Knowledge Management

:
Converting Theory into Practice
Knowledge Management Foundations
Course Slides
Chapter 1: Introduction
eek 1: Introduction to
Knowledge Management (KM)
A brieI history
From physical assets to knowledge assets
Multidisciplinary Nature oI KM
3 Generations oI KM
Key KM concepts and their deIinitions
Links to inIormation
Knowledge typology
Intellectual Capital
Introduction
hen asked, most
company executives
say their greatest asset
is knowledge held by
their employees
They also state they
have no idea how to
manage this knowledge
A BrieI History oI KM
industrialization
1800
transportation
1850
communications
1900
computerization
1950
virtualization
1980
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
personalization
2000 ¹¹
*birth of the internet 1969
From physical assets to
knowledge assets
Knowledge has now become more valuable that
physical 'things¨
SABRE reservation system vs. airplanes
Just-in-Time (JIT) inventory systems
hat is the useIul liIespan oI a piece oI valuable
knowledge?
Old news is worthless vs. some knowledge will never
lose value
Knowledge obsolescence
Intellectual Capital
hat is intellectual capital or
intellectual/knowledge assets?
DiIIerence between book and market value oI a company
Sum total oI what employees in an organization know.
Value is at least equal to the cost oI recreating this
knowledge
Skandia was the Iirst company to report intellectual
capital as part oI its yearly Iinancial report
Examples oI Intellectual
Capital
Competence
The skills necessary to achieve a certain (high) level oI
perIormance - - cI. with mastery - - tactical level
Capability
Strategic skills necessary to integrate and apply
competencies strategic level
Technologies
Tools, methods required to produce certain physical
results - - operational level
Core Competencies &
Capabilities
Core competencies are the things an organization
knows how to do well
Give the organization a competitive edge
Can be a process, specialized types oI knowledge,
expertise
Capabilities are the things an individual knows how
to do well
Individual capabilities can aggregate to organizational
competencies under appropriate conditions
Intellectual Capital
operational
tactical
strategic
ncreasing complexitv
Technical integration
Political negotiation
Mainlv subiective
Mainlv obiective
Another way oI looking at
intellectual capital (IC)
IC ÷ Customer capital ¹ Structural capital
Customer Capital
The bond between you and your customers not iust
brand loyalty but how well you understand your
customers, their changing needs and requirements. Its
value is equal to at least the cost oI creating a new
customer
Structural Capital
The reduction oI intellectual capital and customer capital
to a product or service. The Iaster you can do this, the
greater your structural capital
Some KM Milestones
YEAR ENTITY EVENT
1980 DEC, CMU XCON Expert System
1986 Dr. K iig Coined KM concept at UN
1989 Consulting Firms Start internal KM proiects
1991 HBR article Nonaka & Takeuchi
1993 Dr. K iig First KM book published
1994 KM Network First KM ConIerence
1997 Consulting Firms First KM services Ior clients
Interdisciplinary Nature oI KM
The 3 Generations oI KM
1
st
Generation:
'iI we only knew what we know¨ IT
2
nd
Generation:
'iI we only knew who knows about..¨ PEOPLE
3
rd
Generation:
'iI we could only organize our knowledge..¨
CONTENT

