# MAE 3241: AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT MECHANICS

Thin Airfoil Theory
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
Florida Institute of Technology
D. R. Kirk
OVERVIEW: THIN AIRFOIL THEORY
• In words: Camber line is a streamline
• Written at a given point x on the chord line
• dz/dx is evaluated at that point x
• Variable ξ is a dummy variable of integration
which varies from 0 to c along the chord line
• Vortex strength γ =γ (ξ ) is a variable along the
chord line and is in units of
• In transformed coordinates, equation is written at a
point, θ
0
. θ is the dummy variable of integration
– At leading edge, x = 0, θ = 0
– At trailed edge, x = c, θ =π
• The central problem of thin airfoil theory is to
solve the fundamental equation for γ (ξ )
subject to the Kutta condition, γ (c)=0
• The central problem of thin airfoil theory is to
solve the fundamental equation for γ (θ )
subject to the Kutta condition, γ (π )=0
( )
( )
( )
( )

,
`

.
|
− ·

− ·
·
− ·

,
`

.
|
− ·

dx
dz
V
d
c
x
d d
c
dx
dz
V
x
d
c
α
θ θ
θ θ θ γ
π
θ
θ θ ξ
θ ξ
α
ξ
ξ ξ γ
π
π
0 0
0
0
cos cos
sin
2
1
Equation d Transforme
cos 1
2
sin
cos 1
2
tion Transforma Coordinate
2
1
: Theory Airfoil Thin
of Equation l Fundamenta
SUMMARY: SYMMETRIC AIRFOILS
( )
( )
( )
( )
α
θ θ
θ θ θ γ
π
θ
θ θ ξ
θ ξ
α
ξ
ξ ξ γ
π
π

·

− ·
·
− ·
·

,
`

.
|
− ·

V
d
c
x
d d
c
dx
dz
dx
dz
V
x
d
c
0 0
0
0
cos cos
sin
2
1
Equation d Transforme
cos 1
2
sin
cos 1
2
tion Transforma Coordinate
0
: airfoils Symmetric
2
1
: Theory Airfoil Thin
of Equation l Fundamenta
SUMMARY: SYMMETRIC AIRFOILS
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 0
cos
sin
2
0
0
2
sin
cos 1
2
cos cos
sin
2
1
2
0
0
·

·
·
+
·
·

π
π
α π γ
α π γ
θ
θ
α θ γ
α
θ θ
θ θ θ γ
π
π
V
V
V
V
d

Fundamental equation of thin airfoil theory for
a symmetric airfoil (dz/dx=0) written in
transformed coordinates

Solution

“A rigorous solution for γ (θ ) can be
obtained from the mathematical theory of
integral equations, which is beyond the
scope of this book.” (page 324, Anderson)

Solution must satisfy Kutta condition γ (π )=0
at trailing edge to be consistent with
experimental results

Direct evaluation gives an indeterminant form,
but can use L’Hospital’s rule to show that
Kutta condition does hold.
SUMMARY: SYMMETRIC AIRFOILS

Total circulation, Γ , around the airfoil (around the
vortex sheet described by γ (ξ ))

Transform coordinates and integrate

Simple expression for total circulation

Apply Kutta-Joukowski theorem (see §3.16),
“although the result [L’=ρ

V

2
Γ ] was derived
for a circular cylinder, it applies in general to
cylindrical bodies of arbitrary cross section.”

Lift coefficient is linearly proportional to angle of
attack

Lift slope is 2π /rad or 0.11/deg
( )
( )
π
α
π α
ρ π α ρ
π α
θ θ θ γ
ξ ξ γ
π
2
2
sin
2
2
0
0
·
·
· Γ ·

· Γ
· Γ
· Γ
∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

d
dc
c
V c V L
cV
d
c
d
l
l
c
EXAMPLE: NACA 65-006 SYMMETRIC AIRFOIL
• Bell X-1 used NACA 65-006
(6% thickness) as horizontal tail
• Thin airfoil theory lift slope:
dc
l
-1
= 0.11 deg
-1
• Compare with data

At α = -4º: c
l
~ -0.45

At α = 6º: c
l
~ 0.65

dc
l
/dα = 0.11 deg
-1
dc
l
/dα = 2π
SUMMARY: SYMMETRIC AIRFOILS
( )
0
4
4
2
2
1
2 2
1
4 ,
, 4 ,
,
2
,
2 2
0 0
·
+ ·
− ·
− ·

