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c 

General
Functions of
clood
General Functions of clood

‡Transportation
‡Regulation
‡Protection
iaterials
Transported
by clood
iaterials Transported by clood

‡Nutrients
‡Waste Products
‡Gases
‡Hormones
ë aracteristics
of clood
‡ Amount
±A person ad 4 to 6 liters of
blood, depending on is/ er size
±38%-48% of blood volume:
composed of various blood
cells, also called formed
elements
±52%-62% of blood volume:
plasma
‡ ëolor
±Arterial blood is brig t
red because it contains
ig levels of oxygen
±Venous blood as
darker, dark red color
‡`
±7.35 to 7.45
±Slig tly alkaline
‡ Venous blood normally as
lower pH t an does arterial
blood because of t e
presence of more carbon
dioxide.
‡ V o ty
±clood is about t ree to five
times t icker t an water
‡ Viscosity is increased by t e
presence of blood cells and
t e plasma proteins, and t is
t ickness contributes to
normal blood pressure.
P ASiA
Plasma
‡ Plasma is t e liquid part of
blood and is approximately
91% water.
‡ T e solvent ability of water
enables plasma to transport
many types of substances.
Plasma
‡ Rlama Rrote n
± T e proteins t at circulate in
plasma: include albumin, globulins,
and clotting factors.
‡ Album n ± most abundant plasma
protein; contributes to t e colloid
osmotic pressure of blood, w ic pulls
tissue fluid into capillaries.
c 
ë S
clood ëells

‡Red clood ëells


‡W ite clood ëells
‡Platelets
clood ëells
‡ clood cells are produced from
stem cells in emopoietic
tissue. After birt , t is is
primarily t e red bone marrow,
found in flat and irregular
bones suc as t e sternum,
ip bone, and vertebrae.
clood ëells
‡ ymp ocytes mature and
divide in lymp atic tissue,
found in t e spleen,
lymp nodes, and t ymus
gland.
Red clood
ëells
(ryt rocytes)
Red clood ëells
‡ ciconcave disks
‡ nly uman cells wit out nuclei
‡ Normal Rcë count ranges from 4.5 to
6.0 million cells per microliter (ȝ ) of
blood
‡ ermator t ± way to measure
amount of Rcës
Function
Function
‡ emoglob n ± gives t e Rcës
t e ability to carry oxygen.
±ac Rcë contains
approximately 300 million
emoglobin molecules, eac of
w ic can bond to four oxygen
molecules
Function
‡ In t e `ulmonary a` llar e,
Rcës pic up oxygen and
oxyhemoglob n is formed.
‡ In t e ytem  a` llar e,
emoglobin gives up muc
oxygen and becomes redued
hemoglob n
Function
‡ rron ± mineral essential to t e
formation of emoglobin
±Four atoms of iron in eac
molecule of emoglobin
±conds to t e oxygen
±iakes Rcës red
Production
and
iaturation
Production and iaturation
‡ Red blood cells are formed
in red bone marrow in flat
and irregular bones
‡ Ètem ëell ± precursor
cells wit in Rci
Production and iaturation
‡ emoytoblat ± stem cells of
t e red bone marrow; constantly
undergo mitosis to produce all t e
kinds of blood cells, many of
w ic are Rcës. T e rate of
production is very rapid, and a
major regulating factor is oxygen
Production and iaturation
‡ y`ox a ± lack of oxygen
‡ Erythro`o et n ± ormone
produced by kidneys w ic
stimulates t e Rci to
increase t e rate of Rcë
production
Production and iaturation
‡ !ormoblat ± last stage
wit a nucleus
‡ Ret uloyte ± as
fragments of t e
endoplasmic reticulum
Production and iaturation
‡ T ese immature cells are
usually found in t e red bone
marrow, alt oug a small
number of reticulocytes in t e
perip eral circulation is
considered normal.
Production and iaturation
‡ arge numbers of reticulocytes
or normoblasts in t e
circulating blood mean t at t e
number of mature Rcës is not
sufficient to carry t e oxygen
needed by t e body.
Production and iaturation
‡ Rrote n and rron ± necessary for
t e synt esis of emoglobin and
become part of emoglobin
molecules
‡ ëo``er ± part of some enzymes
involved in emoglobin synt esis
Production and iaturation
‡ Folic Acid and Vitamin c12
± required for NA synt esis
in t e stem cells of t e Rci
Production and iaturation
‡ Vitamin c12 is also called t e
extr n  fator because its source
is external, our food
‡ Parietal cells of t e stomac lining
produce t e intrinsic factor, a
c emical t at combines wit vitamin
c12 in food to prevent its digestion
and promote its absorption in t e
small intestine.
Anemia
Anemia
‡ Anemia is a deficiency of
red blood cells, or
insufficient emoglobin
wit in t e red blood cells.
Anemia
‡ rron-Def  eny Anem a ±
caused by lack of dietary iron, and
t ere is not enoug of t is mineral
to form sufficient emoglobin
‡ Rern  ou Anem a ± deficiency
of Vitamin c12; Rcës are large,
miss apen, and fragile
Anemia
‡ È le-ëell Anem a ± genetic
disorder of emoglobin, w ic
causes Rcës to sickle, clog
capillaries, and rupture
‡ A`lat  Anem a - suppression of
t e Rci, wit decreased production
of Rcës, Wcës, and platelets
Anemia
‡ emolyt  Anem a ± any
disorder t at causes rupture of
Rcës before t e end of t eir
normal life span.
ife Span
ife Span
‡ Red blood cells live for
approximately 120 days. As t ey
reac t is age t ey become fragile
and are removed from circulation
by cells of t e t ue
maro`hage ytem
ife Span
‡ T e organs t at contain macrop ages
are t e liver, spleen, and red bone
marrow
‡ T e old Rcës are p agocytized and
digested by macrop ages, and t e iron
t ey contained is put into t e blood to be
returned to t e red bone marrow to be
used for t e synt esis of new emoglobin
ife Span
‡ xcess iron is stored in t e
liver
‡ Ëaund e ± sign caused by
excessive accumulation of
bilirubin in t e blood
clood
Types
clood Types
‡ ABO grou` ± contains four blood
types: A, c, Ac, and 
‡ T e letters A and c represent
antigens (protein-
oligosacc arides) on t e red blood
cell membrane
clood Types
‡ ëirculating in t e plasma are
natural antibodies for t ose
antigens not present on t e
Rcës
clood Types
2y`e Ant gen Rreent Ant bod e
on RBë Rreent n Rlama
A A Anti-c

B c Anti-A

AB cot A and c Neit er anti-A nor


anti-c
O Neit er A nor c cot anti-A and
anti-c
clood Types
‡ Rh Fator ± antigen (often called )
t at may be present on Rcës
‡ Rh `o t e ± people wit R
antigen
‡ Rh negat e ± people wit out R
antigen
R isease of t e
Newborn

ryt roblastosis Fetalis


R isease of t e Newborn
‡ Erythroblato  fetal  is t e result
of an R incompatibility between
mot er and fetus. uring a normal
pregnancy, maternal blood and fetal
blood do not mix in t e placenta,
However, during delivery of t e
placenta, some fetal blood may enter
maternal circulation.