Today`s orking Environment
More &
Faster
More
Connected
! !
!
Internet
More
Global
Multi-cultural
Multi-lingual
Multi-site
More
Mobile
Increasing Complexity
Today`s work environment is more complex due to
an increase in the number oI subjective knowledge
items we need to attend to everyday
Filtering over 200 emails, Iaxes, voicemail messages on
a daily basis how to prioritize?
Having to 'think on our Ieet¨ as expected response time
has greatly decreased as well
KM is a response to the challenge oI trying to manage
this complexity amidst inIormation overload
A 'science oI complexity¨
Knowledge and entropy production have an inverse relationship
Some KM Challenges
Managing content
Collaborating eIIectively
Finding experts
Learning and making decisions based on
complex mountains oI inIormation
Key KM Concepts & Their
DeIinitions
Two maior Iorms oI knowledge
Tacit
Explicit
Intellectual Capital
Competence
Capability
Technologies
Explicit vs. Tacit Knowledge
108
Tacit Knowledge
Explicit Knowledge
80-85º 15-20º
active
passive
Tacit Knowledge
DiIIicult to articulate to put into words, text, drawings
'e have a habit oI writing articles published in scientiIic
iournals to make the work as Iinished as possible, to cover
up all the tracks, to not worry about the blind alleys or how
you had the wrong idea at Iirst, and so on. So there isn`t any
place to publish, in a digniIied manner, what you actually
did in order to do the work.¨ (Richard Feynman)
'e know more than we can tell¨
Michael Polanvi)
Bureau de Paris 21
Tacit knowledge
AbiIity to adapt
to deal with new and
exceptional situations
expertise
AbiIity to coIIaborate
to share a vision
to transmit a culture
to coach
5licit knowledge
AbiIity to disseminate
to reproduce
to access and re-apply
to teach
AbiIity to systemise
to articulate a vision and
translate it into operations
to integrate into products,
services and processes
Value oI Knowledge
KM link to InIormation &
InIormation Management
hat is the diIIerence between InIormation
Management and Knowledge Management?
hat are some oI the similarities?
here are some oI the synergies?
eware GIGO: Garbage In Garbage Out
InIormation vs. Knowledge
Management
3 criteria must be met beIore inIormation can be
considered knowledge:
1. Knowledge must be connected it exists in a
collection oI experiences and perspectives
2. KM is always a catalyst it is an action. InIormation
which is not leveraged into action oI some kind is not
knowledge inIo that is not used nor applied is not
knowledge. Knowledge co-exists with intelligence and
is used in decision-making.
3. Knowledge is applied in new, previously un-
encountered environments, novel situations
InIormation vs. Knowledge
Management (con`t)
IM consists oI preplanned responses to anticipated stimuli
KM consists oI unplanned (innovative) responses to surprise stimuli
Response
Stimulus
anticipated unanticipated
planned
unplanned
InIormation
Management
KM Link to Other
ProIessionals
Knowledge Organization
Traditionally, IT and inIormation specialists
have Iocused on the organization oI explicit
knowledge
Books, documents
This scope needs to be enlarged to include tacit
knowledge all intellectual assets at 3 levels:
Individual
Group ('community oI practice¨)
Organization (corporate/organizational memory)
The 3 Pillars oI KM
1. Knowledge is the Ioundation oI all organizations
2. KM`s purpose is to increase the intelligence oI the
organization by building and leveraging
knowledge
3. Knowledge must be embedded in all products and
services oI the organization
KM is the leveraging of collective wisdom
to increase responsiveness and innovation
Value oI Knowledge
Management
Improved learning
Individual
Teams
Organization
Better decision-making and
problem-solving
Higher quality knowledge
work, greater expertise
More innovation and
greater creativity
Better able to stay ahead oI
the competition
Improved knowledge
embedded in products and
services
More eIIective networking
and collaboration
More ethical behaviour
Knowledge Hierarchy
ata: symbols, a property oI things
Information: data that are processed to be useIul;
provides answers to "who", "what", "where", and
"when" questions
Knowledge: application oI data and inIormation;
answers "how" questions a property oI people
&nderstanding: appreciation oI "why"
isdom: evaluated understanding.
,3be/irectlv4bserve/
,334tbe/irectlv4bserve/
Data to Knowledge Path
Knowledge builds on inIormation extracted Irom
data less about amount, more about # connections
The traIIic signal is red can have 3 data states: red,
yellow or green
Both perceived as gray by a colorblind person
No inIormation conveyed by visual signal
Convention always places red light on top oI yellow on
top oI green
Perceives light on top is on thereIore it is red
