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2 and 9)
BoseEinstein Distribution for Phonons
Density of States for Phonons
Energy Spectrum of Blackbody Radiation
 RayleighJeans Law
 Wien’s Law
 StefanBoltzmann Law
We went full circle: from the mystery of the “ultraviolet catastrophe” (Ch. 2) to the
successful quantum description of the photonic gas (Ch. 9).
Two Types of Bosons
Two types of bosons:
(a) Massive bosons: composite particles with nonzero rest mass which contain an
even number of fermions (example: all nuclei with even mass numbers). The
number of these particles is conserved if the energy does not exceed the
dissociation energy (~ MeV in the case of the nucleus).
(b) Massless bosons (particles associated with a field), of which the most important
example is the photon. The number of these particles is not conserved: if the total
energy of the field changes, particles appear and disappear.
Bosons: particles with zero or integer spin (in units of ħ). The wavefunction of a
system of bosons is symmetric under the exchange of any pair of particles:
Ψ(...,Q
j
,...Q
i
,..)= Ψ(...,Q
i
,...Q
j
,..). The number of bosons in a given state is unlimited.
Bosons vs. Fermions
( )
1
exp 1
BE
B
f
k T
ε
ε µ
·
 ` −
−
. ,
The BoseEinstein
distribution
int
, V S
E
N
µ
 ` ∂
≡
∂
. ,
 the chemical potential, it shows how the internal
energy of an ensemble changes if we add one
particle at a constant volume (V) and entropy (S)
For an ideal nondegenerate gas of massive
bosons, the chemical potential is nonzero and
depends on density. For an ideal gas of massless
bosons, µ is zero regardless of density.
( ) ( )
1
, ,
exp 1
FD FD
B
f T n T
k T
ε ε
ε µ
≡ ·
 ` −
+
. ,
 the FermiDirac distribution
function (occupancy):
the mean number of fermions in a
particular quantum state:
( )
B F F
k T E E µ << ·
Fermions:
Bosons:
ε = µ
FD
BE
1
0
2
Comparison of the FD and BE distributions plotted
for the same value of µ . The mean number of
particles in a given state for the BEG can exceed
unity, it diverges as µ → ε .
BoseEinstein Distribution Function for Photons
( )
1 1
,
exp 1 exp 1
ph
B B
f T
h
k T k T
ε
ε ν
· ·
 `  `
− −
. , . ,
 the average number of
photons in a single mode of
frequency ν = ε /h.
The occupancy (the mean number of particles in a
given state) for the BE gas can exceed unity, it
diverges as ε → 0.
For photons (µ =0), the BE
distribution coincides with the
Planck’s distribution:
( )
,
exp 1
B
h
h f h T
h
k T
ν
ε ν ν
ν
· ⋅ ·
 `
−
. ,
In the classical (hν << k
B
T) limit: T k
B
· ε
The average energy
in the mode:
f(ν ,T)
ν
ph
ph ph
ph
ph
E h
E cp
E
h
p
c c
ν
ν
·
·
· ·
Radiation in Equilibrium with Matter
Typically, radiation emitted by a hot body, or from a laser is not in equilibrium: energy is
flowing outwards and must be replenished from some source. The first step towards
understanding of radiation being in equilibrium with matter was made by Kirchhoff, who
considered a cavity filled with radiation, the walls can be regarded as a heat bath for
radiation. The walls emit and absorb e.m. waves. In equilibrium, the walls and radiation
must have the same temperature T.
The electromagnetic field has an infinite number of modes (standing
waves) in the cavity. The blackbody radiation field is a superposition
of plane waves of different frequencies. The characteristic feature of the
radiation is that a mode may be excited only in units of the quantum
of energy hν (similar to a harmonic oscillators) :
( )
1/ 2
i
i
n h ε ν · +
This fact leads to the concept of photons as quanta of the electromagnetic field. The
state of the el.mag. field is specified by the average number of photons (n
i
) for each of
the modes.
T
The linearity of Maxwell equations implies that the photons do not interact with each
other. (Nonlinear optical phenomena are observed when a largeintensity radiation
interacts with matter).
The mechanism of establishing equilibrium in a photon gas is absorption and emission
of photons by matter. Presence of a small amount of matter is essential for establishing
equilibrium in the photon gas. We’ll treat a system of photons as an ideal photon gas.
(sorry, cannot use f for frequency, it is
reserved for the distribution function)
Spectral Energy Density
( ) ( ) ν ν d T u T u
S
∫
∞
·
0
,
In equilibrium, u
S
(ν ,T) is the same everywhere in the cavity, and is a function of ν and T
only. If the cavity volume increases at T=const, the internal energy U = u (T) V also
increases. The essential difference between the photon gas and the ideal gas of
molecules: for an ideal gas, an isothermal expansion would conserve the gas energy,
whereas for the photon gas, it is the energy density which is unchanged, the number of
photons is not conserved, but proportional to volume in an isothermal change.
u
S
(ν ,T) is the spectral energy density (u
S
(ν ,T) dν is the energy density (per unit
volume) of the radiation with frequencies between ν and ν +dν )
The internal energy
of the photon gas:
A real surface absorbs only a fraction of the radiation falling on it. The absorptivity α is
a function of ν and T; a surface for which α (ν ) =1 for all frequencies is called a
black body.
