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W8-1 20080908

SUMMARY I

Ma < 1 : Subsonic Ma = 1 : Sonic Ma > 1 : Supersonic Ma >> 1 : Hypersonic Ma } 1 : Transonic

KEYWORDS«.

Converging-Diverging Nozzle Back Pressure Shock Wave Fanno flows Rayleigh flows

Lesson Outcomes

At the end of this session, students are expected to be able to

a) Define the meaning of the terms associated with compressible flow. b) Determine the change in ideal gas properties in a compressible flow associated with shock wave

**OneOne-Dimensional Isentropic Flow
**

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area Important relations;

1. P ± A relation

2.

A ± V relation

OneOne-Dimensional Isentropic Flow Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area Comparison of flow properties in subsonic and supersonic nozzles and diffusers .

OneOne-Dimensional Isentropic Flow Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases For Ma = 1. these ratios are called critical ratios .

OneOne-Dimensional Isentropic Flow Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases .

torch nozzles Here. we will study the effects of back pressure (pressure at discharge) on the exit velocity. mass flow rate. industrial blast nozzles.Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles Converging or converging-diverging nozzles are found in many engineering applications ± Steam and gas turbines. and pressure distribution along the nozzle . aircraft and spacecraft propulsion.

and pressure is constant. same as state 4. State 4: Pb < P* there is no change in flow or pressure distribution in comparison to state 3 State 5: Pb =0. State 2: Pb < P0. flow at exit is sonic.Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles Converging Nozzles State 1: Pb = P0. there is no flow. pressure along nozzle decreases. . State 3: Pb =P* . creating maximum flow rate called choked flow.

mass flow rate is constant .Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles Converging Nozzles Under steady flow conditions.

. medical devices. and anywhere the mass flux of a gas must be known and controlled.Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles Converging Nozzles The maximum mass flow rate through a nozzle with a given throat area A* is fixed by the P0 and T0 and occurs at Ma = 1 This principal is important for chemical processes. flow meters.

Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles Converging Nozzles Combining with gives .

Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles Converging Nozzles Relation between Ma and Ma* .

Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles ConvergingConverging-Diverging Nozzles The highest velocity in a converging nozzle is limited to the sonic velocity (Ma = 1). which occurs at the exit plane (throat) of the nozzle Accelerating a fluid to supersonic velocities (Ma > 1) requires a diverging flow section ± Converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle ± Standard equipment in supersonic aircraft and rocket propulsion Forcing fluid through a C-D nozzle does not guarantee supersonic velocity ± Requires proper back pressure Pb .

and mass flow is less than for choked flow. Subsonic flow at exit. Further decrease in Pb has no effect on flow in converging portion of nozzle . Diverging section acts as diffuser 2. Diverging section acts as diffuser. P0 > Pb > Pc ± Flow remains subsonic.Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles ConvergingConverging-Diverging Nozzles 1. Pb = PC ± Sonic flow achieved at throat.

4. PC > Pb > PE ± Fluid is accelerated to supersonic velocities in the diverging section as the pressure decreases. However. acceleration stops at location of normal shock.Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles ConvergingConverging-Diverging Nozzles 3. Without shock. flow in nozzle can be treated as isentropic. PE > Pb > 0 ± Flow in diverging section is supersonic with no shock forming in the nozzle. . shock approaches nozzle exit. Fluid decelerates and is subsonic at outlet. As Pb is decreased.

Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles ConvergingConverging-Diverging Nozzles .

Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles ConvergingConverging-Diverging Nozzles .

we will study the conditions under which shock waves develop and how they affect the flow.Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Review ± Sound waves are created by small pressure disturbances and travel at the speed of sound ± For some back pressures. . abrupt changes in fluid properties occur in C-D nozzles. creating a shock wave Here.

Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Shocks which occur in a plane normal to the direction of flow are called normal shock waves Flow process through the shock wave is highly irreversible and cannot be approximated as being isentropic Develop relationships for flow properties before and after the shock using conservation of mass. momentum. and energy .

Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Normal Shock Conservation of mass Conservation of energy Conservation of momentum Increase in entropy .

Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Normal Shock Combine conservation of mass and energy into a single equation and plot on h-s diagram ± Fanno Line : locus of states that have the same value of h0 and mass flux Combine conservation of mass and momentum into a single equation and plot on h-s diagram ± Rayleigh line Points of maximum entropy correspond to Ma = 1. ± Above / below this point is subsonic / supersonic .

the stronger the shock will be.Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Normal Shock There are 2 points where the Fanno and Rayleigh lines intersect : points where all 3 conservation equations are satisfied ± Point 1: before the shock (supersonic) ± Point 2: after the shock (subsonic) The larger Ma is before the shock. Entropy increases from point 1 to point 2 : expected since flow through the shock is adiabatic but irreversible .

Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Normal Shock Equation for the Fanno line for an ideal gas with constant specific heats can be derived Similar relation for Rayleigh line is Combining this gives the intersection points .

.

Some are inclined to the flow direction.Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Oblique Shock Not all shocks are normal to flow direction. and are called oblique shocks .

flow is deflected through an angle U called the turning angle Result is a straight oblique shock wave aligned at shock angle F relative to the flow direction Due to the displacement thickness. .Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Oblique Shock At leading edge. Uis slightly greater than the wedge half-angle H.