Knowledge is contextual, abstracted, valuable
Knowledge Hierarchy
connectedness
understanding
Data
InIormation
&nderstanding relations
Knowledge
&nderstanding patterns
isdom
&nderstanding principles
Filtering: perceptual
and conceptual
Types oI Knowledge
structured
unstructured
abstract concrete
Structured vs. Unstructured
Knowledge
Examples oI Structured:
Database
Directory oI names (alphabetic)
Filed minutes oI meetings (by date)
Threaded emails
Examples oI Unstructured:
Corridor meetings
Telephone calls
Post-it notes
Abstract vs. Concrete
Knowledge
Abstract Knowledge
More general
E.g. word processing principles such as cut & paste
Concrete knowledge
More speciIic
E.g. user manual Ior ord
More embedded with something physical
Types oI Knowledge
structured
unstructured
abstract concrete
Tacit - Explicit
Conceptual Typology oI
Knowledge
DiIIerent conceptual levels oI Knowledge
Know THAT ÷ Declarative Knowledge
Problem solving, decision making, general principles, theories,
models
Know HO ÷ Procedural Knowledge
Practical and Iactual knowledge base, reIerence knowledge
Know HY (and HY NOT) ÷ understanding
Goals, vision, paradigms, values
CARE HY ÷ motivation
AUTOMATIC knowledge ÷ habitual
Not usually conscious oI this type oI knowledge e.g. driving
Summary Types oI
Knowledge
Structured and unstructured knowledge
Concrete and abstract knowledge
Tacit and explicit knowledge
Declarative and procedural knowledge
Understanding, motivation & habits
hat is Knowledge
Management?
· KM is the systematic, explicit and deliberate building, renewal and
application oI knowledge to maximize an enterprise`s knowledge-
related eIIectiveness and returns Irom knowledge assets (K. iig)
· KM is the process oI capturing a company`s collective expertise
wherever it resides: in databases, on paper, in people`s heads and
distributing it to wherever it can help produce the biggest payoII.
(Hibbard)
· KM is getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time
so they can make the best decision (Petrash)
More KM DeIinitions
It is the attempt to recognize what is essentially a human asset buried
in the minds oI individuals, and leverage it into an organizational asset
that can be accessed and used by a broader set oI individuals on
whose decisions the Iirm depends. Larry Prusak
KM applies systematic approaches to Iind, understand and use
knowledge to create value (O`Dell)
KM is the explicit control and management oI knowledge within an
organization aimed at achieving the company`s obiectives (van der
Spek)
KM is the Iormalization oI and access to experience, knowledge, and
expertise that create new capabilities, enable superior perIormance,
encourage innovation and enhance customer value (Beckman)
A Concept Analysis Exercise
hat key attributes need to be present in a
deIinition oI Knowledge Management?
hat are some good examples?
hat are some good 'non¨ examples?
KM is:
A management philosophy that takes systematic
and explicit advantage oI knowledge to make the
organization act more intelligently
Knowledge is used/applied Ior both operational and
strategic purposes
ays to Iind, analyze, categorize critical
knowledge areas to make sure appropriate
knowledge is available when and where needed
KM is NOT..
M is NOT power, it is how you use it that
matters!
M is not archiving all existing explicit
knowledge
A set of isolated techniques without a common
framework
a different label for ÌT, HR or training
A command and control system for knowledge
KM: Concept DeIinition
Key Attributes KM is.examples KM is not.ex
1. .....
2. .....
3. .....
4. .....
5. .....
6. .....
7. .....
1. .....
2. .....
3. .....
4. .....
5. .....
6. .....
7. .....
1. .....
2. .....
3. .....
4. .....
5. .....
6. .....
7. .....
KM Concept DeIinition Key
Attributes (by the class)
1. Organizational learning
2. People-centric
3. Tacit and Explicit Iorms oI knowledge
4. Structured access
5. Put into action
6. 'GroupThink¨
7. Innovations and ideas
8. Value criteria
9. Knowledge creation
10. Experience
11. Understanding, making sense oI knowledge
12. Communities oI practice
13. Communication oI knowledge
KM Concept DeIinition
Examples (by the class)
1. ListServe
2. Intranet/portal
3. Discussion Lists
4. ebCT
1. Course-related content
2. Other content
5. Leveraging
6. Collaborating
7. Managing
8. Expertise directory
9. Storytelling
Shared orkspace
KM Concept DeIinition Non-
Examples KM is not JUST:
1. InIormation management
2. Competitive intelligence
3. Data mining
4. Database Management System
5. 100° obiective
6. 100° technology (e.g. portal)
7. 100° techniques (e.g. knowledge mapping)
8. Exploitation (motives involved)
9. Competitive (at the level oI the individual)
10. Closed silos (isolated organizational units)
11. Controlling
Next:
Next: The KM Cycle