Density of States for Photons
k
y
k
x
k
z
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
3
2
3 3
6 6
3 / 4
8
1
π π
π π π
π k
k G
volume k
L L L
k
k N
z y x
· ·
× ×
·
extra factor of 2 due
to two polarizations:
(the e.m. waves are
transverse)
( )
( )
( )
( )
3 2
3
3 3
2 2
6 2
D
ph
cp c k G g
c c
ε ε
ε ε ε
π π
· · · · h
h h
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
3 3
3 3
2
8
D D
ph ph
h
d
g g h
d c
c
ν
ε πν
ν ε
ν
π
· · ·
h
( )
2
3
3
8
D
ph
g f
c
πν
·
In order to calculate the average number of photons per small energy interval dε , the
average energy of photons per small energy interval dε , the total average number of
photons in a photon gas, and its total energy, we need to know the density of states for
photons as a function of photon energy.
ν = ε /h
 so far, similar to our consideration of
the DoS for nonrelativistic electrons
( )
( )
dG
g
d
ε
ε
ε
·
However, photons are ultrarelativistic particles:
( )
3D
ph
g ν
2
ν ∝
Energy Spectrum of Blackbody Radiation
( )
( )
1 exp
8
,
3
3
−
,
`
.

·
T k
hc
T u
B
ε
ε π
ε
The average energy of photons with frequency
between ν and ν +dν (per unit volume):
u(ε ,T)  the energy density per unit photon
energy for a photon gas in equilibrium with
a blackbody at temperature T.
( ) ( ) ( )
, ,
S
u T d h g f T d ν ν ν ν ν ν · ⋅ ⋅
 the spectral density of the
blackbody radiation
(the Plank’s radiation law)
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3
3
8
, ,
exp / 1
s
B
h
u T h g f T
c h k T
π ν
ν ν ν ν
ν
· ·
−
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) h T h u
d
d
T u T u d T u d T u × · · · , , , , , ν
ν
ε
ε ν ν ν ε ε u as a function of the energy:
ν
=
average number
of photons within
this freq. range
photon
energy
( )
3 3 D
ph
h g ν ν ν ⋅ ∝
ν ν
( )
, f T ν
( )
,
S
u T ν
Classical Limit (small ν , large λ ), RayleighJeans Law
This equation predicts the so
called ultraviolet catastrophe
– an infinite amount of energy
being radiated by a black body
at high frequencies or short
wavelengths.
RayleighJeans Law
At low frequencies or high temperatures:
1 exp 1
B B B
h h h
k T k T k T
ν ν ν  `
<< − ≅
. ,
( )
3 2
3 3
8 8
,
exp 1
s B
B
h
u T k T
c c
h
k T
π ν πν
ν
ν
· ≅
 `
−
. ,
 purely classical result (no h), can be
obtained directly from the equipartition
theorem
RayleighJeans Law (cont’d)
4
1
λ
In the classical limit of large λ :
( )
4
large
8
,
λ
π
λ
λ
T k
T u
B
≈
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 exp
1 8
1 exp
8
, , ,
5 2
3
3 2
−
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

−
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
]
]
]
− · − ·
T k
hc
hc hc
T k
hc
c
h
hc
T u
hc
d
d
d T u d T u
B B
λ
λ
π
λ
λ
λ π
λ
λ λ
ε
ε ε λ λ
u as a function of the wavelength:
High ν Limit, Wien’s Displacement Law
The maximum of u(ν ) shifts toward higher frequencies with increasing temperature. The
position of maximum:
( )
0
1
1
3
1 exp
2
3 2
3
·
]
]
]
]
−
−
−
× ·
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
−
,
`
.

,
`
.

,
`
.

× ·
x
x
x
B
B
B
e
e x
e
x
const
T k
h
T k
h
T k
h
d
d
const
d
du
ν
ν
ν
ν
( ) 8 . 2 3 3 ≈ → · − x e x
x
Wien’s displacement law
 discovered experimentally
by Wilhelm Wien
Numerous applications
(e.g., noncontact radiation thermometry)
 the “most likely” frequency of a photon in a
blackbody radiation with temperature T
u
(
ν
,
T
)
ν
8 . 2
max
≈
T k
h
B
ν
h
T k
B
8 . 2
max
≈ ν
Nobel 1911
At high frequencies/low temperatures:
1 exp 1 exp
B B B
h h h
k T k T k T
ν ν ν  `  `
>> − ≅
. , . ,
( )
3
3
8
, exp
s
B
h h
u T
c k T
π ν
ν ν
 `
≈ −
. ,
ν
max
⇔ λ
max
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 exp
1 8
1 exp
8
, , ,
5 2
3
3 2
−
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

−
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
]
]
]
− · − ·
T k
hc
hc hc
T k
hc
c
h
hc
T u
hc
d
d
d T u d T u
B B
λ
λ
π
λ
λ
λ π
λ
λ λ
ε
ε ε λ λ
8 . 2
max
≈
T k
h
B
ν
 does this mean that
8 . 2
max
≈
λ T k
hc
B
?
max
ν
max
λ
No!