Ma decreases across the oblique shock. sonic. and are only possible if upstream flow is supersonic However.Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Oblique Shock Like normal shocks. . or supersonic depending upon Ma1 and U. unlike normal shocks in which the downstream Ma is always subsonic. Ma2 of an oblique shock can be subsonic.

n/c2 .n/c1 ± Ma2.Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Oblique Shock All equations and shock tables for normal shocks apply to oblique shocks as well.n = V1.n = V2. provided that we use only the normal components of the Mach number UF-Ma relationship ± Ma1.

Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Oblique Shock .

Requires CFD for analysis. a detached oblique shock or bow wave is formed Much more complicated that straight oblique shocks.Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Oblique Shock If wedge half angle U > Umax. .

UF-Ma relationship and resulting diagram is different than for 2D bodies .Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Oblique Shock Similar shock waves see for axisymmetric bodies. however.

and an attached oblique shock cannot exist regardless of Ma. . without a sharply pointed nose.Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Oblique Shock For blunt bodies. H = 90r.

Instead of a shock. which is comprised of infinite number of Mach waves called Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves Each individual expansion wave is isentropic : flow across entire expansion fan is Flow turns gradually as each isentropic successful Mach wave turns Ma2 > Ma1 the flow ay an infinitesimal amount P.Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves Prandtl In some cases. V. in contrast to the oblique shock which creates a compressing flow. flow is turned in the opposite direction across the shock Example : wedge at angle of attack U greater than wedge half angle H This type of flow is called an expanding flow. a expansion fan appears. T decrease across the fan .

. as in the corners and trailing edges of the cone cylinder.Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves Prandtl Prandtl-Meyer expansion fans also occur in axisymmetric flows.

Shock Waves and Expansion Waves Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves PrandtlInteraction between shock waves and expansions waves in ³over expanded´ supersonic jet .

evaporation. and condensation as well as heat gain or heat loss through the duct wall Such problems are difficult to analyze Essential features of such complex flows can be captured by a simple analysis method where generation/absorption is modeled as heat transfer through the wall at the same rate ± Still too complicated for introductory treatment since flow may involve friction. nuclear reactions. geometry changes.Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction Many compressible flow problems encountered in practice involve chemical reactions such as combustion. 3D effects We will focus on 1D flow in a duct of constant crosssectional area with negligible frictional effects .

Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction Consider 1D flow of an ideal gas with constant cp through a duct with constant A with heat transfer but negligible friction (known as Rayleigh flow) Continuity equation X-Momentum equation .

(h = cp(T Entropy change ± In absence of irreversibilities such as friction. shaft. or other forms of work. entropy changes by heat transfer only . ± For and ideal gas with constant cp. and potential energy change is negligible.Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction Energy equation ± CV involves no shear.

Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction Infinite number of downstream states 2 for a given upstream state 1 Practical approach is to assume various values for T2. and calculate all other properties as well as q. Plot results on T-s diagram ± Called a Rayleigh line This line is the locus of all physically attainable downstream states S increases with heat gain to point a which is the point of maximum entropy (Ma =1) .

Adiabatic Duct Flow with Friction Friction must be included for flow through long ducts. we study compressible flow with significant wall friction. Here. especially if the cross-sectional area is small. but negligible heat transfer in ducts of constant cross section. .

Adiabatic Duct Flow with Friction Consider 1D adiabatic flow of an ideal gas with constant cp through a duct with constant A with significant frictional effects (known as Fanno flow) Continuity equation X-Momentum equation .

Adiabatic Duct Flow with Friction .

and potential energy change is negligible.Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction Energy equation ± CV involves no heat or work. ± For and ideal gas with constant cp. (h = cp(T Entropy change ± In absence of irreversibilities such as friction. entropy changes by heat transfer only .

one for Ma < 1. Plot results on T-s diagram ± Called a Fanno line This line is the locus of all physically attainable downstream states s increases with friction to point of maximum entropy (Ma =1). one for Ma >1 . and calculate all other properties as well as friction force.Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction Infinite number of downstream states 2 for a given upstream state 1 Practical approach is to assume various values for T2. Two branches.

Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction .

.

OneOne-Dimensional Isentropic Flow For flow through nozzles. flow quantities vary primarily in the flow direction ± Can be approximated as 1D isentropic flow Consider example of Converging-Diverging Duct . diffusers. and turbine blade passages.

.

speed of sound equations Continuity ± Differentiate and divide by mass flow rate (VAV) . V. energy.OneOne-Dimensional Isentropic Flow Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area Relationship between V. and A are complex Derive relationship using continuity.

Combining this with result from continuity gives Using thermodynamic relations and rearranging .OneOne-Dimensional Isentropic Flow Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area Derived relation (on image at left) is the differential form of Bernoulli¶s equation.

Ma2) is negative dA and dP have opposite signs. Pressure must increase as the flow area decreases. and must decrease as the area increases . (1 .OneOne-Dimensional Isentropic Flow Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area This is an important relationship ± For Ma < 1. and must decrease as the flow area decreases ± For Ma > 1.Ma2) is positive dA and dP have the same sign. Pressure of fluid must increase as the flow area of the duct increases. (1 .

OneOne-Dimensional Isentropic Flow Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area A relationship between dA and dV can be derived by substituting VV = -dP/dV (from the differential Bernoulli equation) Since A and V are positive ± For subsonic flow (Ma < 1) dA/dV < 0 ± For supersonic flow (Ma > 1) dA/dV > 0 ± For sonic flow (Ma = 1) dA/dV = 0 .

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