Definitions International Phonetic Alphabet Speech Mechanism The Organs of Speech Sounds of Speech Processes of Speech Production Importance of sounds in denture construction Speech Records


‡ Phonetics is the study of production of
speech sounds.

‡ Spoken language is produced by the movements of the organs of speech. ‡ All human beings have the same organs of speech. So, theoretically speaking, every normal human being can produce any of the sounds of human speech.



Speech Sounds
‡ How ‡ How

they are produced: articulatory they are perceived: auditory physical aspects: acoustic

‡ Their



linguistically relevant symbolic units  The International Phonetic Alphabet is the most widely used transcription tool  3/16/2011 6 .Transcription The most widely used tool in phonetics is transcription  A standardized set of symbols for converting the continuous acoustic stream into discrete.

each represented by a symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet and illustrated in a word .The common vowels in General American English.

The Consonants symbols and identifying key words of 25 consonants are as follows: .

f = [f] in ³fall´ etc.The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Necessary because: 1) Inadequacy of orthography (spelling): a) one letter/digraph ² different sounds laugh([f]) bright (ø) ghost ([g]) b) one sound ² different letters believe ([i]´ee´) people ([i]) tree ([i]): 2) Cross-linguistic variation in orthography: Different languages have different ways of representing the same sound-a) [k] : ch in Italian (Chianti) b) initial sound in ³church´ is written ci (ciao) 3) A single sound is represented by more than one letter 3/16/2011 9 gh = [f] in ³laugh´. .

1) Audition 2)Respiration 3) Phonation 4) Resonation 5) Articulation 6) Neurological integration 3/16/2011 10 .

Nasal Cavity Throat (pharynx) Nose Mouth Windpipe (Trachea) Bronchus Bronchiole Left lungs Ribs Alveolus 3/16/2011 11 Diaphragm MB .

The vocal folds modify the stream of air by creating resistance to it adduction. 12 . vibration of approximated vocal folds of the larynx and complex tone is generated Vowel sounds and voiced consonants phones.g. huh). abducted vocal folds (without vibration) and phonation 3/16/2011 does not occur. They are the so called the voiceless consonants (e. 3) Phonation As the expiratory air is expelled and leaves the lungs.1) Audition and ability to hear sound 2) Respiration It is the act of expelling a column of air past the vocal cord by the expiratory muscles.

the lips and the alveoli. oral and nasal cavities.4) Resonation Resonance is amplification of voice tone. 5) Articulation (modification of sounds) The breath stream is shaped into sounds through impedance produced by the various articulators. The sound waves produced at the vocal folds are selectively amplified. these cavities act as resonating chambers (resonators) permitted by neuromuscular control. the tongue. : the vocal folds. 6) Neurological integration All factors are highly coordinated by the central 3/16/2011nervous system. 13 . by changing in the volume (shape and size) of pharyngeal. the velum and the pharynx.

Anatomy and physiology of human respiration and phonation .

The Organs of Speech The The respiratory system phonatory system The articulatory system 3/16/2011 15 .

Organs of Speech Respiratory System Phonatory System Articulatory System Lungs Muscles of the chest Trachea Pharynx Lips Teeth Larynx Vocal cords Teeth ridge Roof of the mouth Tongue Hard palate Blade Soft palate Front Uvula Tip 3/16/2011 Back Rims 16 .

The Organs of Speech 3/16/2011 17 .

Aerodynamic Model Air flow from higher to lower pressure 3/16/2011 18 .

e. the hard convex surface just behind the upper front teeth ‡ The hard palate. i.e... the hard concave surface behind the teeth-ridge ‡ The soft palate.e.e. i. a small fleshy structure at the 3/16/2011 end of the soft palate 19 . i. i. the soft portion behind the hard palate ‡ The uvula.The Roof Of The Mouth The Roof Of The Mouth Can Be Subdivided Into Four Parts: ‡ The teeth-ridge or the alveolar ridge...

swallowing and mastication) Genioglossus  Hypoglossus  Palatoglossus  Styloglossus  3/16/2011 20 .Muscles of the tongue (speech.

Muscle of the pharynx    Pharyngeal constrictors Laryngeal elevators Palatal muscles 3/16/2011 21 .

‡In the larynx are two vocal cords. 3/16/2011 22 . which are like a pair of lips placed horizontally from front to back. at the top of which is the larynx. and the opening between them is called the glottis.The larynx ‡The air from the lungs comes through the wind pipe or trachea. trachea. ‡They are joined in the front. but can be separated at the back. cords. glottis.

3/16/2011 23 .

semicircular thyroid (Adam¶s apple) (connected upwards to hyoid bone by thyrohyoid muscle/ligament smaller. pyramid-shaped arytenoids sitting on top of posterior surface of cricoid  Vocal folds connect vocal process of arytenoids to inner front of thyroid cartilage 3/16/2011 24 Front view Rear view Side view View from top . solid cricoid with µsignet ring¶ shape: higher at back than front 2 small.Structure of the larynx  3 main cartilages:    large.

and they vibrate in three dimensions. 1 4 5 µCover¶ (outer layers) and µbody¶ (inner layers) of folds are often distinguished. 3 3/16/2011 6 After Stevens (1998) Acoustic Phonetics 25 .Vertical structure of the vocal folds during one vibratory cycle The folds are threedimensional. 2 The lower sections part first. The pattern of vibration is like a µwave¶ travelling up them. and come together first.