( ) { ¦ ( ) { ¦
( ) ( )
( ) { ¦
0
1 / 1 exp
/ 1 exp
1 / 1 exp
5
1 / 1 exp
1
2
5
2
6 5
·
]
]
]
−
−
−
−
− × ·
]
]
]
−
× ·
−
x x
x x
x x
const
x x dx
d
const
df
du
( ) { ¦ ( ) x x x / 1 exp 1 / 1 exp 5 · −
→
T k
hc
B
5
max
≈ λ
“night vision” devices
T = 300 K
→
λ
max
≈ 10 µ m
( ) T u , ν ( ) T u , λ
StefanBoltzmann Law of Radiation
The (average) photon density:
The total energy of photons per unit volume :
(the energy density of a photon gas)
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
4
5
3
0
8
15
B
k T
u T g f d
hc
π
ε ε ε ε
∞
· × ·
∫
the Stefan
Boltzmann Law 2 3
4
5
15
2
c h
k
B
π
σ ·
the StefanBoltzmann
constant
( )
4
4
T
c
T u
σ
·
( ) ( )
3 3
2 2
3
3 3
0 0 0
8 8
8 2.4
1
exp 1
B B
x
B
k T k x dx
n f g d d T
c c h e hc
h
k T
π ν π
ε ε ε ν π
ν
∞ ∞ ∞
 `  `
· · · · ×
−  `
. , . ,
−
. ,
∫ ∫ ∫
 increases as T
3
The average energy per photon:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
T k T k
T k hc
hc T k
N
T u
B B
B
B
7 . 2
4 . 2 15
4 . 2 8 15
8
4
3 3
3 4
5
≈
×
·
×
· ·
π
π
π
ε
(just slightly less than the “most” probable energy)
( )
8 4 2
5.7 10 / W K m σ
−
≈ ×
Power Emitted by a Black Body
For the “unidirectional” motion, the flux of energy per unit area
c × 1s
energy density u
1m
2
T
4 2
4 T R σ π ·
u c× ·
Integration over all angles
provides a factor of ¼:
u c× ·
4
1
area unit by emitted power
Thus, the power emitted by a unitarea
surface at temperature T in all directions:
( )
4 4
c c 4
4 4
J u T T T
c
σ
σ · · × ·
The total power emitted by a blackbody sphere of radius R:
(the hole size must be >> the wavelength)
Consider a black body at 310K. The power emitted by the body:
2 4
/ 500 m W T ≈ σ
While the emissivity of skin is considerably less than 1, it still emits a considerable
power in the infrared range. For example, this radiation is easily detectable by modern
techniques (night vision).
Some
numbers:
Problem
The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a temperature of
approximately 2.7 K.
(a) What wavelength λ
max
(in m) corresponds to the maximum spectral density u(λ,T) of
the cosmic background radiation?
mm m
T k
hc
B
1 . 1 10 1 . 1
7 . 2 10 38 . 1 5
10 3 10 6 . 6
5
3
23
8 34
max
· ⋅ ·
× ⋅ ×
⋅ × ⋅
· ≈
−
−
−
λ
(a)
meV
hc
1 . 1
max
·
λ
(b) What is approximately the number of CMBR photons hitting the earth per second
per square meter [i.e. photons/(s·m
2
)]?
( )
2
16
23
6
2
2
10 3
7 . 2 10 38 . 1 7 . 2
10 3
m s
photons
J
m
W
J
m s
photons
N
⋅
⋅ ≈
× ⋅ ×
⋅
≈
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

⋅
−
−
ε
2.7
B
k T ε ≈
(b)
( ) ( )
2 6 4
4
2 4 8
4
/ 10 3 7 . 2 / 10 7 . 5 m W K m K W T J
CMBR
− −
⋅ · × ⋅ ⋅ · ·σ
The average energy per photon:
Solar Radiation
The surface temperature of the Sun  5,800K.
As a function of energy, the spectrum of
sunlight peaks at a photon energy of
m 5 . 0
5
max
µ λ ≈ ·
T k
hc
B
eV T k h u
B
4 . 1 8 . 2
max max
≈ · · ν
Spectral sensitivity of human eye:
 close to the energy gap in Si, ~1.1 eV, which has been so far the best material for solar cells
Sun’s Mass Loss
Beiser 9.22. The Sun’s mass is 2 ·10
30
kg, its radius is 7·10
8
m, and its surface
temperature is 5,800K. Find the mass loss for the Sun in one second. How many
years are needed for the Sun to lose 1% of its mass by radiation?
