Quick test (15 minutes) Sex determination and the occurrence of twins in human beings Answer the following question

. 1. Compare the characteristics given and complete the following table.
Characteristic Number of chromosome Gamete formed Chromosome make up in somatic cell Chromosome make-up in gamete Male Female

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2. what causes identical twins to have the same genetic make-up?

3. Why is sex of a child determined by the father?

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Elicit studEnts iDea
y

Do you ever see someone who down·s syndrome out there?

Today we are going to learn about

3.4 Understanding mutation

Learning outcome
y

At the end of the lesson, you are able to 1. State what mutation is 2. State the types of mutation 3. List examples of mutation 4. Identify the causes of mutation 5. State the advantages and disadvantages of mutation

What is mutation?
y

Mutation is a change in the amount or the chemical structure of DNA.

Types of mutation?
Chromosome mutation Gene mutations Changes in arrangement Changes in the structure of a gene of genes or number of chromosomes. Down¶s syndrome (extra chromosome 21), Klinefelter¶s syndrome (XXY) and Turner¶s syndrome (XO). Colour blindness Albinism Sickle cell anaemia Haemophilia

Causes of mutations
1. 2.

Agents which cause mutation are called mutagens. Chemical substances - pesticide, nicotine in cigarrettes, drugs, nitrous acid and some presevertives, colouring and artificial sweetener can cause mutation.

3. Radioactive substances - Alpha, beta and gamma radiation. - UV rays and X-rays can cause skin cells to mutate and this may cause cancer. 4. Temperature -which are too high or low can cause mutation.

Advantages ‡Mutation causes variations in organisms which allow them to adapt to the environment. ‡Species that are more resistant to diseases, weather and polluted environment can be produced.

Disadvantages ‡Some mutation cause disease like colour blindness and haemophilia cannot be cured. ‡Klinefelter¶s syndrome causes infertility. ‡Disease like haemophilia and sickle cell anaemia can lead to death

Exercise
Define the following terms a) Mutation b) Albinism y State two diseases caused by a) chromosome mutations b) gene mutations y Name one advantages and one disadvantages of mutations.
y

Homework
y

Do exercise in science process skills book on page 30

Learning outcome
y

At the end of the lesson, you are able to 1. State what mutation is 2. State the types of mutation 3. List examples of mutation 4. Identify the causes of mutation 5. State the advantages and disadvantages of mutation

Conclusion
Mutation is a change in the genetic information of an individual. y Mutation can cause genetic disorders in the descendants such as haemophilia and albinism. y Down·s syndrome is caused by an extra chromosome in the body cell, as a result of mutation.
y

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Down·s syndrome
This heredity disease in general is caused by the presence of one extra chromosome at chromosome 21 in somatic cells. y Incomplete separation of chromosome during meiosis causes the zygote to have extra chromosome. 47 in total. Give characteristics of down·s syndrome patient?????
y
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Klinefelter·s syndrome
Patient has one extra X chromosome, i.e XXY. y Normally males suffer from this hereditary disease. They posses some feminine features and fail to produce sperms. Therefore they are infertile. y Patient have 47 chromosomes and posses special features i.e narrow shoulder and small testes.
y
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Turner·s syndrome
A person who suffer from this heredity disease lacks one X chromosome. y People with Turner·s syndrome have only one sex chromosome which is XO. y Only female suffer from this heredity disease. y They posses the following features;
y

Infertility Short stature Do not experience menstrual cycle
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Colour blindness
y

Sex-linked disease determines by a recessive gene on the X chromosome A colour blind person cannot see or diffrentiate the colours of red and green.

y

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Albinsm
The change in the gene that control skin colour y The newly produced gens are unable to produce skin pigment y Can u state the colour of skin and eyes of albinos patient????
y

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Sickle cell anaemia
Disease caused by the change in the genes that produce hemoglobin y Hemoglobin that has undergone mutation is inefficient in transporting oxygen.
y

Blood smear (normal)
Image Credit: http://lifesci.rutgers.edu/~babiarz/

Sickle cell anemia
Image Credit: http://explore.ecb.org/

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Haemophilia
y

Deficiency of a type of protein in the blood required for blood clotting. A patient who has a wound will experience continuous bleeding or will take a long time for the blood to clot. This condition can lead to death.

y

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Quick test

(15 minutes)

Answer the following question. 1. Compare the characteristics given and complete the following table.
Characteristic Number of chromosome Gamete formed Chromosome make up in somatic cell Chromosome make-up in gamete Male 46 Sperm 44+XY 22+X and 22+Y Female 46 Ovum 44+XX 22+X

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2. what causes identical twins to have the same genetic make-up? y Identical twins originate from one ovum and one sperm which are the same. 3. Why is sex of a child determined by the father? y The sex of a child depends on the type of X chromosome or Y chromosome in the sperm which fertilises the ovum.
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