003974/:.94394 340/0,3,02039 

-7018947 
74258.,,8809894340/0,88098 :9/8.53,7,9:7041 0307,943841

0.43.0598,3/907/0139438 
389431472,943 340/09544 3900.9:,,59,

3974/:.943

03,80/ 2489 .425,300.:9;08 8,90770,9089,8809 8340/00/- 9070254008
%0,8489,9090 ,;034/0,494 2,3,098340/0

701894741
507843,,943  

;79:,,943 .425:907,943 .422:3.,9438 97,385479,943 3/:897,,943 
04990%4:.0%42,98:    

-7941903907309

:0 340/04-8408..9 58...:.8 .4202470.74258.308 :89 3 %20 % 3.03947889028 .9890:801:1085..-0 340/0 /3088479088..03.88098 340/0.:.0 .50..041.75.834-0.07 480.8 8420340/030.-09.94388902.8809894 340/0.. 938 $#70807.341.

47 3900..3900.59.9:.9:..983900. ...9:.59.

.705479 .9398 340/0 $.425.. .3.90..:08.85.3/2.88098 110703.59.41.3.9490.:041.8906:.7941980.8901789.0-09003-44.3 $:2949..3947054793900.94334  '.709.340/0.3/.425.70...347.713.9:.902540083.4894170.

0 .358.9:.55 .794.9.1 92.079..3  0. 708:98 4507. ..0.34408 %448 2094/8706:70/94574/:..8907 9.3.3/.041 5071472.90.-9 $97.943.2508413900.90.8830.0 .5.0 . 4250903.0 %0.079.0.0.0 %08830.59...08 897.0.4250903.0..0.088.088.7943907.90.

08:3/07.088 850.-908.425099.33/.0/950841340/0  0507980 .00/0 . .-908 .08 .5.7090938.90..3.3.43/9438 .4250903./:.347.943.5.3.09047.574.08  .4704250903..4250903...5.3.3-0.943.943 348494/40 .7090938.557457..-908 470./:.70.3484 94/40 3/.909447.

.0 .83.3907..34-0.3900.90.38:-0. %0.9:.59.9.943 .42509 897. 4507.943. 3..3049.9.943 .9.3.70. !49..0 9..

..9:7. :894207.3/4:7......41443..943413900.:8942078 349:89 -7.9-:9404::3/0789.9:.:8942078 907.59.59..70.59.:894207 $97:.93.  :894207.59. $97:.9:7.59.3/498 90 70.3/706:7020398 98 .9:7.89074:.8990. .9 3900.947807.48941.90.:0806:... %0-43/-090034:.59.59.34907.3/4.3/. 94.:894207.94..30 .3/4:7 ...33300/8..9074:7897:.0 %01. %070/:..574/:.59.9:.

7939073..059.08147.$4200894308 #        %%  & 7  438:93728 #.9& $9.0 789807. %.0 7  0947 438:93728 '%  5079$8902 430/.5740.43..0398 .79. 789-445:-80/ 7894310703.98 43.0:.

9:7041 .3907/8.53.7.

943  104330.304:7340/0   %% .943  1043304348.%00307.-4:9 ! ! 7/ 0307.943841 89 0307.9034 % 3/ 0307.4:/4347.943  10.

 84733.90/ ! 3907309 ! . 470 .8907  ! 470 4-0 470 4330. :9 890 :9 .%4/.:9:7.7432039 :9 3:. 470 4-.

80/.9903/940.394 93434:71009 .07/.33.07 02.94385 .943.4.08 .02.803903:2-07418:-0. 84703.0 98.03.4250/:094 .9434.80 8.3.0 340/0 90280300/94.70..9/0.708543809490.8 1...88 494574790 .42509 340/0.074. 90734.03041973942.8342509 %4/.33.743203982470.0.3./.9.3/039745574/:.90/70854380920 .0843 .-.42509.2/8931472.870./    8.70.2088.078070.041.70.8050.

3.930110.9.439039 4.$420.3/2.733.80/43 .0 3/3050798 0.3/0.0308 .8438-.3.943 .384131472.-47.425024:39.

0598 %07 0139438 %42.9 3900..59..9:.0 .34408 . 4250903.9 5.-9 %0.471472841340/0 %.043.5.

.

88.9...9.9340/0 108   .8 %.9340/0 5..0    5.0 .9340/0 %.5.

0391.0!4.0945:-8 3.3 03424709.79. 4:73.....9340/0 11.91789 .9097.07 :5../90743/0.3307 ..8942..%./310/2.81380/.3/8443 $4907083 9..30.4.94:.38 0.08474 4:.0.3 .085:-80/38.8 94349477.:.-4:990-3/.3 5.-941793.390  . //347/0794/49047  #.7/032.9:.:994.85488-0 94.09047.79..90 945:939447/8 909 /7..