·
− ·

− · − ·

∞ ∞
∞ ∞
∞ ∞
∫ ∫
c m
l
le m c m
l
le m
LE
le m
LE
c c
LE
c
c
c c
c
c
Sc V
M
c
c V M
d V dL M
π α
ρ
π α
ρ
ξ ξ ξ γ ρ ξ

unit span) due to entire vortex sheet

Total moment equation is then transformed
to new coordinate system based on θ

After performing integration (see hand out,
or Problem 4.4), resulting moment

Can be re-written in terms of the lift
coefficient

can be related to the moment coefficient

Center of pressure is at the quarter-
chord point for a symmetric airfoil
EXAMPLE: NACA 65-006 SYMMETRIC AIRFOIL
• Bell X-1 used NACA 65-006
(6% thickness) as horizontal tail
• Thin airfoil theory lift slope:
dc
l
-1
= 0.11 deg
-1
• Compare with data

At α = -4º: c
l
~ -0.45

At α = 6º: c
l
~ 0.65

dc
l
/dα = 0.11 deg
-1
• Thin airfoil theory:
c
m,c/4
= 0
• Compare with data
c
m,c/4
= 0
CENTER OF PRESSURE AND AERODYNAMIC CENTER

Center of Pressure: Point on an airfoil (or body) about which aerodynamic
moment is zero

Thin Airfoil Theory:

Symmetric Airfoil:

Aerodynamic Center: Point on an airfoil (or body) about which aerodynamic
moment is independent of angle of attack

Thin Airfoil Theory:

Symmetric Airfoil:
4
c
x
cp
·
4
. .
c
x
C A
·
CAMBERED AIRFOILS: THEORY
• In words: Camber line is a streamline
• Written at a given point x on the chord line
• dz/dx is evaluated at that point x
• Variable ξ is a dummy variable of integration
which varies from 0 to c along the chord line
• Vortex strength γ =γ (ξ ) is a variable along the
chord line and is in units of
• In transformed coordinates, equation is written at a
point, θ
0
. θ is the dummy variable of integration
– At leading edge, x = 0, θ = 0
– At trailed edge, x = c, θ =π
• The central problem of thin airfoil theory is to
solve the fundamental equation for γ (ξ )
subject to the Kutta condition, γ (c)=0
• The central problem of thin airfoil theory is to
solve the fundamental equation for γ (θ )
subject to the Kutta condition, γ (π )=0
( )
( )
( )
( )

,
`

.
|
− ·

− ·
·
− ·

,
`

.
|
− ·

dx
dz
V
d
c
x
d d
c
dx
dz
V
x
d
c
α
θ θ
θ θ θ γ
π
θ
θ θ ξ
θ ξ
α
ξ
ξ ξ γ
π
π
0 0
0
0
cos cos
sin
2
1
Equation d Transforme
cos 1
2
sin
cos 1
2
tion Transforma Coordinate
2
1
: Theory Airfoil Thin
of Equation l Fundamenta
CAMBERED AIRFOILS

Fundamental Equation of
Thin Airfoil Theory

Camber line is a streamline

Solution

“a rigorous solution for
γ (θ ) is beyond the
scope of this book.”

to the solution result for the
symmetric airfoil

Second term is a Fourier
sine series with coefficients
A
n
. The values of A
n
depend
on the shape of the camber
line (dz/dx) and α
( )
( )
( )
( )
θ
θ
α θ γ
θ
θ
θ
θ γ
α
θ θ
θ θ θ γ
π
π
sin
cos 1
2
: Compare
sin
sin
cos 1
2
: Solution
cos cos
sin
2
1
1
0
0
0
+
·

,
`

.
|
+
+
·

,
`

.
|
− ·

·

V
n A A V
dx
dz
V
d
n
n
EVALUATION PROCEDURE
( )
( )
( )
dx
dz d n A d A
n A A V
dx
dz
V
d
n
n
n
n
− ·

+

+

,
`

.
|
+
+
·

,
`

.
|
− ·

∫ ∫

·

·

α
θ θ
θ θ θ
π θ θ
θ θ
π
θ
θ
θ
θ γ
α
θ θ
θ θ θ γ
π
π π
π
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
cos cos
sin sin 1
cos cos
cos 1 1
sin
sin
cos 1
2
cos cos
sin
2
1
PRINCIPLES OF IDEAL FLUID AERODYNAMICS
BY K. KARAMCHETI, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., NEW YORK, 1966. APPENDIX E
PRINCIPLES OF IDEAL FLUID AERODYNAMICS
BY K. KARAMCHETI, JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., NEW YORK, 1966. APPENDIX E
CAMBERED AIRFOILS
( )
( )
( )
( )

·
·
+ ·
+ − ·
− · −

·

·

·
π
π
θ θ θ
π
θ θ
π
θ θ
θ α
α θ
0
0
0
1
0
1
0 0
1
0 0
cos
2
1
cos
cos
cos
d n f B
d f B
n B B f
n A A
dx
dz
dx
dz
n A A
n
n
n
n
n
n
n

