y RFID is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders.

y RFID is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person.

y An alternative to bar code.

y RFID is also called dedicated short range communication (DSRC).

HISTORY ‡ Invented in 1948 by Harry Stockman. ‡ Initial application was during World War II-The United Kingdom used RFID devices to distinguish returning English airplanes from inbound German ones. RADAR was only able to signal the presence of a plane. ‡ Came into commercial use only in 1990s .. not the kind of plane it was.


RFID COMMUNICATIONS Reader Antenna Power from RF field Reader->Tag Commands Reader Tag->Reader Responses Tags RFID Communication Channel .

RFID COMMUNICATION       Host manages Reader(s) and issues Commands Reader and tag communicate via RF signal Carrier signal generated by the reader Carrier signal sent out through the antennas Carrier signal hits tag(s) Tag receives and modifies carrier signal  ³sends back´ modulated signal (Passive Backscatter ± also referred to as ³field disturbance device´)    Antennas receive the modulated signal and send them to the Reader Reader decodes the data Results returned to the host application .

COMPONENTS OF RFID(CONT¶D) R ID F Ra e edr R IDT g F a R A ten a F n n N tw rk Wrk ta n e o o s tio Eee th rn t .

COMPONENTS OF RFID ‡ An RFID tag is an object that can be stuck on or incorporated into a product. -Tag types -Active. ‡ . -Write only . -Passive. -At 2. animal.56 megahertz.45 gigahertz. Tags ( Chip + Antenna + Substrate ). or person for the purpose of identification using radio waves . -Frequency at which these tags are used -Between 125 to 134 kilohertz. -At 13. -Between 868 to 956 megahertz. -Read only.

‡ Collision Detection ± recognition of multiple tags in the read range ± is employed to separately read the individual tags . and a small chip that stores a small amount of data ‡ Tag can be programmed at manufacture or on installation ‡ Tag is powered by the high power electromagnetic field generated by the antennas ± usually in doorways ‡ The field allows the chip/antenna to reflect back an extremely weak signal containing the data.PASSIVE RFID TAGS ‡ Tag contains an antenna.

Can signal at Multiple tags Used for higher value assets Cost between $20 and $40 per Life item between 2 ± 4 years .ACTIVE RFID TAGS Battery Have Powered tags much greater range ± 100m more information ± Kbytes sensing technology GPS defined time can be recorded at once items like Shipping containers Babies. Electronic Hold much Can integrate Temperature.

ELECTRONIC PRODUCT CODE-EPC CODEEach tag contains a unique code that facilitating the identification process & is known as EPC. 613.123456. E.123456789 (96 bits) Header ± defines version of EPC(8 bits) ± describes originator of EPC (Product manufacturer) (28 bits) Could describe the product type (24 Bits) Unique ID for that product item (36 Bits) EPC Manager Object Class - Serial Number ± .23000.g.

ANTENNA FIELDS: INDUCTIVE COUPLING IC or microprocessor Transceiver Tag Reader antenna RFID Tag antenna .

ANTENNA FIELDS: PROPAGATION COUPLING IC or microprocessor Transceiver Tag Reader antenna RFID Tag antenna .

915 MHz Microwave 2.45 GHz & 5.8 GHz L A Data Rate Ability to read near metal or wet surfaces A I S P C S L L H R E I A E C I T A H I T Applications .56 MHz S A UHF 868 .OPERATIONAL FREQUENCIES Frequency Ranges Typical Max Read Range (Passive Tags) Tag Power Source E E F F LF 125 KHz S HF 13.

RFID VS BAR CODE RFID Forging is difficult Scanner not required. Tag 20 cents a piece) Can be reusable within factory premises Cannot be reused Can read only one tag at a time Barcode Forging is easy Scanner needs to see the bar code to read it . No need to bring the tag near the reader RFID is comparatively fast Can read multiple tags Relatively expensive as compared to Bar Codes (Reader 1000$.

MANUFACTURES ETC      Reduced on-hand inventory and less use of ³safety stock´.stocks.ADVANTAGES OF RFID BENEFITS TO RETAILERS. Reduced transportation cost and shipping volumes. Increased sales through reduced out-of. BENEFITS TO CUSTOMERS    Improved Product Selection Product Freshness for Dated Goods Easier Identification on Recalls . Increased stock visibility and availability. More accurate forecasts and stock replenishment.

. radiation. RFID is used in Libraries. Contactless Smart Cards. Retail companies ± Product Tracking. Finland. movement. Security Applications ± RFID RFID Readers could also WRITE onto Tags. Hospitals & Airports ± Baggage Tracking. Sensors to sense temperature. Australia. Ireland. food quality. Nursing Homes ± Patient Tagging . Passports-UK. Replacing Barcodes.APPLICATIONS Used where Large unique identification is needed.

Environmental concern. Security concerns-illicit tracking Global standardization. Extreme weather.ISSUES Cost of RFID Active technology. RFID life ± 2 to 4 years. of RFID tags. . RFID systems are vulnerable to virus .recycling. Privacy concerns-surreptitious consumer surveillance.

RFID SUMMARY Strengths     Advanced technology Easy to use High memory capacity Small size Weaknesses  Lack of industry and application standards  High cost per unit and high RFID system integration costs  Weak market understanding of the benefits of RFID technology Opportunities  Could replace the bar code  End-user demand for RFID systems is increasing  Huge market potential in many businesses Threats  Ethical threats concerning privacy life  Highly fragmented competitive environment .


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