oll ec tio n C ha nn 03/13/11 el s Informal Sector Recyclers Formal Sector Recyclers 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.
12 .WEEE | RECYCLING| AUTHORIZED RECYCLERS • Formal sector authorized recyclers only process and recycle 5% of WEEE in India Efficient techniques used by this sector would ensure: oHigh rate of secondary material extraction oClosed loop recycling would ensure almost zero environmental pollution oZero informal dumping and burning oImprove the health and occupational standards of workers Government has recognized this and are formulating legislation to increase the share of the formal sector recyclers • • 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.
Photo courtesy: EMPA • • 03/13/11 13 .WEEE | RECYCLING| INFORMAL SECTOR • Informal sector processes and recycles 95% of WEEE in India Inappropriate and inefficient techniques used by this sector cause: oHigh rate ofenvironmental pollution due to informal dumping. burning and acid leaching oHealth and occupational hazards to workers oLoss of valuable secondary raw material due to low rates of secondary raw material extraction The other negative aspects of informal sector include: oUse of child labor and the infrastructure of the units oMost units have no proper ventilation oWorkers sit on the floor bending for hours over scrap items and work with bare hands and very primitive tools 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.
WEEE | WHY SHOULD WE CARE? | WEEE Components Hazardous Constituents COMPONENTS. 2010 (www.com/e-waste- 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. cables Brominated flame retardant Immune system insulation/coating and plastic (BFR) Endocrine housing Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) management) 03/13/11 Source: E-WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA. CONSTITUENTS AND AFFECTED BODY PARTS Affected Body Parts Nervous system Kidney Liver Lungs Skin Heart Liver Muscles Brain Skin Kidney Liver Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) Lead Cadmium Motherboards Berrilium Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) Lead oxide Barium Cadmium Switches & Mercury Flat screen monitors Computer Batteries Cadmium Plastic in PCB. Posted on June 20. 14 .articlebase.
edited by Rakesh Johri.WEEE | WHY SHOULD WE CARE? | • AIR POLLUTION IN MANDOLI VILLAGE & INDUSTRIAL AREA Mandoli industrial area remains engulfed by a thick blanket of dust and fumes: oCarbon monoxide (CO) concentration in the recycling area varies between 8 to 10 PPM (parts per million) oThe CO concentration is between 2 to 4 PPM in the village located 500 meters away from the recycling area oThe Council of Environmental Quality (1992) has observed that inhalation of CO-laden air with a concentration of between 8 – 10 PPM for a maximum period of 8 hours is dangerous. regulations and management in India and current global best practices. a TERI publication (2008) • • 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. Health hazards from the acid fumes and toxic gases that engulf the area: oEye irritation oBreathing problems The concentration of dioxins and furan in the air has been reported to be in the range of 4-6 pg (picogram)/kg/days oThe WHO standard range is between 1 to 4 pg/kg/day Source: Johri Rakesh and Subhankar Basu. mitigation and a case study of Delhi’ in E-Waste: Implications. ‘E-waste generation. 15 .
093 16. 03/13/11 regulations and management in India and3R Environmental Services by Rakesh Johri.2 44.127 285 32 1. leaching of these metals with time will eventually contaminate the groundwater.02 774 7. mitigation and a case study of Delhi’ in E-Waste: Implications.170 <0.02 Industrial Area Soil (mg/kg) Surface soil was collected from Mandoli industrial area and analyzed to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Col # 3). ‘E-waste generation. 16 . The above table reveals that the concentration of all metals in the industrial area are much higher than the village soil. edited Pvt Ltd. a TERI publication (2008) current global best practices.WEEE | WHY SHOULD WE CARE? | METAL CONCENTRATION IN SOIL SAMPLES FROM MANDOLI INDUSTRIAL AREA Element Manganese Copper Aluminum Silicon Chromium Cadmium Lead Nickel Zinc Selenium Village Soil (mg/kg) 236 62 6. Source: Johri Rakesh and Subhankar Basu. However.4 30. Soil for Col # 2 was obtained from the village located 500 meters away from the recycling unit.1 115 <0.981 289 50 10 3.932 181 3.