This result is consistent with the flux of the solar radiation energy received by the Earth
(1370 W/m
2
) being multiplied by the area of a sphere with radius 1.5·10
11
m (SunEarth
distance).
5 4
8
3 2 2 4
2 W
5.8 10
15 m K
B
k
h c
π
σ
−
· ≈ ⋅
( )
4 2
4 sphere a by emitted power T R P σ π ·
( ) ( ) ( )
4
2
2 4
8 8 26
2 4
max
W
4 4 7 10 m 5.7 10 5,740K 3.8 10 W
2.8 m K
Sun
B
hc
P R
k
π σ π
λ
−
 `
· · ⋅ × ⋅ × · ⋅
. ,
( )
kg/s 10 2 . 4
m 10 3
W 10 8 . 3
9
2
8
26
2
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
· ·
c
P
dt
dm
the mass loss per one second
1% of Sun’s mass will be lost in yr 10 1.5 s 10 7 . 4
kg/s 10 2 . 4
kg 10 2
/
01 . 0
11 18
9
28
⋅ · ⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
· · ∆
dt dm
M
t
The Greenhouse Effect
Transmittance of the Earth atmosphere
Absorption:
Emission:
4 2
4 out Power
E E
T R σ π ·
the flux of the solar radiation energy
received by the Earth ~ 1370 W/m
2
( ) ( )
2
4 2
in ower
,
`
.

·
orbit
Sun
Sun E
R
R
T R P σ π α
Sun
orbit
Sun
E
T
R
R
T
4 / 1
2
4
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

·
α
α = 1 – T
Earth
= 280K
R
orbit
= 1.5·10
11
m R
Sun
= 7·10
8
m
In reality α = 0.7 – T
Earth
= 256K
To maintain a comfortable temperature on the
Earth, we need the Greenhouse Effect !
However, too much of the greenhouse effect
leads to global warming:
Problem (Final 2009)
Assume that a human body can be approximated by a “blackbody” sphere with a radius of
0.25m at T=310K.
(a) (7) At what wavelength does the human body (T=310K) emit the maximum
electromagnetic radiation?
(b) (8) Find the total power emitted by the body and the related mass loss in one second.
(c) (7) Calculate the power measured by a nightvision device with a detector area of 10cm
2
positioned at a distance of 100m from the human body.
(d) (8) What is approximately the number of photons hitting the nightvision device per
second?
(a)
34 8
max
23
6.6 10 3 10
10
5 5 1.38 10 310
B
hc
m
k T
λ µ
−
−
⋅ × ⋅
· · ≈
× ⋅ ×
(b)
The total power emitted
by a blackbody sphere
of radius R:
( )
2
6
2 2 2
0.001
413 3.3 10 W
4 4 100
P m
P area W
r m π π
−
· · × · ×
×
(d)
( )
( )
6
14
23 2
3.3 10
2.8 10
2.7 1.38 10 / 310
P W
photons W photons
N
s J J K K s m ε
−
−
⋅
 `
· ≈ ≈ ⋅
× ⋅ × ⋅
. ,
2.7
B
k T ε ≈ The average energy per photon:
( ) ( )
2 4
2 4 8
2 4
W
4 4 0.25 m 5.7 10 310K
m K
413W
P R T π σ π
−
· · × ⋅ ×
·
The mass loss in one second
15
2 8
413
4.6 10
3 10 /
P W
m kg
c m s
−
∆ · · · ×
×
(c)
Problem
a) What is the energy flux of the Sun’s radiation at Mercury's orbit?
b) What is the total power absorbed by Mercury? [Hint: Consider that it appears
as a flat disk to the Sun and it absorbs all of the incident radiation.]
c) If Mercury is in thermodynamic equilibrium, it will emit the same total power as
it receives from the Sun. Assuming that the temperature of the "hot“ side of
Mercury is uniform, find this temperature.
d) What is the peak frequency of the radiation absorbed by Mercury?
e) What is the peak frequency of the radiation emitted by Mercury?
(a)
( )
2 3
2
10
26
2
/ 10 46 . 9
10 8 . 5 4
10 4
4
m W
m
W
R
P
J
orbit
Sun
⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
· ·
π
π
(b)
( ) W m m W R J P
Mercury Mercury
17
2
6 2 3 2
10 77 . 1 10 44 . 2 / 10 46 . 9 ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ · π π
(c)
4 2
2
Mercury Mercury Mercury
T R P σ π ·
( )
K
m K W m
W
R
P
T
Mercury
Mercury
Mercury
535
/ 10 76 . 5 10 44 . 2 2
10 77 . 1
2
4 / 1
2 4 8
2
6
17
4 / 1
2
·
]
]
]
]
⋅ ⋅
⋅
·
,
`
.