3829../.088.3/ 97.843 9497.0 94.4..9340/0  -994..3/ 0.55 9490.4.3/70 ..930.  -9948890280 94..  -994.3/574.9093944507.9438 0507980  -994/88023.08808 :70.'.9438 943907.98  807...:041340/0  %.79..90 9470574/:.90.59 94/0.90394574/:.:9:70 94.90 948.:/0!.08.:.78  ..9340/0  5.-47.38.843.05943.89:.70.

3/340/0.02039.0-0900331472.9890/110703.0 :9 .943  31472.3.7-.7908 070.3.70 .943 .03.7-.39431472.7084204190830708 0.3.02039 .708420419082.02039 .943.9.

089:.438/070/340/0    340/02:89-0.3.83490.3/ 8:80/3/0.0/394.74320398 34.9438 .08 8.3-0 .3/507850.4 0898939003...3.7907.08..31472..8 340/0 .843 2.2:89-0209-0147031472.550/8349 340/0 340/0.90/ 908983.9.89 98.943..0.550/330 570.40.943 .4:8:3 03. ..94341050703.07.98349:80/347.9.4:39070/03.4330.8.02039 .9434184203/8349 340/0 3149.943 31472.3 340/08.943.

0 708543808948:75780892: .5.3.31472.8 340/0 .330/ 334.02039 .943 .3.943.330/70854380894.02039 .43889841:35.90/892: .5.330/ 31472.90/   .39.5.438898415705.330/ #0854380 5..39.90/ $92::8 :3.43 9 :35.9.39.

08 3/.898 .3/31472./:.90.0  7.394 907 !74108843.943850.  74:5 ./943.:20398 %88.70/943...9434105.9.3.90.8 340/0 7.3.422:394157.:/09.450300/894-003. %.:80/439047.9 340/0 .3.014.9 340/0  448 /4.943 %7.943 ...3900..88098.47547.9:.

47.943.20247  .3.

47.341.07.7841  340/089014:3/..08/42 943.943 .3 340/0  340/02:89-002-0//0/3.9.07.03088.3.04190 47.70.3/0.70.40.94341.3/ 807.809039003.943 8900.98.943--:/3.%0!.08419047.3.807085438.3/334.3.574/:..9438   85:754808943.

42509943 %0.0/340/0 7.943 47 70.3 076:..3.-0.3.3/ 70.9 ./41 3/..3/ 807.9070507980 47009..843 2.0/0.4:7 470334.4.943 02-0//0/3574/:.9.9.70..02039 2574.98.'.733 09907.9340/0 4700110.0.-09489. 90.3.3/ 09907/0.:041340/0 .943.3/.08 574-02 84.-47./:.907.28 2574.0309473 ..

340/007.57450794150450 &3/0789.9 070 .9.0/ .:. .90/:3/0789.7..3/31472.9.70574.574507941938 31472.0/ 340/0.55.3/ 036:089438 .943 .3/3  .5570.3349-0/70.3/3.9.82-48 .94341/.94341 8/420.943/../08.0880/94-0:801: 574.9..3-0/70.3807846:089438 .94-807.94-807..38078944 .9.

24:39 2470.08943945843907014709870/ 340/08..-897..3.90870/  04477003 49507.0/.90/1742 /.43909:.8:.943097..94340/0!.-4:9.83.0870/943945410443 945417003   !07.9. 088.43.:.. .83.89.00/-.0.-0 ..9.11.-4:9...870/ .943.447-3/507843  431472.9..03943.85.87..0/.0.90/ .4330. 43.-.9438 %097.9 340/0-:/84331472.

508 9073507. 340/0 &3/0789.059:.059:.3/3 .990738 31472.340/007.3/3573. .3/35.943 &3/0789. .9.90/3088 8/42 &3/0789.43.4330.7. .3/370.3/.9438 :3/0789.

9 .%50841340/0 897:.43.7090 :3897:.9:70/ .-897.9:70/ ..

80 70.8 !489 934908 .9:70/.-09.5.9:70/ 340/0 .250841&3897:./0/02.9:70/ 477/47200938 %005430.9:70/ .90 %70.250841$97:.8 &3897:.9.$97:.8 .947413.-.. 0/23:90841200938 -/.208 .