05 n/a 5. The pH of water is 5.08 0.02 1. ‘E-waste generation.05 <0.04 1.05 0.01 0.WEEE | WHY SHOULD WE CARE? | METAL Sample (mg/l) 0. 17 .1 n/a 0.0 0.5 – 8. which is below the desirable limit of 6.14 0. mitigation and a case study of Delhi’ in E-Waste: Implications.02 Area Sample (mg/l) Water Standard) (mg/l) 0. located at a distance of 500 meteres from the industrial area.50 <0. a TERI publication (2008) current global best practices. Source: Johri Rakesh and Subhankar Basu.05 0.5.01 0. from a depth of about 20 meters (Col # 3).63 26.59 0.02 0. the ground water samples were collected from Mandoli industrial area.8.07 0.05 0.33 0.02 0.11 0.42 0.10 4. The ground water samples were also collected from Mandoli village.05 0.05 0.24 14. edited Pvt Ltd.01 CONCENTRATION IN GROUND WATER SAMPLES FROM MANDOLI Element Village Water Industrial Desirable limit (Indian Manganese Copper Aluminum Silicon Chromium Cadmium Lead Nickel Zinc Selenium For analysis purposes. 03/13/11 regulations and management in India and3R Environmental Services by Rakesh Johri. from a depth of 25 meteres (Col # 2).
WEEE | WHY SHOULD WE CARE? | POSSIBLE HEALTH EFFECTS OF DRINKING THE POLLUTED WATER Element Desirable limit (Indian Undesirable effects when Water Standard) (mg/l) concentration goes above the desirable limit 0. edited by Rakesh Johri.01 0.01 Unpleasant taste Astringent taste.05 5.1 0. 18 . damages liver and causes central nervous system Alzheimer’s disease disorder and depression Lung tumor and allergies Kidney damage Serious cumulative body poison Astringent taste Toxic Manganese Copper Aluminum Chromium Cadmium Lead Zinc Selenium Source: Johri Rakesh and Subhankar Basu. mitigation and a case study of Delhi’ in E-Waste: Implications.05 0. regulations and management in India and current global best practices.05 0. a TERI publication (2008) 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.05 0. ‘E-waste generation.0 0.
19 • 03/13/11 . and improperly dispose the rest.WEEE | CONCERNS & CHALLENGES | • • • • • • SYNOPSIS Accurate figures not available for rapidly increasing WEEE – generated domestically and illegally imported Low level of awareness among manufacturers and consumers of the hazards of incorrect recycling Major portion of WEEE is processed by the informal sector using rudimentary techniques Workers have little or no knowledge of toxins in WEEE and are exposed to health hazards Inefficient recycling process result in substantial losses of material value and resources Cherry picking by informal sector. primarily interested in precious metals. thereby posing environmental hazard No specific legislation for dealing with WEEE 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.
Provide a viable and environmentally friendly option to dispose waste for households and private sector.WEEE | THE NEED OF THE HOUR In short.Maximize material (and hence value) recovery – thereby reduce pressure to extract primary raw material from earth surface 2. This option would involve a establishing a eco-friendly supply chain management system to responsibly: i. 20 . 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. 3R Environmental Services Private Limited (‘3RE’) steps in 1.Collect WEEE ii. the need of the hour can be summarized as follows: 1.Recycle WEEE This would ensure a win-win model that would: 1.Create awareness about the hazards and benefits of WEEE among both households and private sector 2.Minimize environmental damage by avoiding inefficient management and recycling of WEEE This is where.Transport WEEE iii.
03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. we work to: • spread awareness about the hazards and benefits of WEEE • build a world-class supply chain management facility for WEEE with a commitment to provide owners of WEEE a convenient. prompt and environmentally responsible collection.3RE | MISSION 3RE is a startup that exists to: • contribute to create clean and safe environment for the current and future inhabitants of planet Earth • create an environment that is free from hazards emanating from the exponentially increasing WEEE At 3RE. 21 . transportation and recycling of WEEE • develop the best research and development facility to produce technology to: a)improve the extraction of secondary raw materials b)reduce the amount of unusable material in WEEE This is our mission and everything we do reflects this.
3RE | VISION We at 3RE have set these goals for ourselves for the next two years: • Reduce WEEE by spreading awareness and thereby creating material for secondary use rather than sending it as waste to landfills • Reuse by building capability in the City of Bangalore by September 2011 to extract working parts that could be used for making refurbished electronic equipment • Recycle by sending the non-working electronic goods and material to formal sector recyclers for the first one year of operation. By May 2012 to develop in-house recycling capability • Collection Centers: To open 5 collection centers across South India by May 2013 • Collection Target: To handle 500 tons of waste per annum starting from May 2012 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd. 22 .
India Mobile: +91 809 587 9828 Email: g. com/3rewaste LinkedIn:3r.ewaste 03/13/11 3R Environmental Services Pvt Ltd.facebook.com/3r.ewaste Twitter: www. firstname.lastname@example.org Facebook: www.3RE | CONTACT US For any business enquiries.twitter. comments and/or suggestions. Anipindi Director – Sales & Marketing Bangalore. please contact: Ganesh S. 23 .
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