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Chapter 4

Information Technology
in Business: Hardware

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Learning Objectives
‡ When you finish this chapter, you will:
± Recognize major components of an electronic
computer.
± Understand how the different components work.
± Know the functions of peripheral equipment.
± Be able to classify computers into major
categories, and identify their strengths and
weaknesses.

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Learning Objectives
± Be able to identify and evaluate key criteria
when deciding what computers to purchase.
± Know the controversy regarding the health
hazards of computers.
± Recognize how to evaluate hardware so that
you can harness it to improve managerial
processes.

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he Central ool of Modern
Information Systems
‡ What Is a Computer?
± A computer must handle four operations:
‡ Accept data
‡ Process data
‡ Store data and instructions
‡ Output data

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he Central ool of Modern
Information Systems

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he Central ool of Modern
Information Systems

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Computers Communicating:
Bits And Bytes
‡ Computer recognizes two states: on or off
± Each on or off signal represents a bit (binary digit)
‡ Encoding Schemes
± Representation of symbols by unique strings of bits
‡ Understanding Computer Processing:
± Counting Bases
‡ Decimal system is ³base 10´
‡ Binary system is ³base 2´
± Used by computers

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A Peek Inside the Computer

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A Peek Inside the Computer
‡ he Central Processing Unit (CPU)
± he brain of the computer
± wo Components:
‡ Control unit
‡ Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
± What is a Microprocessor?
‡ Carries signals that execute all processing

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A Peek Inside the Computer

‡ Microprocessor
± Silicon chip embedded with transistors,
or semiconductors

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A Peek Inside the Computer

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A Peek Inside the Computer
‡ he Machine Cycle
± CPU¶s execution of four functions:
‡ Fetch
‡ Decode
‡ Execute
‡ Store
± Functions measured in small fractions of a
second

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A Peek Inside the Computer
‡ Memory
± Registers
‡ CPU chip has designated areas for temporary storage of information
and rapid retrieval.
± hese storage areas are called registers.
± Internal Memory (used in actual processing of data inside
the computer)
‡ Random access memory (RAM)
‡ Read-only memory (ROM)
± External Memory (not involved in processing)
‡ Magnetic disks, magnetic tapes, optical discs

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A Peek Inside the Computer
‡ Memory
± Random Access Memory
‡ All instructions and data are stored before CPU fetches for processing
± Cache Memory
‡ Fast memory semiconductor chips (usually SRAM)
‡ Stores most frequently used instructions of programs the
computer runs
± Read-Only Memory
‡ Small part of internal memory
‡ Maintains instructions and data the user need and should
not change

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A Peek Inside the Computer
‡ Memory: Volatile vs. non-volatile
± Volatile (temporary)
‡ Depends on electrical current to maintain
information
± Such as RAM and registers
± Non-volatile (permanent)
‡ Programs and data stay in the chips when power is
off
± Accessible again when computer is turned back on

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A Peek Inside the Computer
‡ Computer Power
± Clock rate (measured in cycles per second)
± Amount of information the CPU can process
per second
± Speed determined only by combination of both
factors (speed of processing, word size, the
maximum number of bits accessed by the CUP
from internal memory, and the capacity of
r  used to facilitate internal
communications between CPU and internal
memory )

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Input Devices
‡ Keyboard
± QWER  and Dvorak
± Ergonomic
‡ Mouse, rackball, and rack Pad
‡ ouch Screen
‡ Source Data Input Devices
± Source Data echnology
± Banking
± Credit Cards
± Shipping
‡ Imaging
‡ Speech Recognition

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Input Devices

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Output Devices
‡ Soft-Copy Output Devices
‡ Monitors
± Cathode-Ray ube (CR ) Monitor
± Flat-Panel Monitor
‡ Speech Output
‡ Hardcopy Output Devices
± Nonimpact Printers (most common)
± Impact Printers

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Output Devices

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External Storage Media
‡ Magnetic apes
‡ Magnetic Disks
‡ Optical Discs (Compact Discs)
± Recording echnology
± CD Drives
‡ Optical ape
‡ Flash Memory

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External Storage Media
‡ Business Considerations of
Storage Media
± rade-offs
± Modes of Access
‡ Sequential storage
‡ Direct storage
‡ Direct access storage devices

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External Storage Media

‡ Important Properties to Consider


± Capacity
± Speed
± Mode
± Cost

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External Storage Media

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Classification of Computers
‡ Supercomputers
± he largest, most powerful, and most expensive
± Used by universities, research institutions, and
large corporations
‡ Mainframe Computers
± Less powerful and less expensive than
supercomputers
± Used by businesses with large amounts of data
that need to be stored in a central computer
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Classification of Computers
‡ Minicomputers
± Often used as the host computer in a network of
smaller computers
± Priced in the tens of thousands to a few hundred
thousand dollars
± Manufacturers: DEC (VAX), IBM (AS/j00),
and Hewlett-Packard

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Classification of Computers
‡ he Microcomputer Revolution
± Microcomputer: collective name for all
desktop computers
‡ Also known as personal computers (PCs)
‡ More powerful micros are sometimes called
workstations

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Classification of Computers

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Classification of Computers

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Classification of Computers
‡ Computers on the Go: Laptop, Hand-held,
and ablet Computers
‡ Internet Appliances
‡ Reduced Instruction Set Computing

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Classification of Computers
‡ Compatibility
± Software and peripheral devices from one
computer can be used with another computer.
± In a networked environment, computers need
to communicate to share databases and other
computing resources.
± In addition to power and cost, compatibility
is an extremely important factor in
purchasing decisions.

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Considerations in Purchasing
Hardware
‡ What should you consider when buying
hardware?
± Power: speed, size of memory, storage
capacity
± Expansion and upgrade capability
± Ports for external devices like printers, hard
disks, communication devices
± Ergonomics: Keyboard, Monitor
± Vendor reliability, warranty policy, vendor
support
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Considerations in the Purchase of
Hardware
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Ethical and Societal Issues

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‡ Physical and Emotional Stress


± General physical and emotional stress
± Muscular-skeletal problems
‡ Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSI)
± Vision problems

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Ethical and Societal Issues

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‡ Electromagnetic Radiation
± his small risk can be eliminated by using
Liquid Crystal Display monitor in lieu of
cathode ray terminal monitors
‡ Flat monitors not only emit negligible amounts of
electromagnetic radiation but are easier on the eyes
‡ Attempts to Legislate

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Ethical and Societal Issues

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‡ Casting Doubt
± Mayo Clinic 2001 study casts doubt that heavy
use of a PC is a main cause of carpal tunnel
syndrome
‡ Editorial comment to study says results might have
been influenced by sampled people and researchers
being employed by the same company.
± lack of a control group

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