What Is Microprocessor ? Microprocessor is a multipurpose. It accepts binary data as input and process data according to those instructions and provide result as output. programable logical device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory. .

After that 1000 gates were fabricated on single chip this was Large Scale Integrity (LSI) . And because of LSI it become possible to built many computing functions on single chip and now . After that Very Large Scale (VLSI) .diods and resistors on single chip.more than 100 gates were fabricated on single chip this was Medium Scale Integrity (MSI). integreted Evolution Of circuits (ICS) appeared on the scene at the Microprocessor several :end of 1950. In 1960 Small Scale Integration (SSI) technology evolved.After invention of transistors. IC consist of transistors. As semiconductor technology advanced .

In 1976 Intel’s 8-bit microprocessor 8085 was introduced. .The first microprocessor introduced in market . And also Toshiba’s T 3472 4bit microprocessor was also introduced in this genration. It was 4-bit microprocessor introduced in 1971. I/O ports all is single package. This was completely developed microprocessor at that time with CPU. Also Motorola introduced MC 6801 8-bit microprocessor. that was Intel 4004.Generations Of Microprocessor :First Generation :. This was used in calculator . ROM. Second Generation :. clock . RAM .

. And now a days Intel Dual Core . core i3 . Another examples are Intel 8088.Third Generation :-The other major direction of microprocessor evolution has been towards one which performs all functions of a microcomputer . HP32. core i5. iAPX432 32-bit microprocessors were introduced. these all are 16 bit microprocessor. Fourth Generation :. IV are recently introduced microprocessors by Intel.Now we are in fifth generation Pentium I . Fifth Generation :. III . II.Recently in 1981 Intel introduced 32-bit microprocessor 80386 which can access physical memory up to 4 gega bytes . M 6800 etc. Also M68020.Intel XEON. Zylog z8000. core i7 are most advanced microprocessors. Intel introduced its high performance 16-bit microprocessor in 1978 that was microprocessor 8086 now it is called as APX 86 .

.Block Diagram For Generic Microprocessor :Before studying 8085 Before studying 8085 microprocessor. Bus buffers and latches. 7. general microprocessor. Timing and control section. The block diagram consist of : Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). 3. Internal buses and control lines. 1. let us understand the block diagram of generic microprocessor i. stack pointers. 4. Program counter. data address registers. Several registers : Instruction registers. 2.temporary registers . 5. status register . Instruction decoder. accumulator. 6.e.

It is a group of 16 lines and it is unidirectional i. bits are flows in one direction –from MPU to peripheral device.1. 4. It is bidirectional . Address Bus :. The result is stored is accumulator. 5.It is a two 8 bit register that can be used separately or as combined pair. Bus Buffer & Latches :. It is used to store one bit of information. Accumulator :. They are labeled as H & L.It is group of 8 lines used for data flow . Data Address Register :.A latch is the flip-flop.It is the 8-bit register generally used to store the 8-bit data in ALU & in logical operations . Program counter :. 6. 3. Actually it is used to transferring data. .It is the 16-bit register it stores the address of next instruction to be executed.e. Data Bus :. It flows in both directions between MPU & peripheral & memory . 2.

5. This device has 40 pins. Serial I/O ports .8085 Microprocessor :Intel’s 8085 is a 8-bit general purpose microprocessor. All pins are divided into six groups : 1. The 8085 Pin Diagram & Function:. Control & status signals 4. requires +5 single phase clock.8085 is a 40 pin dual-in-line package (DIP). Power supply & frequency signals. 6. Multiplexed address/Data bus. This microprocessor is capable of addressing 64k of memory. 2. It is the enhanced version of 8080. It is upward compatible with 8080. Externally initiated signals. Address bus. 3.

It needs the +5V power supply.8085 has signal 8 lines A15 –A8 that are unidirectional. .It has two pins to implement serial transmission . Serial I/O Ports :. Multiplexed address/Data Bus:.They are user as lower order address bus as well as the data bus Power Supply :. Address Bus :. Serial input data (SID) & serial output data (SOD). 2.1. 3.The signal lines AD7-AD0 are bidirectional . 4.

. instruction register & decoder .Functional Block Diagram Of 8085 :Let us look at the block diagram of 8085. timing & control unit. register array. interrupts control & serial I/O control. It includes ALU .

The temporary registers are used to hold the data during arithmetic operations .logic and rotate operations . . The result is typically stored in accumulators . Accumulator .ALU performs arithmetic . temporary register and flag register is closely associated with ALU. And the result is typically stored in accumulator.Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) :.

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