After making substitutions of standard
textbooks

We can solve this expression for dz/dx
which is a Fourier cosine series
expansion for the function dz/dx,
which describes the camber of the
airfoil

Examine a general Fourier cosine
series representation of a function
f(θ ) over an interval 0 ≤ θ ≤ π

The Fourier coefficients are given by
B
0
and B
n
nd
EDITION
BY F. B. HILDEBRAND, PRENTICE-HALL, INC., ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, N.J., 1976
ADVANCED CALCULUS FOR APPLICATIONS, 2nd EDITION
BY F. B. HILDEBR AND, PRENTICE-HALL, INC., ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, N.J., 1976
ADVANCED CALCULUS FOR APPLICATIONS, 2nd EDITION
BY F. B. HILDEBRAND, PRENTICE-HALL, INC., ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS, N.J., 1976
CAMBERED AIRFOILS

·
− ·
· −
π
π
π
θ θ
π
θ
π
α
θ
π
α
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0 0
cos
2
1
1
d n
dx
dz
A
d
dx
dz
A
d
dx
dz
A
n

Compare Fourier expansion of dz/dx
with general Fourier cosine series
expansion
• Analogous to the B
0
term in the
general expansion
• Analogous to the B
n
term in the
general expansion
CAMBERED AIRFOILS
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

,
`

.
|
+ · Γ
]
]
]

+ + · Γ

,
`

.
|
+
+
·
· Γ
· Γ

·

·

1 0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
sin sin cos 1
sin
sin
cos 1
2
: for solution general Recall
sin
2
A A cV
d n A d A cV
n A A V
d
c
d
n
n
n
n
c
π
π
θ θ θ θ θ
θ
θ
θ
θ γ
θ γ
θ θ θ γ
ξ ξ γ
π π
π

We can now calculate
the overall circulation
around the cambered
airfoil

Integration can be done
quickly with symbolic
math package, or by
making use of standard
table of integrals
(certain terms are
identically zero)

End result after careful
integration only
involves coefficients A
0

and A
1

CAMBERED AIRFOILS
( )
( )
π
α
θ θ
π
α π
π
ρ
π
π ρ
π
π
ρ
π
2
1 cos
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
0
0 0
1 0
2
1 0
2
1 0
·
]
]
]

− + ·
+ ·

·

,
`

.
|
+ · ′

,
`

.
|
+ · Γ
Γ · ′

∞ ∞
∞ ∞

∞ ∞
d
dc
d
dx
dz
c
A A
S V
L
c
A A c V L
A A cV
V L
l
l
l

Calculation of lift per unit span

Lift per unit span only involves coefficients
A
0
and A
1

• Lift coefficient only involves coefficients A
0

and A
1

The theoretical lift slope for a cambered
airfoil is 2π , which is a general result
from thin airfoil theory
• However, note that the expression for c
l

differs from a symmetric airfoil
CAMBERED AIRFOILS
( )
( )
( )
( )

− − ·
]
]
]

− + ·
− ·
− ·
·
·
·
π
π
θ θ
π
α
θ θ
π
α π
α α π
α α
α
0
0 0 0
0
0 0
0
0
1 cos
1
1 cos
1
2
2
d
dx
dz
d
dx
dz
c
c
d
dc
c
L
l
L l
L
l
l
• From any c
l
vs. α data plot for
a cambered airfoil

Substitution of lift slope = 2π

Compare with expression for
lift coefficient for a cambered
airfoil
• Let α
L=0
denote the zero lift
angle of attack

Value will be negative for
an airfoil with positive
(dz/dx > 0) camber

Thin airfoil theory provides a
means to predict the angle of
zero lift

If airfoil is symmetric
dz/dx = 0 and α
L=0
=0
SAMPLE DATA: SYMMETRIC AIRFOIL
L
i
f
t

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Angle of Attack, α
A symmetric airfoil generates zero lift at zero α
SAMPLE DATA: CAMBERED AIRFOIL
L
i
f
t

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Angle of Attack, α
A cambered airfoil generates positive lift at zero α
SAMPLE DATA

Lift coefficient (or lift) linear
variation with angle of attack, a

Cambered airfoils have
positive lift when α = 0

Symmetric airfoils have
zero lift when α = 0

At high enough angle of attack,
the performance of the airfoil
L
i
f
t

(
f
o
r

n
o
w
)
Cambered airfoil has
lift at α =0
At negative α airfoil
will have zero lift
AERODYNAMIC MOMENT ANALYSIS
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )

,
`

.
|
− + − ·
− − ·
− ·

·

·

,
`

.
|
+
+
·
− · − · ′

∫ ∫

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

·

∞ ∞
2 2
sin
2
cos 1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
sin
sin
cos 1
2
2
1 0 ,
0
,
0
2
,
2 2 2
,
1
0
0 0
A
A A c
d
c
V
c
d
c V
c
c V
M
Sc V
M
c
n A A V
d V dL M
le m
le m
c
le m
LE LE
le m
n
n
c c
LE
π
θ θ θ γ θ
ξ ξ ξ γ
ρ ρ
θ
θ
θ
θ γ
ξ ξ ξ γ ρ ξ
π

unit span) due to entire vortex sheet

Total moment equation is then
transformed to new coordinate system
based on θ

Perform integration, “The details are left
for Problem 4.9”, see hand out

Result of integration gives moment
m,le
, in
terms of A
0
, A
1
, and A
2
AERODYNAMIC MOMENT SUMMARY
( )
( )
( )
]
]
]

− + ·
− ·
]
]
]

− + − ·

,
`

.
|
− + − ·
2 1
1 2 4 ,
2 1 ,
2
1 0 ,
1
4
4
4 4
2 2
A A
c
c
x
A A c
A A
c
c
A
A A c
l
cp
c m
l
le m
le m
π
π
π
π

edge of cambered airfoil
• Can re-writte in terms of the lift coefficient, c
l

For symmetric airfoil

dz/dx=0
• A
1
=A
2
=0
• c
m,le
=-c
l
/4

Finite for a cambered airfoil
• For symmetric c
m,c/4
=0

Quarter chord point is not center of
pressure for a cambered airfoil
– A
1
and A
2
do not depend on α
• c
m,c/4
is independent of α

Quarter-chord point is theoretical location
of aerodynamic center for cambered airfoils
CENTER OF PRESSURE AND AERODYNAMIC CENTER

Center of Pressure: Point on an airfoil (or body) about which aerodynamic
moment is zero

Thin Airfoil Theory:

Symmetric Airfoil:

Cambered Airfoil:

Aerodynamic Center: Point on an airfoil (or body) about which aerodynamic
moment is independent of angle of attack

Thin Airfoil Theory:

Symmetric Airfoil:

Cambered Airfoil:
( )
]
]
]

− + ·
·
2 1
1
4
4
A A
c
c
x
c
x
l
cp
cp
π
4
4
. .
. .
c
x
c
x
C A
C A
·
·
ACTUAL LOCATION OF AERODYNAMIC CENTER
NACA 23012
x
A.C.
< 0.25c
NACA 64212
x
A.C.
> 0.25 c
x/c=0.25
x/c=0.25
IMPLICATIONS FOR STALL

Flat Plate Stall

Trailing Edge Stall
Increasing airfoil
thickness
• NACA 4412 (12% thickness)
• Linear increase in c
l
until stall
• At α just below 15º streamlines
are highly curved (large lift) and
still attached to upper surface of
airfoil
• At α just above 15º massive
flow-field separation occurs over
top surface of airfoil →
significant loss of lift
• Characteristic of relatively thin
airfoils with thickness between
about 10 and 16 percent chord
TRAILING EDGE STALL

NACA 4421 (21% thickness)

Progressive and gradual movement of separation from trailing edge toward
leading edge as α is increased

Called Trailing Edge Stall
THIN AIRFOIL STALL

Example: Flat Plate with 2% thickness (like a NACA 0002)

Flow separates off leading edge even at low α (α ~ 3º)

Initially small regions of separated flow called separation bubble

As a increased reattachment point moves further downstream until total separation
NACA 4412 vs. NACA 4421

NACA 4412 and NACA 4421 have
same shape of mean camber line

Theory predicts that linear lift slope
and α
L=0
same for both

drop of lift curve near maximum lift

bending-over of lift curve at
maximum lift, “soft stall”
• High c
l,max
edge stall

Flat plate stall exhibits poorest
behavior, early stalling
• Thickness has major effect on c
l,max
AIRFOIL THICKNESS
AIRFOIL THICKNESS: WWI AIRPLANES
English Sopwith Camel
German Fokker Dr-1
Higher maximum C
L
Internal wing structure
Higher rates of climb
Improved maneuverability
Thin wing, lower maximum C
L
Bracing wires required – high drag
OPTIMUM AIRFOIL THICKNESS

