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Meaning and definition
Set of activities which help keep plant, machinery and other facilities in good condition. A formal definition of maintenance is That function of manufacturing management that is considered with the day to day problem of keeping the physical plant in good operating condition. It is an essential activity in every manufacturing establishment, because it is necessary to insure the availability of the machines, buildings and services needed by other parts of the organisation for the performance of their functions at an optimum return on the investment, whether this investment is in machinery, materials or employees.
Scope of maintenance
Every manufacturing organisation needs maintenance because, machines breakdowns, parts wear out and buildings deteriorate over a period of time of use. All segments of a factory buildings, machinery, equipments, tools, cranes, jigs and fixtures, heating and generating equipments, waste disposal systems, air conditioning equipments, washrooms, dispensaries and so on, need attention.
Maintenance of existing plant and equipments Maintenance of existing plant buildings and grounds Equipment inspection and lubrication Utilities generation and distribution Alterations to existing equipments and buildings New installations of equipments and buildings
Secondary functions Store keeping(keeping stock of spare parts) Plant protection including fire protection Waste disposal Salvage Insurance administration Property accounting Pollution and noise control Any other services delegated towards maintenance by the plant management .
Equipments must be kept in reliable condition without costly work stoppage and down time due to repairs. if the company is to remain productive and competitive.Importance of maintenance management To establish competitive edge and to provide good customer service. . companies must have reliable equipments that will respond to customer demands when needed.
. Inconsistencies in equipments lead to variability in product characteristics and result in defective parts that fail to meet the established specifications. Maintenance is an important factor in quality assurance.
Beyond the cost of idle equipment. idle labour and lost sales that can result from a break down. particularly those with JIT programmes are operating with inventories so low that. . they offer no protection in the event of a lengthy equipment failure. there is a danger of permanently losing market shares to companies that are more reliable. Many manufacturing organizations.
Organisations like airlines and oil refineries have huge investments in the equipment. They need proper maintenance to keep the equipment in a good condition. Equipment failure will be disastrous for such companies. Good maintenance management is important for the company s cost control. .
Impact of poor maintenance Production capacity: Machines idled by breakdowns cannot produce. Production costs: Labour cost per unit rises because of idle labour due to machine break downs. thus the capacity of the system is reduced. .
Equipments that have not been properly maintained have frequent breakdowns and cannot provide adequate service to customers. . Production and service quality Poorly maintained equipment produce low quality products.
working on those equipment. due to work stoppages. Employee or customer safety Worn out equipment is likely to fail at any moment and these failures can cause injuries to the workers. products often can not be produced according to the master schedules. This will lead to delayed deliveries of products to the customers. . Customer satisfaction When production equipment break down.
Efficient use of maintenance personnel and equipment 5. Minimizing the repair time and repair cost 3. 2. Minimizing the loss due to production stoppage 4. Prolonging the life of capital assets by minimizing the rate of wear and tear . Minimizing the loss of productive time because of equipment failure.Objectives of plant maintenance 1.
To improve the quality of products and to improve productivity. . To minimize the total maintenance cost 10. To maximize the efficiency and economy in production through optimum use of facilities 8. 7. To keep all productive assets in good working conditions.6. To minimize accidents through regular inspection and repair of safety devices 9.
Civil maintenance Building construction and maintenance. maintenance service facilities such as water. painting. plumbing and carpentry work. heating and ventilating.Areas of maintenance 1. compressed air. air conditioning. gas. steam. .
. material handling equipments. compressors and furnaces. Mechanical maintenance Maintaining machines and equipments.2. boilers. transport vehicles. Lubricating the machines is also the mechanical maintenance work. steam generators.
switch gears. motors. electrical installations. lighting. Electrical maintenance Maintaining electrical equipment such as generators. . battery charging. fans. transformers. telephone systems.3.
Types of maintenance Break down maintenance or corrective maintenance Preventive maintenance Predictive maintenance Routine maintenance Planned maintenance .
a conveyor belt is ripped. . or a shaft has broken. when there is a work stoppage because of machine break down. Break down maintenance or corrective maintenance It occurs. Repairs are made after the equipment is out of order an electric motor will not start.
To control the cost of repair crews. 3. To get equipment back into operation as quickly as possible in order to minimize interruption to production. To control the cost of the operation of repair shops .Objectives of corrective maintenance 1. 2. including regular time and overtime labour cost.
6. To control the investment in replacement spare parts that are used when machines are repaired 5. To control the investment in replacement spare machines.4. To perform the appropriate amount of repairs at each malfunction .
