Pollution may be Defined as ³an undesired change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our air, water and

land that may or will harmfully, affect human life, the lives of the desirable species, our industrial processes, living conditions and cultural assets, or that may deteriorate our raw material resources´. It may defined as ³an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment(water, air, and lands) making it less fit for life´

CLASSIFICATION OF POLLUTANTS
According to the form in which they persist 1. Primary pollutants. Eg DDT, plastics 2. Secondary pollutants. Eg, peraxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) formed by the reaction of primary pollutants namely nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight II. According to their existence in nature 1. Quantitative pollutants. Concentration reaches beyond a threshold value in the environment eg, CO2, 2. Qualitative pollutants. Which do not occur in nature but are passed into it by human activities eg, fungicides, herbicides, DDT etc III. According to their natural disposal 1. Biodegradable pollutants. Eg sewage 2. Non-degradable pollutants. Eg, plastics, DDT IV. In terms of origin of pollution 1. Natural. Eg volcanic eruptions 2. Anthropogenic. Eg Industrial pollution etc. I.

Air Pollution
The occurrence or addition of foreign particles, gases and other pollutants into the air, which have an adverse effect on human beings, animals, vegetation, buildings and other objects is called air pollution

Natural: forest fires, pollen, dust storm

Unnatural: man-made; coal, wood and other fuels used in cars, homes, and factories for energy

1. Gaseous Pollutants 2. Particulate Pollutants (a) Setteable - larger than 10 micron in dia particles (b) Suspended ± dust and smoke Dust: The larger suspended particles more than 1 micro meter in diameter (solid) Mist: The larger suspended particles more than 1 micro meter in diameter (liquid)

SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTANTS
Category Examples Important pollutants
H2S, sulphur oxide, fluorides, organic vapours and dust

Chemical plants Petroleum refineries, fertilizers, cements, papermills, ceramic clay products, glass manufacture Crop spraying Pesticides and weedicides

Organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, lead, arsenic Sulphur and nitrogen oxides Metal flumes (Pb and Zn) fluorides and particulates

Fuel burning

Domestic burning, thermal power plants Aluminium refineries and steel plant

Metallurgy plants

SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTANTS
Category
Nuclear device testing Ore preparations Spray painting, ink, solvent cleansing Transportation

Examples
Bomb explosions

Important pollutants
Radioactive fall out, Sr-90, Cs-137, C-14 etc. Uranium and beryllium dust, other particulates Hydrocarbons and other organic vapours

Crushing, grinding and screening Printing and chemical separations, furniture, dyeing Cars, trucks, aero planes and railways

CO, No, NO2, Pb, smoke, soot, organic vapors etc.

Carbon Monoxide ‡colorless, odorless ‡produced when carbon does not burn in fossil fuels ‡present in car exhaust ‡deprives body of O2 causing headaches, fatigue, and impaired vision

Sulfur Dioxide ‡produced when coal and fuel oil are burned ‡present in power plant exhaust ‡narrows the airway, causing wheezing and shortness of breath, especially in those with asthma

Nitrogen Dioxide ‡reddish, brown gas ‡produced when nitric oxide combines with oxygen in the atmosphere ‡present in car exhaust and power plants ‡affects lungs and causes wheezing; increases chance of respiratory infection

Particulate Matter ‡particles of different sizes and structures that are released into the atmosphere ‡present in many sources including fossil fuels, dust, smoke, fog, etc. ‡can build up in respiratory system ‡aggravates heart and lung disease; increases risk of respiratory infection

GROUND LEVEL OZONE
‡at upper level, ozone shields Earth from sun·s harmful UV rays ‡at ground level, ozone is harmful pollutants ‡formed from car, power and chemical plant exhaust ‡irritate respiratory system and asthma; reduces lung function by inflaming and damaging lining of lungs

‡Combination of gases with water vapor and dust ‡Combination of words smoke and fog ‡Forms when heat and sunlight react gases (photochemical smog) ‡Occurs often with heavy traffic, high temperatures, and calm winds

‡1st smog related deaths were in London in 1873; death toll 500 people; can you imagine how much worse the atmosphere is now?! ‡Limits visibility ‡Decreases UV radiation ‡Yellow/black color over cities ‡Causes respiratory problems and bronchial related deaths

‡Ride your bike

‡Tell your friends and family about pollution

‡Make sure your parents get pollution checks on their cars

‡Ride the school bus

‡Learn more; stay up to date

‡Join a group to stop pollution

‡Encourage your parents to carpool to work

‡Switch off lights, fan, heat, etc. when you leave the room

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