Some thickness vital to achieving high maximum lift coefficient

Amount of thickness influences type of stall

Expect an optimum

Example: NACA 63-2XX, NACA 63-212 looks about optimum
c
l,max
NACA 63-212
MODERN LOW-SPEED AIRFOILS
NACA 2412 (1933)
NASA LS(1)-0417 (1970)
Whitcomb [GA(w)-1] (Supercritical Airfoil)
p
Bottom surface is cusped near trailing edge
Discourages flow separation over top
Higher maximum lift coefficient
At c
l
~1 L/D > 50% than NACA 2412
MODERN AIRFOIL SHAPES
http://www.nasg.com/afdb/list-airfoil-e.phtml
Root Mid-Span Tip
Boeing 737

OVERVIEW: THIN AIRFOIL THEORY
Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory : 1 γ ( ξ ) dξ dz   ∫ x − ξ = V∞ α − dx  2π 0  
c

• • • •

Coordinate Transformation c ξ = (1 − cos θ ) 2 dξ = sin θdθ x= c (1 − cos θ 0 ) 2

In words: Camber line is a streamline Written at a given point x on the chord line dz/dx is evaluated at that point x Variable ξ is a dummy variable of integration which varies from 0 to c along the chord line • Vortex strength γ =γ (ξ ) is a variable along the chord line and is in units of • In transformed coordinates, equation is written at a point, θ 0. θ is the dummy variable of integration – At leading edge, x = 0, θ = 0 – At trailed edge, x = c, θ =π • The central problem of thin airfoil theory is to solve the fundamental equation for γ (ξ ) subject to the Kutta condition, γ (c)=0 • The central problem of thin airfoil theory is to solve the fundamental equation for γ (θ ) subject to the Kutta condition, γ (π )=0

Transformed Equation 1 2π
π

γ (θ ) sin θdθ dz   = V∞  α −  ∫ cosθ − cosθ 0  dx  0

SUMMARY: SYMMETRIC AIRFOILS
Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory : 1 γ ( ξ ) dξ dz   = V∞  α −  2π ∫ x − ξ dx   0
c

Symmetric airfoils : dz =0 dx Coordinate Transformation

ξ=

c (1 − cosθ ) 2 dξ = sin θdθ c x = (1 − cos θ 0 ) 2

Transformed Equation 1 2π
π

γ (θ ) sin θdθ ∫ cos θ − cosθ 0 = V∞α 0

which is beyond the scope of this book.” (page 324. (1 + cos θ ) γ (θ ) = 2V α ∞ • sin θ 0 γ ( π ) = 2V∞α 0 − sin π γ ( π ) = 2V∞α =0 cos π • • .SUMMARY: SYMMETRIC AIRFOILS 1 2π 2π γ (θ ) sin θdθ ∫ cosθ − cosθ 0 = V∞α 0 • Fundamental equation of thin airfoil theory for a symmetric airfoil (dz/dx=0) written in transformed coordinates Solution – “A rigorous solution for γ (θ ) can be obtained from the mathematical theory of integral equations. but can use L’Hospital’s rule to show that Kutta condition does hold. Anderson) Solution must satisfy Kutta condition γ (π )=0 at trailing edge to be consistent with experimental results Direct evaluation gives an indeterminant form.

around the airfoil (around the vortex sheet described by γ (ξ )) Transform coordinates and integrate • c Γ = ∫ γ (θ ) sin θdθ 20 Γ =π α ∞ cV L′ = ρ ∞V∞ Γ = π αρ ∞V∞2 c cl = 2π α dcl = 2π dα • • Simple expression for total circulation Apply Kutta-Joukowski theorem (see §3.16). Γ .SUMMARY: SYMMETRIC AIRFOILS Γ = ∫ γ ( ξ )dξ 0 c • Total circulation. “although the result [L’=ρ ∞V ∞2Γ ] was derived for a circular cylinder.” Lift coefficient is linearly proportional to angle of attack Lift slope is 2π /rad or 0. it applies in general to cylindrical bodies of arbitrary cross section.11/deg π • • .

11 deg-1 Compare with data – At α = -4º: cl ~ -0.45 – At α = 6º: cl ~ 0.65 – dcl/dα = 0.11 deg-1 .EXAMPLE: NACA 65-006 SYMMETRIC AIRFOIL dcl/dα = 2π • • • Bell X-1 used NACA 65-006 (6% thickness) as horizontal tail Thin airfoil theory lift slope: dcl/dα = 2π rad-1 = 0.

4). resulting moment coefficient about leading edge is –π α /2 Can be re-written in terms of the lift coefficient Moment coefficient about the leading edge can be related to the moment coefficient about the quarter-chord point Center of pressure is at the quarterchord point for a symmetric airfoil 1 π α ′ M LE = − ρ ∞V∞2 c 2 2 2 ′ M LE π α cm . or Problem 4. c 4 cl = cm . c 4 = 0 • .le = − l 4 cm .le = =− 1 2 ρ ∞V∞2 Sc 2 c cm .le + 4 • • • • cm .SUMMARY: SYMMETRIC AIRFOILS ′ ( M LE = − ∫ ξdL = − ρ ∞V∞ ∫ ξ γξ ) dξ 0 0 c c • Total moment about the leading edge (per unit span) due to entire vortex sheet Total moment equation is then transformed to new coordinate system based on θ After performing integration (see hand out.

c/4 = 0 • • Thin airfoil theory: cm = 0 .EXAMPLE: NACA 65-006 SYMMETRIC AIRFOIL • • • Bell X-1 used NACA 65-006 (6% thickness) as horizontal tail Thin airfoil theory lift slope: dcl/dα = 2π rad-1 = 0.65 – dcl/dα = 0.c/4 Compare with data .11 deg-1 cm.45 – At α = 6º: cl ~ 0.11 deg-1 Compare with data – At α = -4º: cl ~ -0.

CENTER OF PRESSURE AND AERODYNAMIC CENTER • Center of Pressure: Point on an airfoil (or body) about which aerodynamic moment is zero – Thin Airfoil Theory: • Symmetric Airfoil: cp c x = 4 • Aerodynamic Center: Point on an airfoil (or body) about which aerodynamic moment is independent of angle of attack – Thin Airfoil Theory: c • Symmetric Airfoil: x = A. 4 .C .

θ is the dummy variable of integration – At leading edge. θ = 0 – At trailed edge. γ (c)=0 • The central problem of thin airfoil theory is to solve the fundamental equation for γ (θ ) subject to the Kutta condition. θ 0. equation is written at a point. γ (π )=0 Transformed Equation 1 2π π γ (θ ) sin θdθ dz   = V∞  α −  ∫ cosθ − cosθ 0  dx  0 . x = c.CAMBERED AIRFOILS: THEORY Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory : 1 γ ( ξ ) dξ dz   ∫ x − ξ = V∞ α − dx  2π 0   c • • • • Coordinate Transformation c ξ = (1 − cos θ ) 2 dξ = sin θdθ x= c (1 − cos θ 0 ) 2 In words: Camber line is a streamline Written at a given point x on the chord line dz/dx is evaluated at that point x Variable ξ is a dummy variable of integration which varies from 0 to c along the chord line • Vortex strength γ =γ (ξ ) is a variable along the chord line and is in units of • In transformed coordinates. x = 0. θ =π • The central problem of thin airfoil theory is to solve the fundamental equation for γ (ξ ) subject to the Kutta condition.

” Leading term is very similar to the solution result for the symmetric airfoil Second term is a Fourier sine series with coefficients An. The values of An depend on the shape of the camber line (dz/dx) and α • • (1 + cos θ ) γ (θ ) = 2V α ∞ Compare : sin θ .CAMBERED AIRFOILS 1 2π π γ (θ ) sin θdθ dz   ∫ cosθ − cosθ 0 = V∞ α − dx    0 • • Fundamental Equation of Thin Airfoil Theory Camber line is a streamline Solution :  1 + cos θ ∞  γ (θ ) = 2V∞  A0 + ∑ An sin nθ  sin θ n =1   • Solution – “a rigorous solution for γ (θ ) is beyond the scope of this book.

EVALUATION PROCEDURE 1 2π π γ (θ ) sin θdθ dz   ∫ cosθ − cosθ 0 = V∞ α − dx    0  1 + cos θ ∞  γ (θ ) = 2V∞  A0 + ∑ An sin nθ  sin θ n =1   1 π π ∫ 0 A0 (1 + cos θ ) dθ 1 An sin nθ sin θdθ dz + ∑∫ =α − cos θ − cos θ 0 π n =1 0 cos θ − cos θ 0 dx ∞ π .

APPENDIX E . 1966. JOHN WILEY & SONS.. INC. NEW YORK. KARAMCHETI.PRINCIPLES OF IDEAL FLUID AERODYNAMICS BY K.

APPENDIX E . 1966. KARAMCHETI. INC.. JOHN WILEY & SONS. NEW YORK.PRINCIPLES OF IDEAL FLUID AERODYNAMICS BY K.

which describes the camber of the airfoil Examine a general Fourier cosine series representation of a function f(θ ) over an interval 0 ≤ θ ≤ π • f (θ ) = B0 + ∑ Bn cos nθ n =1 ∞ • 1 B0 = π π ∫ f ( θ ) dθ 0 • 2 Bn = ∫ f (θ ) cos nθdθ π 0 π The Fourier coefficients are given by B0 and Bn .CAMBERED AIRFOILS dz A0 − ∑ An cos nθ 0 = α − dx n =1 dz = ( α − A0 ) + ∑ An cos nθ 0 dx n =1 ∞ ∞ • After making substitutions of standard forms available in advanced math textbooks We can solve this expression for dz/dx which is a Fourier cosine series expansion for the function dz/dx.

. HILDEBRAND. 1976 . PRENTICE-HALL. ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS. B. INC.. 2nd EDITION BY F.ADVANCED CALCULUS FOR APPLICATIONS. N.J.

1976 . 2nd EDITION BY F..J. N. HILDEBR AND.. B. PRENTICE-HALL. INC. ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS.ADVANCED CALCULUS FOR APPLICATIONS.

PRENTICE-HALL. N.. ENGLEWOOD CLIFFS. 2nd EDITION BY F.ADVANCED CALCULUS FOR APPLICATIONS.J. B. HILDEBRAND.. 1976 . INC.

CAMBERED AIRFOILS • 1 dz α − A0 = ∫ dθ 0 π 0 dx 1 dz A0 = α − ∫ dθ 0 π 0 dx 2 dz An = ∫ cos nθ 0 dθ 0 π 0 dx π π π Compare Fourier expansion of dz/dx with general Fourier cosine series expansion • Analogous to the B0 term in the general expansion • Analogous to the Bn term in the general expansion .

CAMBERED AIRFOILS Γ = ∫ γ ( ξ )dξ 0 c • c Γ = ∫ γ (θ ) sin θdθ 20 Recall general solution for γ (θ ) :  1 + cos θ ∞  γ (θ ) = 2V∞  A0 + ∑ An sin nθ  sin θ n =1   π ∞  π  Γ = cV∞  A0 ∫ (1 + cos θ ) dθ + ∑ An ∫ sin nθ sin θdθ  n =1 0  0  π We can now calculate the overall circulation around the cambered airfoil • Integration can be done quickly with symbolic math package. or by making use of standard table of integrals (certain terms are identically zero) End result after careful integration only involves coefficients A0 and A1 π   Γ = cV∞  πA0 + A1  2   • .

CAMBERED AIRFOILS L′ = ρ ∞V∞ Γ • Calculation of lift per unit span π   Γ = cV∞  πA0 + A1  2   π   L′ = ρ ∞V∞2 c πA0 + A1  2   • Lift per unit span only involves coefficients A0 and A1 = π ( 2 A0 + A1 ) 1 2 ρ ∞V∞ S 2 π   1 dz cl = 2π α + ∫ ( cos θ 0 − 1) dθ 0  π 0 dx   cl = dcl = 2π dα L′ • Lift coefficient only involves coefficients A0 and A1 • • The theoretical lift slope for a cambered airfoil is 2π . which is a general result from thin airfoil theory However. note that the expression for cl .

CAMBERED AIRFOILS dcl ( α − α L =0 ) cl = dα cl = 2π ( α − α L =0 ) π   1 dz cl = 2π α + ∫ ( cos θ 0 − 1) dθ 0  π 0 dx   • From any cl vs. α data plot for a cambered airfoil Substitution of lift slope = 2π Compare with expression for lift coefficient for a cambered airfoil Let α L=0 denote the zero lift angle of attack – Value will be negative for an airfoil with positive (dz/dx > 0) camber Thin airfoil theory provides a means to predict the angle of zero lift – If airfoil is symmetric dz/dx = 0 and α L=0 =0 • • • α L =0 1 dz = − ∫ ( cos θ 0 − 1) dθ 0 π 0 dx π • .

SAMPLE DATA: SYMMETRIC AIRFOIL Lift Coefficient Angle of Attack. α A symmetric airfoil generates zero lift at zero α .

SAMPLE DATA: CAMBERED AIRFOIL Lift Coefficient Angle of Attack. α A cambered airfoil generates positive lift at zero α .

a – Cambered airfoils have positive lift when α = 0 – Symmetric airfoils have zero lift when α = 0 At high enough angle of attack. the performance of the airfoil rapidly degrades → stall Lift (for now) • Cambered airfoil has lift at α =0 At negative α airfoil will have zero lift .SAMPLE DATA • Lift coefficient (or lift) linear variation with angle of attack.

le = − π A  A0 + A1 − 2   2 2  Result of integration gives moment coefficient about the leading edge. A1. and A2 . cm. in terms of A0.le cm .le = ′ M LE cm .le . see hand out  1 + cos θ  γ (θ ) = 2V∞  A0 + ∑ An sin nθ  sin θ n =1   ∞ • cm .AERODYNAMIC MOMENT ANALYSIS ′ ( M LE = − ∫ ξdL = − ρ ∞V∞ ∫ ξ γξ ) dξ 0 0 c c • Total moment about the leading edge (per unit span) due to entire vortex sheet Total moment equation is then transformed to new coordinate system based on θ Expression for moment coefficient about the leading edge Perform integration.le 1 1 ρ ∞V∞2 Sc ρ ∞V∞2 c 2 2 2 c 2 ( =− ξ γξ ) dξ 2 ∫ V∞ c 0 1 =− 2V∞ π = ′ M LE • • (1 − cosθ )γ (θ ) c sin θdθ ∫ 0 2 • cm . “The details are left for Problem 4.9”.

le =-cl/4 • cm . c 4 π = ( A2 − A1 ) 4 • Moment coefficient about quarter-chord point – Finite for a cambered airfoil • For symmetric cm.AERODYNAMIC MOMENT SUMMARY cm .le cm .c/4 is independent of α – Quarter-chord point is theoretical location of aerodynamic center for cambered airfoils  c π xcp = 1 + ( A1 − A2 )  4  cl  .c/4 =0 – Quarter chord point is not center of pressure for a cambered airfoil – A1 and A2 do not depend on α • cm. cl – For symmetric airfoil • dz/dx=0 • A1=A2=0 • cm.le π A2  = −  A0 + A1 −  2 2   cl π  = −  + ( A1 − A2 )  4 4  • Aerodynamic moment coefficient about leading edge of cambered airfoil Can re-writte in terms of the lift coefficient.

C . = • Symmetric Airfoil: 4 • Cambered Airfoil: c x A. = 4 .CENTER OF PRESSURE AND AERODYNAMIC CENTER • Center of Pressure: Point on an airfoil (or body) about which aerodynamic moment is zero – Thin Airfoil Theory: c xcp = • Symmetric Airfoil: 4 • Cambered Airfoil:  c π xcp = 1 + ( A1 − A2 )  4  cl  • Aerodynamic Center: Point on an airfoil (or body) about which aerodynamic moment is independent of angle of attack – Thin Airfoil Theory: c x A.C .

25 NACA 64212 xA.25c x/c=0. < 0.C.25 NACA 23012 xA.ACTUAL LOCATION OF AERODYNAMIC CENTER x/c=0. > 0.C.25 c .

IMPLICATIONS FOR STALL • Flat Plate Stall • Leading Edge Stall Increasing airfoil thickness • Trailing Edge Stall .

LEADING EDGE STALL • NACA 4412 (12% thickness) • Linear increase in cl until stall • At α just below 15º streamlines are highly curved (large lift) and still attached to upper surface of airfoil • At α just above 15º massive flow-field separation occurs over top surface of airfoil → significant loss of lift • Called Leading Edge Stall • Characteristic of relatively thin airfoils with thickness between about 10 and 16 percent chord .

TRAILING EDGE STALL • • • NACA 4421 (21% thickness) Progressive and gradual movement of separation from trailing edge toward leading edge as α is increased Called Trailing Edge Stall .

THIN AIRFOIL STALL • • • • Example: Flat Plate with 2% thickness (like a NACA 0002) Flow separates off leading edge even at low α (α ~ 3º) Initially small regions of separated flow called separation bubble As a increased reattachment point moves further downstream until total separation .

max for airfoils with leading edge stall Flat plate stall exhibits poorest behavior. “soft stall” High cl.NACA 4412 vs.max • • • • • . early stalling Thickness has major effect on cl. NACA 4421 • • NACA 4412 and NACA 4421 have same shape of mean camber line Theory predicts that linear lift slope and α L=0 same for both Leading edge stall shows rapid drop of lift curve near maximum lift Trailing edge stall shows gradual bending-over of lift curve at maximum lift.

AIRFOIL THICKNESS .

lower maximum CL Bracing wires required – high drag German Fokker Dr-1 Higher maximum CL Internal wing structure Higher rates of climb Improved maneuverability .AIRFOIL THICKNESS: WWI AIRPLANES English Sopwith Camel Thin wing.

NACA 63-212 looks about optimum NACA 63-212 cl.OPTIMUM AIRFOIL THICKNESS • • • • Some thickness vital to achieving high maximum lift coefficient Amount of thickness influences type of stall Expect an optimum Example: NACA 63-2XX.max .

08c Larger leading edge radius to flatten cp Bottom surface is cusped near trailing edge Discourages flow separation over top Higher maximum lift coefficient At cl~1 L/D > 50% than NACA 2412 .02c NASA LS(1)-0417 (1970) Whitcomb [GA(w)-1] (Supercritical Airfoil) Leading edge radius = 0.MODERN LOW-SPEED AIRFOILS NACA 2412 (1933) Leading edge radius = 0.

MODERN AIRFOIL SHAPES Boeing 737 Root Mid-Span Tip http://www.com/afdb/list-airfoil-e.phtml .nasg.