·
−
π
σ π
 hemisphere
Planet Mercury revolves and rotates at the same rate, so one side of the planet is always
facing the Sun. Mercury is a distance of 5.8 x 10
10
m from the Sun, and has a radius of 2.44
x 10
6
m. The radius of the Sun is 7·10
8
m and its total power output is 4 x 10
26
W. In this
problem treat the planet as if it were a black body
Problem (cont’d)
( )
K
m K W m
W
R
P
T
Sun
Sun
Sun
795 , 5
/ 10 76 . 5 10 7 4
10 4
4
4 / 1
2 4 8
2
8
26
4 / 1
2
·
,
`
.

⋅ ⋅
⋅
·
,
`
.

·
−
π
σ π
(d)
Hz
Js
K K J
h
T k
Sun B
received 14
34
23
max
10 4 . 3
10 62 . 6
795 , 5 / 10 38 . 1
8 . 2 8 . 2 ⋅ ·
⋅
× ⋅
· ·
−
−
ν
(e)
Hz
Js
K K J
h
T k
Mercury B emitted 13
34
23
max
10 1 . 3
10 62 . 6
535 / 10 38 . 1
8 . 2 8 . 2 ⋅ ·
⋅
× ⋅
· ·
−
−
ν
Two Types of Bosons
Bosons: particles with zero or integer spin (in units of ħ). The wavefunction of a system of bosons is symmetric under the exchange of any pair of particles: Ψ (...,Qj,...Qi,..)= Ψ (...,Qi,...Qj,..). The number of bosons in a given state is unlimited. Two types of bosons: (a) Massive bosons: composite particles with nonzero rest mass which contain an even number of fermions (example: all nuclei with even mass numbers). The number of these particles is conserved if the energy does not exceed the dissociation energy (~ MeV in the case of the nucleus).
(b) Massless bosons (particles associated with a field), of which the most important example is the photon. The number of these particles is not conserved: if the total energy of the field changes, particles appear and disappear.
it diverges as µ → ε . Comparison of the FD and BE distributions plotted for the same value of µ . it shows how the internal ∂ Eint µ ≡ energy of an ensemble changes if we add one ∂ N V . The mean number of particles in a given state for the BEG can exceed unity. the chemical potential is nonzero and depends on density.Bosons vs. T ) ≡ nFD ( ε . µ is zero regardless of density.the FermiDirac distribution function (occupancy): the mean number of fermions in a particular quantum state: . T ) = 1 ε −µ exp +1 k BT . . S particle at a constant volume (V) and entropy (S) µ ( k BT << EF ) = EF Bosons: f BE ( ε ) = 1 ε −µ exp −1 k BT The BoseEinstein distribution 2 1 0 FD ε =µ BE For an ideal nondegenerate gas of massive bosons. For an ideal gas of massless bosons.the chemical potential. Fermions Fermions: f FD ( ε .
f(ν .T) The occupancy (the mean number of particles in a given state) for the BE gas can exceed unity. The average energy in the mode: ε = hν ⋅ f ( h . the BE distribution coincides with the Planck’s distribution: f ph ( ε . T ) = 1 1 = ε h ν exp −1 exp −1 k BT kB T .BoseEinstein Distribution Function for Photons E ph = hν E ph = cp ph p ph = E ph c = hν c For photons (µ =0).the average number of photons in a single mode of frequency ν = ε /h. it diverges as ε → 0.T ) = ν hν hν exp −1 k BT ν In the classical (hν << kBT) limit: ε = k BT .
or from a laser is not in equilibrium: energy is flowing outwards and must be replenished from some source. cannot use f for frequency. it is reserved for the distribution function) T ε i = ( ni + 1/ 2 ) hν This fact leads to the concept of photons as quanta of the electromagnetic field. We’ll treat a system of photons as an ideal photon gas. . In equilibrium. The mechanism of establishing equilibrium in a photon gas is absorption and emission of photons by matter. who considered a cavity filled with radiation. The state of the el. The linearity of Maxwell equations implies that the photons do not interact with each other. the walls and radiation must have the same temperature T.Radiation in Equilibrium with Matter Typically. The walls emit and absorb e. The electromagnetic field has an infinite number of modes (standing waves) in the cavity. The first step towards understanding of radiation being in equilibrium with matter was made by Kirchhoff. the walls can be regarded as a heat bath for radiation.m. Presence of a small amount of matter is essential for establishing equilibrium in the photon gas. The blackbody radiation field is a superposition of plane waves of different frequencies. The characteristic feature of the radiation is that a mode may be excited only in units of the quantum of energy hν (similar to a harmonic oscillators) : (sorry. waves.mag. field is specified by the average number of photons (ni) for each of the modes. radiation emitted by a hot body. (Nonlinear optical phenomena are observed when a largeintensity radiation interacts with matter).
but proportional to volume in an isothermal change. A real surface absorbs only a fraction of the radiation falling on it.T) is the same everywhere in the cavity.Spectral Energy Density uS(ν . a surface for which α (ν ) =1 for all frequencies is called a black body.T) is the spectral energy density (uS (ν . uS (ν . If the cavity volume increases at T=const. an isothermal expansion would conserve the gas energy. the internal energy U = u (T) V also increases. The absorptivity α is a function of ν and T. .T) dν is the energy density (per unit volume) of the radiation with frequencies between ν and ν +dν ) The internal energy of the photon gas: u ( T ) = ∫ u S (ν . T ) dν 0 ∞ In equilibrium. The essential difference between the photon gas and the ideal gas of molecules: for an ideal gas. and is a function of ν and T only. it is the energy density which is unchanged. the number of photons is not conserved. whereas for the photon gas.
so far. the average energy of photons per small energy interval dε .Density of States for Photons In order to calculate the average number of photons per small energy interval dε . similar to our consideration of kx the DoS for nonrelativistic electrons However.m. we need to know the density of states for photons as a function of photon energy. waves are transverse) (ν ) = g 3D ph ( hν ) = 8πν 2 dε (ε ) = h 2 3 dν c3 π ( ch) 2 g 3D ( ν ) ph 2 g 3D ph ( 8πν f)= 3 c ∝ν 2 ν = ε /h . photons are ultrarelativistic particles: ky ε3 ε = cp = chk G ( ε ) = 3 6 π 2 ( ch) g 3D ph g 3D ph ε2 (ε ) = 2 3 2π ( ch) extra factor of 2 due to two polarizations: (the e. kz dG ( ε ) 1 ( 4 / 3)π k 3 k 3 ( volume) k3 N(k) = = G( k ) = g(ε) = dε 8 π ×π ×π 6π 2 6π 2 Lx L y Lz . the total average number of photons in a photon gas. and its total energy.
range × ν ν = ν .the energy density per unit photon energy for a photon gas in equilibrium with a blackbody at temperature T.Energy Spectrum of Blackbody Radiation The average energy of photons with frequency u ν . T ) = u ( ε .the spectral density of the blackbody radiation (the Plank’s radiation law) 8π h ν3 us ( ν . T ) × h dν 8π u( ε . T ) dε = u ( hν . . T ) = hν g ( ν ) f ( ν .T ) uS ( ν . T dν ν ( ) ( ) ) S ( between ν and ν +dν (per unit volume): 3D ph hν ⋅ g (ν ) ∝ ν 3 f (ν . T ) dν u (ν . T ) dε = u (ν . T ) = ( hc ) 3 ε3 ε exp k T −1 B u(ε . T dν = h ⋅ g ν ⋅ f ν . T ) = 3 c exp ( hν / k BT ) −1 u as a function of the energy: u ( ε .T) . T ) photon energy average number of photons within this freq.
can be obtained directly from the equipartition theorem RayleighJeans Law This equation predicts the socalled ultraviolet catastrophe – an infinite amount of energy being radiated by a black body at high frequencies or short wavelengths.Classical Limit (small ν . large λ ). RayleighJeans Law At low frequencies or high temperatures: h hν ν << 1 exp k BT k BT h ν − 1≅ k BT 8π h us ( ν . T ) = 3 c ν3 hν exp k BT −1 8π ν 2 ≅ 3 kB T c .purely classical result (no h). .
T ) large λ ≈ 8π k BT λ4 1 λ4 . T ) dλ = −u ( ε . T ) = dλ λ ( hc ) 3 exp hc λk T B 3 −1 hc 8π hc 2= 5 λ λ 1 hc exp λk T B −1 In the classical limit of large λ : u( λ. T ) dε c h hc 8π dε λ = − 2 u( λ.RayleighJeans Law (cont’d) u as a function of the wavelength: u ( λ .
T) hν max ≈ 2.8 k BT h hν k T 3x 2 du d x 3e x B = const × = const × x − =0 dν e − 1 ( e x − 1) 2 hν hν exp − 1 d k T k T B B ( 3 − x) ex = 3 → x ≈ 2 .High ν Limit.8 Wien’s displacement law .g. noncontact radiation thermometry) ν .the “most likely” frequency of a photon in a blackbody radiation with temperature T Numerous applications (e. T ) ≈ 3 ν exp − c k BT h hν ν >> 1 exp k BT kB T h ν − 1 ≅ exp kB T Nobel 1911 The maximum of u(ν ) shifts toward higher frequencies with increasing temperature.discovered experimentally by Wilhelm Wien u(ν . Wien’s Displacement Law At high frequencies/low temperatures: hν 8π h 3 us ( ν ..8 k BT . The position of maximum: 3 ν max ≈ 2.
8 .8 ? k BT λmax 3 c h hc 8π dε λ = − 2 u( λ. T ) dε λmax hν max ≈ 2. T ) dλ = −u ( ε .ν u (ν . T ) u( λ.does this mean that k BT hc No! ≈ 2. T ) = dλ λ ( hc ) 3 exp hc λk T B −1 hc 8π hc 2= 5 λ λ du d 1 5 − x −2 exp(1 / x ) = const × 5 =0 = const × − x 6 { exp(1 / x ) − 1} − 5 2 df dx x { exp(1 / x ) − 1} x { exp(1 / x ) − 1} 5 x{ exp(1 / x ) − 1} = exp(1 / x ) ( ) 1 hc exp λk T B −1 → λ mx a λmax ≈ hc 5 k BT T = 300 K → ≈ 10 µ m “night vision” devices .T ) mx a ⇔ λ mx a ν max u ( λ .
4 15 × 2.7 × 10 −8 W / ( K 4 m2 ) The average energy per photon: u(T ) 8π 5 ( k BT ) ( hc ) π4 ε = = = k B T ≈ 2 .4 π × ∫ x c h 0 e −1 hν hc exp −1 .increases as T 3 k BT 3 3 The total energy of photons per unit volume : (the energy density of a photon gas) u ( T ) = ∫ ε × g ( ε ) f ( ε ) dε = 0 ∞ 8π 5 ( k BT ) 15 ( hc ) 3 4 4σ 4 u(T ) = T c the StefanBoltzmann Law 2π 5 k B σ= 15h 3c 2 4 the StefanBoltzmann constant σ ≈ 5.7 k B T 3 3 N 15( hc ) 8π ( k BT ) × 2.StefanBoltzmann Law of Radiation The (average) photon density: 8π n = ∫ f ( ε ) g ( ε ) dε = 3 ∫ c 0 0 ∞ ∞ ∞ ν2 8π k BT x2 dx k dν = 3 = 8 B T 3 2.4 4 3 (just slightly less than the “most” probable energy) .
the power emitted by a unitarea surface at temperature T in all directions: c c 4σ 4 J = u (T ) = × T = σT 4 4 4 c The total power emitted by a blackbody sphere of radius R: = 4πR 2σ T 4 Some 4 2 Consider a black body at 310K. this radiation is easily detectable by modern techniques (night vision).Power Emitted by a Black Body For the “unidirectional” motion. The power emitted by the body: σ T ≈ 500 W / m numbers: While the emissivity of skin is considerably less than 1. . the flux of energy per unit area = c×u T energy density u c × 1s Integration over all angles provides a factor of ¼: 1m2 power emitted by unit area = 1 c×u 4 (the hole size must be >> the wavelength) Thus. it still emits a considerable power in the infrared range. For example.
e. photons/(s·m2)]? (a) λmax hc 6.7 ⋅10 −8 W / K 4 ⋅ m 2 × ( 2.7 k BT W J 2 3 ⋅10 −6 photons m photons N ≈ ≈ 3 ⋅1016 = 2 ε(J) 2.38 ⋅10 − 23 × 2.7 s ⋅ m2 s⋅m .38 ⋅10 −23 × 2.1mm 5 k BT 5 ×1. (a) What wavelength λmx (in m) corresponds to the maximum spectral density u(λ.T) of a the cosmic background radiation? (b) What is approximately the number of CMBR photons hitting the earth per second per square meter [i.7 4 hc = 1.Problem The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a temperature of approximately 2.7 ) K 4 = 3 ⋅10 −6 W / m 2 4 ( ) The average energy per photon: ε ≈ 2.7 ×1.1 meV λmax (b) J = σ TCMBR = 5.6 ⋅10 −34 × 3 ⋅108 ≈ = = 1.7 K.1 ⋅10 −3 m = 1.
which has been so far the best material for solar cells Spectral sensitivity of human eye: .Solar Radiation The surface temperature of the Sun . λmax = hc ≈ 0.5. the spectrum of sunlight peaks at a photon energy of umax = hν max = 2.8k BT ≈ 1. ~1.1 eV.5 µm 5 k BT As a function of energy.close to the energy gap in Si.800K.4 eV .
The Sun’s mass is 2 ·1030 kg.Sun’s Mass Loss Beiser 9.7⋅ 10 −8 × ( 5.8⋅ 10 −8 2 4 15h3c 2 mK This result is consistent with the flux of the solar radiation energy received by the Earth (1370 W/m2) being multiplied by the area of a sphere with radius 1. How many years are needed for the Sun to lose 1% of its mass by radiation? P ( power emitted by a sphere ) = 4πR σ T 2 4 2π 5 k B 4 W σ= ≈ 5.8 k B λmax 4 the mass loss per one second dm P 3.800K.22.2 ⋅109 kg/s .5 ⋅1011 yr dm / dt 4.01M 2 ⋅10 28 kg ∆t = = = 4.7 ⋅1018 s = 1.2 ⋅109 kg/s 2 dt c 3 ⋅108 m ( ) 1% of Sun’s mass will be lost in 0. and its surface temperature is 5.740K ) = 3.5·1011 m (SunEarth distance).8 1026 W ⋅ 2 4 mK 2.8 ⋅10 26 W = 2 = = 4. Find the mass loss for the Sun in one second. P = 4π ( RSun ) 2 2 hc W 4 σ = 4π ( 7⋅ 10 8 m ) × 5. its radius is 7·108 m.
we need the Greenhouse Effect ! However.7 – TEarth = 256K To maintain a comfortable temperature on the Earth. too much of the greenhouse effect leads to global warming: .5·1011 m Transmittance of the Earth atmosphere 2 1/ 4 TSun RSun = 7·108 m α = 1 – TEarth = 280K In reality α = 0.The Greenhouse Effect Absorption: 2 4 R Power in = α π RE σ ( TSun ) Sun R orbit ( ) 2 the flux of the solar radiation energy received by the Earth ~ 1370 W/m2 Emission: Power out = 4π RE σ TE 2 4 α R TE = Sun 4 Rorbit Rorbit = 1.
8⋅ 1014 −23 s s⋅ m2 ε ( J ) 2.3 ⋅10 −6W photons photons P ( W ) N = ≈ ≈ 2.7 ×1.001m 2 P= = 3.3× 10 −6W ( area ) = 413W × 4π r 2 4π ×100 2m 2 The average energy per photon: ε ≈ 2. (d) (8) What is approximately the number of photons hitting the nightvision device per second? (a) λmax hc 6.6 ⋅10 −34 × 3 ⋅108 = = ≈ 10µ m −23 5 k BT 5 ×1.25m at T=310K. (a) (7) At what wavelength does the human body (T=310K) emit the maximum electromagnetic radiation? (b) (8) Find the total power emitted by the body and the related mass loss in one second.Problem (Final 2009) Assume that a human body can be approximated by a “blackbody” sphere with a radius of 0. (c) (7) Calculate the power measured by a nightvision device with a detector area of 10cm2 positioned at a distance of 100m from the human body.7 k BT P 413W = = 4.38 ⋅10 J / K × 310K .25 m ) × 5.6× 10 −15 kg c2 3 ×108 m / s 3.38 ⋅10 × 310 = 413W ∆m = (b) The total power emitted by a blackbody sphere of radius R: P = 4π R 2σ T 4 = 4π ( 0.7⋅ 10 −8 2 W 4 × ( 310K ) m2K 4 The mass loss in one second (c) (d) P 0.
What is the peak frequency of the radiation absorbed by Mercury? What is the peak frequency of the radiation emitted by Mercury? PSun 4 ⋅10 26 W J= = 2 4πRorbit 4π 5.44 ⋅10 m = 1.Problem Planet Mercury revolves and rotates at the same rate.76 ⋅ 10 W / K m 17 1/ 4 ( ) = 535K .hemisphere PMercury TMercury = 2π R 2 σ Mercury 1/ 4 1. Assuming that the temperature of the "hot“ side of Mercury is uniform.44 ⋅ 10 m 5.8 ⋅1010 m ( ) 2 = 9.46 ⋅10 W / m ⋅ π 2.77 ⋅ 10 W = 2 6 −8 4 2 2π 2. Mercury is a distance of 5. In this problem treat the planet as if it were a black body a) b) c) d) e) (a) (b) (c) What is the energy flux of the Sun’s radiation at Mercury's orbit? What is the total power absorbed by Mercury? [Hint: Consider that it appears as a flat disk to the Sun and it absorbs all of the incident radiation.] If Mercury is in thermodynamic equilibrium.44 x 106 m. it will emit the same total power as it receives from the Sun. The radius of the Sun is 7·108 m and its total power output is 4 x 1026 W. find this temperature. so one side of the planet is always facing the Sun.8 x 1010 m from the Sun. and has a radius of 2.46 ⋅103W / m 2 2 PMercury = J ⋅ πR 2 Mercury = 9.77 ⋅1017 W 3 6 ( ) 2 2 4 PMercury = 2πRMercuryσTMercury .
76 ⋅10 −8W / K 4 m 2 1/ 4 ( ) = 5.4 ⋅1014 Hz −34 h 6.62 ⋅10 −34 Js ν emitted max = 2.8 = 3.795K = 2.38 ⋅10 −23 J / K × 535 K = 2.Problem (cont’d) (d) PSun TSun = 4πR 2 σ Sun 1/ 4 4 ⋅10 26 W = 2 4π 7 ⋅108 m 5.1 ⋅1013 Hz 6.8 .8 = 2 .795K ν (e) received max k BTSun 1.38 ⋅10 −23 J / K × 5.8 = 3.62 ⋅10 Js k BTMercury h 1.
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