1.7090 340/0 -897..-897.0883573.8.7090340/0 470850.    47/574...14747/ 47002-0//0/984209358.. .:9 5.9.890 43.    :8072.9340/0 4700307.8 43.3:.5088:.

7090 :3897:.-897.9 .9:70/ .%50841340/0 897:..9 .9:70/ %..43.9 5.

.0841340/0 34%%0.4:8419895041340/00  /7.059:.0.340/0-..340/0  34 .9.3 0307.%54441 340/0 1107039...9..7..3/3  #249.3 /0.9:.  49:8:.943 &% %340/0.0340/0  !74-0284.8432.3/ % :3/0789..3 .843 5./28 .573.059:.:08 34 !74..438.3/1.0340/0 4.80 7010703.-9:.8 .43.0/:7.43.7.508 904708  24/08 !7.

943 .3/574..9:70/.3/.$:22..9340/0 0.340/0 &3/0789.7090.9:70/340/0 43..-98 .-897.3/3 249.7 %50841 340/0 $97:.9340/0 %.0/:7.9..7.3/05.0.9.3/:3897:.

425.-.3..55.40.00507980 070..9./8 .59:73.8 W W .9.3/709:7381742340/0.079708/083/.3 8.3/ /897-:93994070.9.3039075780 8340/0 70.99079920 8490. 05.02039 W 89088902..305574/:..090-089/0..88098   890574.079.9.3//0-07.843 !097.411  --.507 350450 80.90-:/3 7030.08841..090-0895.03088.808 435.98340/0 .7/ 809939079340/094907950450.20.90/0110.3/ .94341340/0942.9.32..

3/03.-908 03.0.:894207.0  03.2.3/07 $50 8901472.43974.0203941340/093.08894050703.3 84-0.943.:0 0 89005.9.4:7.3/0.843 480/0.9.9./:.8809-:70/ 39023/8413/. ....94341.347.425.70.550888902..3/ 05079809./:.70.3.8 .4700139438 9890..5574.77!7:8..3 47.3.3.3/:80 340/094.843890172/0503/8  .9.390..90..-74./07809413/.3/:80/-..5.3/2.0880/.3/.430.98088039.3.0334..:2.:0 0.089413/ :3/0789.-08:507475071472..20/.08 .3 ..943.943.07.3 .9.9.9030.0.09394.....3/.0 340/0 .3.3-0.8809 9.9902599470.

8807.43.997-:908300/94-057080393.2508 .9.02039 . /01394341340/0.90.70842044/0.0593.3.2508 .9.70842044/ 343 0.80 .

92470390039 340/08:80/.9..090 47.3.8 2./.39.0888902.3/05..943.041340/0942.02039548459. .3.99.9.

550/147-494507.5:754808 .90 340/08.79...0 .3.89413/ ...3/ 897.08:70.90.943. 340/0.70.90470.-003...557457..8942.3/070300/0/ .

90/90.-0147% #4797.4397488902147340/0 .9 340/0 8094184.33 .3/.7.99078 8349.422.36:0894:9.3/..3../1107039.42243 17.9 2.8 % 8 %5407 9844::8099.2047 .089305.

43.2508 8349 0        .059013943 0997-:908        8        0.

088  !:9394.43.0397.91472841340/0  $97:.  %.733  !0450 ...:0.0  &3/0789.3/5.0.3/3 2.9438..8  '.70..94341340/0 .9:70/..3//0.0  422:3.9.9.943..7907.943  74:5%3  334.  340/0.38038041340/0  422:39084157.88  7..943  50703..059013943 0 997-:908 -90.3.

.0 397.2508 -90.059013943 .88     89$07.43.309.

 8.439039  907.07.-47.947 $947903 $.3 507980/70..3 4.439039 0.5479.70/4785.93 .:8843898 0-%  4:780 70.0      .90/.3.

/:.344 0  5479.9900.90/47.4.0  .:398  439743 .3.36:08 0  340/02.0/  425099.0   90.02039$8902   4-0.9.083.041903/.059013943 43 .2508 8349&$%  31472.9432.943 249.43.233  .  480/848 84.9.9.0 .943.-.553  549.3.   90.02039  425099.3.80.039003.

0 .09 09%0.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful