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• The Indian film industry is considered to be the largest film industry in the world in terms of number of films produced and released every year. India has remained the largest producer of motion pictures in the world for years but it is just beginning to realize its full potential. The audience consists of an estimated 3.6 billion people with 14 territories within India and 52 counties across the globe. Our films are screened in more than 100 countries and watched by nearly 4 billion people worldwide. Internationally, Bollywood is one of India’s bestknown brands. •
cumulative consumer spending on the Indian filmed entertainment products is estimated to be in excess of rupees 60 billion every year.
Indian cinema has always tried to showcase Indian culture in all its cons equence.
film making had taken the shape of an industry. • The first Indian on record to make a movie was Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatvadekar (nickname: Save Dada). By the 1930s. It was made by Dhundiraj Govind Phalke (nickname: Dadasaheb Phalke. 1817-1944). • India's first feature film – named "King Harishchandra" – was released in 1913.BRIEF HISTORY OF INDIAN MOVIE INDUSTRY • Motion pictures came to India in 1896. when the Lumière Brothers' Chinematographe unveiled six soundless short films in Bombay (now Mumbai). • By 1920. . This was a silent movie. the industry was producing over 200 films per annum.
These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with workingclass urban life in India. • During the late 1980s and early 1990s. Examples include the Guru Dutt films Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) and the Raj Kapoor films Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955). violent films about gangsters (see Indian mafia) and bandits. the pendulum swung back toward family-centric romantic musicals. Some of the most critically-acclaimed Hindi films of all time were produced during this period. In the mid-1970s. romance movies and action films starred . . romantic confections made way for gritty.• Golden Age • Following India's independence. • Modern cinema • In the late 1960s and early 1970s. the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s are regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi cinema.
It was believed that aiming for a broad spectrum would maximise box office receipts. among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films. This led the nation's filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality. • The Hindi film industry has preferred films that appeal to all segments of the audience and has resisted making films that target narrow audiences. . more Bollywood releases abroad and the explosion of multiplexes in big cities. cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects.• The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity in the world. etc. animation. • Some of the largest production houses. led to wider box office successes in India and abroad. • The opening up of the overseas market.
he gives order to the cast and crew and makes sure that the script is followed. . Casting director The person who chooses the actors for each role in the film. Editor Cuts and connects the best versions of the film and create the final version Cast The actor & actress who appear in the film. Producer (s) Raises money for making the film and other important activities. Extras The people who appear in crowd scenes but do not have speaking parts. Screenplay writer The person who writes the script.Today's Film Structure Director The main controller.
• Composer He writes the music or adapts an existing score as a backing track to the film. • Cinematographer The person who directs the lighting and films. • Animatronics Engineer Responsible for making the robotic creatures used in science.fiction film. • Special effects coordinator Person responsible for creating spectacular scenes . . • Lyricist The person who writes words to a song. • Sound Engineer Person responsible for proper and synchronized recording of the sound with the action.
key grip is the person incharge of all this grips. • Make-up artist The person who applies the cosmetics which improve the actor look under the studio lights.assistant to the gaffer. who is responsible for lighting the set. • Key grip A grip is responsible for moving the sets and laying the tracks on which camera run . • Best boy The deputy electrician . • Stunt man/woman The specialist who perform the action which are too difficult. • Costume Designer Designs the special clothing worn by the cast and crew. .• Gaffer The chief electrician.
Indian cinema includes .
An example of this was Bimal Roy's Two Acres of Land (1953). known for its serious content. • The movement was initially led by Bengali cinema (which has produced internationally acclaimed filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray. is a specific movement in Indian cinema. . and others) and then gained prominence in the other film industries of India.1) Indian Art Cinema/ Parallel Cinema • Parallel Cinema. winning the International Prize at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival. The film's success paved the way for the Indian New Wave. with a keen eye on the socialpolitical climate of the times. • Some of the films in this movement have garnered commercial success. successfully stradling art and commercial cinema. also known as Art Cinema or the Indian New Wave. realism and naturalism. which was both a commercial success and a critical success.
in which there is a mix of various genres in one film. comedy. • Commercial films. drama. Commercial or popular cinema is made not only in Hindi but also in many other regional languages of East and South India. a film can portray action. with an interval.2) Indian Commercial Cinema • Commercial cinema is the most popular form of cinema in India. For example. Another important feature of commercial cinema in India is music. Masala is a style of Indian cinema. . • They are also known as masala films. Ever since its inception the commercial Indian movies have seen huge following. tend to be quite long (approx three hours). romance and melodrama all together. especially in Bollywood and South Indian films. in whatever languages they are made.
Regional Cinema • Indian film industry comprises of Hindi films. • India is a large country where many languages are spoken. Kannada. is called Bollywood. formerly Bombay. based in Mumbai. Telugu. Malayalam and Punjabi. . The Hindi/Urdu film industry. Tamil. Many of the larger languages support their own film industry. regional movies and art cinema. • Some of the popular regional film industries in India are Bengali.
Ritwik Ghatak and Mrinal Sen among its most acclaimed Recent Bengali films that have captured national attention. • In 1932. • • B) Malayalam cinema • The Malayalam films find audiences in India's Kerala state. • The Malayalam film industry comprises commercial as well as art films. .• A) Bengali cinema • The Bengali language cinematic tradition of Tollygunge in West Bengal has had reputable filmmakers such as Satyajit Ray. the name "Tollywood" was coined for the Bengali film industry. which has the high literacy rates and an established tradition of theater.
Bangalore is center for Kannada film making.• C) Tamil cinema • The Tamil language film industry. The state of Andhra Pradesh has the highest number of cinema halls in India. is one of the largest film industries in India in terms of quality and technology. Tamil Nadu. . and Punjabi cinema. and is based in the Kodambakkam district of Chennai. • D) Telugu cinema • The Telugu language film industry of Andhra Pradesh is currently the largest in India in terms of number of movies produced in a year. • E) Kannada cinema • Kannada industry is referred as "Sandlewood". Oriya cinema. known as Tamil cinema. • also: marathi Bhojpuri cinema.
averaging $500.000 per film in comparison with $14 million.041 films. in order to allow Bollywood to compete more globally. • The amount spent per film in India is significantly less than in the US.430 million) and the US (1. • At 500 million ticket sales per year.482 in the US. and 37.400 million). second in the world to China at 2.500 in China. India trails behind China (1. . in India there are only 9. or up to 40% of their production cost. • However.601. However. but ahead of the US at 611.Competitive Landscape • In 2005.000 screens in comparison with 38. banks are now allowed to fund up to $1 million per film. India produced 1.
whereas Hollywood films sold 2. television etc.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theatre tickets. Bollywood films in the US made $100 million. Bangladesh. . with the music rights alone accounting for 4-5% of the net revenues generated by a film in India. • Bollywood sold 3. The major film music companies of India are Saregama.3 billion. Pakistan.) of US$1. especially Nepal. • Bollywood is popular in South Asian countries.• The export of Bollywood films is increasing. Sony Music etc. and in the UK a Bollywood film is often in the top 10 most popular movies. DVDs. • Film music • Music in Indian cinema is a substantial revenue generator.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion. film music accounts for 48% India's net music sales. Commercially. and Sri Lanka. In 2005.
. 200day runs.Ek Prem Katha. in a hurry to make hay with the first rays of the sun. • Producers and distributors. released in 2001. were judged on how long they stayed in the theaters. the fate of most films was clear within a couple of days and the collections within a couple of weeks.Changing face of Cinema • 100 days? Too late! • One trend that was pretty obvious this year was that of a film's fate being sealed in a couple of days instead of the usual 100-day. As a result. • Perhaps the best example of this is Farah Khan's Om Shanti Om • This is in direct contrast to the past. have shortened the time to bring films to DVDs and CDs for fear of piracy. where films like Gadar .
6000-7000 cinema screens are located in Southern India states which have traditionally been weak markets for Hindi films. these multiplexes constitute 28-34% (depending on 35-40% occupancy) of total GBOC for Top 50 Hindi films and 21-25% of total GBOC for all Hindi films • • • . Northern India and Eastern India constitute strongest markets for Hindi films where they are screened in around 4500 cinemas. Based on the Gross Box Office Collections (GBOC) available for Hindi films released in 2004. Western India. Multiplexes.000 cinema halls in India.000 cinema halls in India are housed in mobile cinemas. Three thousand of the 12.3 % of total screens in India.Multiplexes move in • There are 173 multiplexes comprising 576 screens operating in India as compared to approximately 15. constitute 6 % of total cinema halls and 12. thus.
43% and 81% of total GBOC for Top 20 Hindi films in 2004.99 billion in 2004 to rupees 17. first week and first three weeks contributed 23%.• Box-Office Collections Gross Box Office Collections of all Hindi films have increased from rupees 11. • Foreign Films in India Foreign films grossed rupees 2800 million in 2008 and constituted 15-17% and 20% of GBOC for all Hindi films and Top 50 Hindi films respectively. • Collection Trends GBOC over the opening weekend. Proportion of GBOC of foreign films lies between 5-10% of total GBOC of all Indian films. .99 billion in 2008.
post production and distribution. in turn. CD opened new revenue channel • Blame it on the technology boom or the deepening of pockets. . the theater earnings have to be quick.DVD. That. changed the process of promotions. • Mobile and internet promotions also opened new revenue streams. the DVD and CD market opened up a huge avenue for making money from releases after their run in theaters. • Obviously. Financers. • Online shopping gave further impetus to the trend and with DVD players being as common as refrigerators in houses. if the DVD of a film has to be out within a couple of weeks. the market become a revenue generator. producers and distributors created much hype around their products to run their films to packed houses in the first few weeks itself. • The sales of film DVDs and CDs have doubled and the time taken for films to shrink from the big screen into these has also become shorter.
.Advertising • Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters Releasing the film music. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites. or music videos. before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising. and crew. where browsers can view trailers. and information about the story. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theaters. cast. stills. • Bollywood publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising.
• The DFF screens not only Bollywood films. and awards were given to the best films of 1953. • As the Filmfare. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India.• Awards • The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India. the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards. The Indian screen magazine Filmfare started the first Filmfare Awards in 1954. but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films. Since 1973. the National Film Awards were introduced in 1954. awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). • Other awards • Stardust Awards • Star Screen Awards • IIFA Awards • Zee Cine Awards .
and promotional material.Central Board of Film Certification • The Central Board of Film Certification ( Popularly known as Censor Board ) is a government of India regulatory body and censorship board of India controlled by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Censor board plays an important role in determining correct and ethically right things to the people as the cinema we watch in someway or the other directly impacts us. • • The Central Board of Film Certification. nudity. the regulatory film body of India. Censorship in India mainly targets religious issues. violence or subjects considered politically subversive. television ads. given the history of communal tension. It reviews. including sex. • . television shows. peace and tranquillity. rates and censors movies. regularly orders directors to remove anything it deems offensive. It is justified by the government as necessary to maintain communal harmony.
• S : Specialised Audience: This rating is given very rarely and signifies that the film is meant for specialised audience such as Doctors etc. • A : Adults: 'A' Films are meant for Adult audience above 18 years only. sexuality. This rating is given to a movie which contains heavy dose of violence. language and sensuality. • U/A : Unrestricted Public Exhibition but with parental guidance for children below 12 years. A movie with 'U' rating contains no or mild violence and sensuality.Rating System • U : Unrestricted Public Exhibition: This rating is given to films suitable for 'family viewing'. frightening images and language. . This rating is given to a movie which contains mild violence.
• • • • Film education institute Film and Television Institute of India Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute Asian Academy of Film & Television .
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