Finite Clauses

Types of Sentences
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Simple Compound Complex Compound Complex

Verb inflected for tense ‡ Non-Finite ± Infinitive ± Participial. including Gerunds .Clauses ‡ Word --> Phrase --> Clause --> Sentence ‡ Clauses have a verb .one main verb per clause ‡ Finite Clauses .

manner.Types of Embedded Sentences ‡ Subordinate Clauses (Adverbial) ± Indicate time. place. cause. or condition ± Usually preceded by a subordinator ‡ Relative Clauses (Adjectival) ± Relative Pronouns ± Restrictive vs. non-restrictive relative clauses ‡ Complement Clauses (Nominal) .

Complement Clauses ‡ Appear as an NP ‡ Can be the subject of the sentence [That you like bananas] is surprising.) ‡ That is a complementizer.] ‡ Can be replaced by a pronoun (It is surprising. . ‡ Can be an object I know [that you like bananas. I know it.

place. She said.´ . ³You took my cheese. ³The treasure is buried here.´ ‡ Indirect Discourse is when a person is paraphrased. time.´ He said. ³Is your party tomorrow.Direct Discourse ‡ Direct discourse is when a person is quoted: He said. and participants are tied to the original utterance. ‡ In direct discourse. He said that you took my cheese.

‡ Notice that the WH-word appears at the beginning of the clause and that no question mark is used. ± I wonder [how they did that]. . ± I heard [what you said].Interrogative Complement Clauses ‡ One of the NPs in the complement clause is replaced by an interrogative pronoun ‡ Examples: ± I know [who stole my cheese].

NonNon-Finite Clauses .

± [To err] is human.]). ± He made me eat my spinach.). .Non-Finite Clause: Infinitives ‡ Introduced by to or for to. ± [For him to err] is terrible. See page 357. ± I want [to buy the cheese]. or adjectival (He was the last person [to talk to me. adverbial (I bought it [to surprise you]. ‡ Can also appear without to: ± I heard him break the cookie jar. ‡ Can be nominal.

S NP MVP N MV NP N Chris wants MV my VP NP S VP NP cheese (Chris) take .

take Chris wants cheese .

S NP MVP N MV NP N Chris wants Bill MV take my VP NP S VP NP cheese .

Bill take Chris wants cheese .

She asked for him to leave. She sent for him to buy supplies. ‡ Sentences with for/to clauses as direct objects are less direct than those with to ± ± ± ± She sent him to buy supplies. .To and For/To Infinitives ‡ Sentences with infinitive clauses as subject use for if the subject is part of the clause ± For you to say that is shocking. She asked him to leave. ± To say that is shocking.

She wanted him to shave. to Infinitives ‡ Tied to degree of likelihood that event took place ‡ She made him shave She let him shave --> He shaved ‡ She asked him to shave. . --> He might not have shaved.Bare vs.

try.Types of Verbs Taking Complement Clause ‡ Modality Verbs ± want. watch ‡ Cognition ± know. reveal. begin. ask. think ‡ Utterance ± say. order. hear. fixing to ‡ Manipulative Verbs ± make. hope. understand. tell ‡ Perception ± see. beg. let. force. announce ‡ P-C-U verbs tend to take that complements .

Reminder: Non-Finite Clauses ‡ Infinitives ± To-Infinitives ± For-To-Infinitives ± Bare Infinities ‡ Participles ± Present Participial Clauses ± Past Participial Clauses .

Participial Clauses .

Present Participial Clauses ‡ Adverbial ± Walking to work. . I am now satisfied. (elliptical subordinate clause) ± Many people having seen the eagle. ± While walking to work. ‡ Gerund (Nominal) ± Watching the eagle was fun. ‡ Adjectival ± The people standing on the street were watching the eagle. I spotted an eagle. I spotted an eagle.

. my tools lay before me. ‡ Dangling Present Participle ± Flying high in the sky.Usage: Dangling Modifiers ‡ Dangling Infinitives ± Eager to work. the entertainment began. ± Fed well. the ocean inspired me. I spotted an eagle. ± Standing on a cliff. a job must be well-paying. ± To feel rewarded. I tasted the entrée. I took the eggs out of the water. ‡ Dangling Past Participle ± Hard boiled. ± Sauced and seasoned.

Bill entered the classroom. they ran into the playground. Eyes gleaming. I wandered into the classroom. Pat and Chris relaxed. their eyes ablaze. . but still called ³nominative´ ‡ Tensed form of the verb or auxiliary BE is deleted ‡ Examples: (pp.Nominative Absolutes ‡ Actually Adverbials. My hair a mess. They ran into the playground. 395-396) ± ± ± ± ± His mind on the test. The children fed and put to bed.

Practice: Adverbial. the citizen voted. or Gerund 1. 6. 5. . My jumping into the lake amused my family. I walked into the dark. 7. Whistling loudly. The test given to the students was easy. Adjectival. Visiting professors can be boring. The children playing in the street should be warned. (trick question) 3. Educated as to the facts. 4. 2. the kids began the contest. Pumped.

Adverbial Present Participle I spotted ng work eagle .

S NP MVP PRO Adverbial Present Participle VP NP ADVP S NP MV PRO VP PREPP MV DET N I spotted an eagle (I) walking to work .

Adjectival Present Participle I spotted eagle ng street .

S NP MVP PRO Adjectival Present Participle VP NP ADJP S VP MV PREPP MV DET N NP I spotted an eagle (eagle) walking on the street .

song We enjoyed .

S NP MVP PRO MV NP N We enjoyed MV VP NP S VP NP song he singing that (his) .

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