. Preventive maintenance consists of Proper maintenance and installation of equipment Periodic inspection of plant and equipment to prevent break downs before they occur.Preventive maintenance It is undertaken before the need arises and aims to minimize the possibility of un anticipated production interruptions or major break downs.
Repetitive servicing Adequate lubrication .
Features of preventive maintenance programme Proper identification of all items to be included in the programme Adequate records covering. volume of work and cost Inspections on a definite schedule Use of check lists by inspectors An inspection frequency schedule Well qualified inspectors Use of repair budgets for major items of equipment Administrative procedures that provide necessary fulfillment and follow up on programme .
Benefits of Preventive Maintenance Greater safety for workers Decreased production downtime Fewer large scale and repetitive repairs Less cost for simple repairs made before break down Better spare parts control .
temperature and resistance gauges are used to predict trouble. pressure. amplitude meters. .Predictive Maintenance In this sensitive instrument such as vibration analyzers.
Shut down maintenance: The maintenance work is carried out when the machine is out of service. Ex: Greasing or lubricating the bearings while the machine is running. 2. Running maintenance: The maintenance work is carried out while the equipment is in the operating condition. .Routine Maintenance 1.
It involves the inspection of plant and equipment. It is also known as scheduled maintenance or productive maintenance.Planned Maintenance Break down of a machine does not occur in a planned manner but maintenance work can be planned well in advance. machinary and buildings. .
MAINTENANCE POLICY .
Maintenance Policy Maintenance policy must answer the questions of the extent of activities and the size of the maintenance department Small plants use the maintenance department for simple repair and replacement. .(addition to the building) major non production engineering job in these plants is assigned to outside specialist.
. Large companies with more specialized staff tend to turn over all major non production engineering jobs to their maintenance departments. responsibility for planning and suggesting building construction changes is placed with the maintenance department. In some companies. but actual construction is let to outside contractors.
With regard to equipment maintenance. 2. . Have a well planned and organized maintenance programme designed to secure maximum life and utilization of machinery. To adopt a policy of minimum maintenance and maximum wear. two practices vary 1.
Issues in establishing maintenance policy 1. Contract out some work during peak periods to avoid getting too far behind and also to avoid hiring temporary extra help 2. Defer some maintenance work until slack periods so as to keep the work force intact during such periods. utility . Replace machine and equipment at the optimum time. 3. Overhaul work and painting projects are often handled on that basis.
Suptd Plant Engineer Chief Industrial Supervisor Production Control Supervisor Utlities Engineer Jod and Cost Job Supervisor Maintenance Engineer Maintenanc e Supervisor House Keeping and Protective Supervisor .Organization for maintenance Works Manager Mfg.
carpenters. Pipe Fitters. Welders. Helpers Maintenance Foreman. Painters. Masons.Maintenance Supervisor Maintenanc e foreman Repair Crew Oilers Maintenanc e foreman Electricians Helpers Maintenance foreman. Helpers Shop Foreman. Mechanics . Plumbers.
Control of Maintenance Maintenance work must commence only after it has been authorized by a responsible official Maintenance schedule must be prepared stipulating the timing of maintenance and number of staff required Maintenance budget must be prepared and used to determine whether the actual expenses are within estimates .
Materials must be issued by the storekeeper against proper authorization from the maintenance department Equipment records must be maintained. Information from the records will be useful when ordering parts Management should give serious thought to certain issues issues which have bearing on maintenance cost .
Can effective use be made of computers for analyzing the scheduling activities? . How much maintenance is needed? 2. Should maintenance staff covered by wage incentive scheme? 5. Can maintenance be sub contracted? 4. The questions are 1. What size maintenance crews should be used? 3.
Maintenance engineers will be using statistical tools to pinpoint problem areas. so as to justify the need for equipment replacement periodically .Trends in Maintenance Increasing attention is being paid to the design of buildings. Greater emphasis on manufacturing system reliability and procurement of equipment with a prescribed level of quality assurance. facilities. processes to eliminate as much maintenance as possible.
Special training programmes have sprung up to give maintenance workers. . the skills necessary to service and repair today s specialized equipment. Maintenance staff to be upgraded to cope with the challenges of complex manufacturing systems.
When bearings begin to fail. (coming up) . Other technologies are developing that promise to reduce the cost of maintenance . causing these sensing system to indicate that a failure is imminent. they overheat and vibrate. while improving the performance of production machines An example is the network of computerized temperature sensing probes connected to key bearings in a machine system.
The massive damage to machine that can happen when bearings fail can be avoided .
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