Starting and stopping voicing Front view Rear view Side view Abduction: arytenoids rotated backwards and apart (posterior cricoarytenoid muscle)  Adduction: arytenoids moved together Adduction: (interarytenoid. lateral cricoarytenoid muscles)  3/16/2011 26 .

lateral cricoarytenoid muscles)  3/16/2011 27 .Starting and stopping voicing Front view Rear view Side view Abduction: arytenoids rotated backwards and apart (posterior cricoarytenoid muscle)  Adduction: arytenoids moved together (interarytenoid.

Starting and stopping voicing Front view Rear view Side view Abduction: arytenoids rotated backwards and apart (posterior cricoarytenoid muscle)  Adduction: arytenoids moved together (interarytenoid. lateral cricoarytenoid muscles)  3/16/2011 28 .

so back of cricoid moves down and back. taking arytenoids with it and stretching/tensing vfs p vibrate faster vocalist ± shortens and tenses vocal folds 29 .Pitch control Front view Rear view Side view   3/16/2011 Increasing pitch: contracting cricothyroid muscle: pulls front of cricoid up towards thyroid.

so back of cricoid moves down and back.Pitch control Front view Rear view Side view   3/16/2011 Increasing pitch: contracting cricothyroid muscle: pulls front of cricoid up towards thyroid. taking arytenoids with it and stretching/tensing vfs p vibrate faster vocalist ± shortens and tenses vocal folds 30 .

the smallest meaningful units of the language . are combined to form morphemes (words). those smallest units which.words Morphemes Allophones variants of that sound. Consonants and Diphthongs). not carrying meaning themselves (Vowels. and they are appropriately grouped into a family. Vowels. called a "phoneme´ Phoneme (segmentation) Phoneme can have an 3/16/2011 infinite number of allophones it may be pronounced by many 31 different way .Articulation is the production of the speech sounds of language.

) the same phoneme but in reality the two sounds are different the r in ray is voiced and non fricative while the r in 3/16/2011 32 tray is voiceless and fricative .e.Phones vs Phonemes vs Allophone Phones acoustically different speech sounds Phonemes sounds of speech that takes a different meanings Pot vs dot Allophone Allophone different phones corresponding to the same phoneme Spin s(p)in vs pin (p h ) in Ray vs tray Ray and tray are the same sound (i.

aspiration present or absent.English . depending on position in syllable syllablesyllable-initial syllable-medial syllable-final syllablesyllablePit Tack Care [ph] [th] [kh] spit stack scare [p] [t] [k] sip sit sick [p] [t] [k] 3/16/2011 33 .

the phoneme /t/: .Allophones of /t/  What we would consider a single µsound¶ can be pronounced differently depending on the phonetic context. For example.

Some syllables have more energy than others Stressed syllables versus unstressed syllables (an) µINsult vs. Not well defined. (to) in¶SULT (an) µOBject vs. (to) ob¶JECT Unstressed vowels are generally transcribed as schwa:   Stress      3/16/2011 ax 35 . Something like a ³vowel nucleus with some of its surrounding consonants´.More phonetic structure  Syllables  Composed of vowels and consonants.

It relies on instrumental analysis to extract these properties Auditory phonetics is the study of perceptual response of speech sounds as mediated by ear. such as duration and energy. as transmitted between mouth and ear.Articulatory phonetics properties of the production mechanism. it is concerned with the movements of muscles and other bits of anatomy which produce human speech sounds Acoustic phonetics is the study of the physical properties of the speech sounds. 3/16/2011 auditory nerve and brain 36 .

There are 4 processes involved in speech production:production:- ‡The Air stream Process ‡The Phonation Process ‡The Oro-Nasal Process Oro‡The Articulatory Process 3/16/2011 37 .

 Three types of air-stream mechanism: air pulmonic in which the lungs and the respiratory muscles set the airairstream in motion (Contract lungs)  glottalic in which the larynx. with the glottis firmly closed. is moved up or down to initiate the air-stream air-  Velaric in which the back of the tongue in firm contact with the soft palate is pushed forward or pulled back to initiate the airair-stream ( Expand portion of oral cavity ) 3/16/2011 38 .

e.. the air is pushed out i. the air is pulled in e. Sounds of English and Hindi are produced with egressive pulmonic airairstream. These airair-streams can be:  Egressive..e. i.(sucking air airin ) 3/16/2011 39 ..e. Sindhi has some sounds produced with an ingressive glottalic air-stream. )  Ingressive..g.g. i. e.. (forcing air out.

All pulmonic sounds are either VOICED or VOICELESS.Phonation occurs at the GLOTTIS. in voiceless sounds There is usually a slight hiss produced at the glottis but no buzz. There are other possible positions for the vocal 3/16/2011 cords. 40 . . VOICED sounds: ADDucted V C. VOICELESS sounds : ABDUCTED V C. such as in WHISPER or CREAK.

That is. they open and close regularly many times a second. the vocal cords are drawn sounds. the glottis is open. If the vocal cords are held loosely together.The State of the Glottis (phonation Process)  When we breath in and out. the pressure of the air coming from the lungs makes them vibrate. sounds. wide apart producing voiceless sounds.  3/16/2011 41 . Sounds produced in this way are called voiced sounds. vibrate. that is.

Voicing Cords vibrating . leaving a sizeable gap between the vocal folds. This gap is what we call the GLOTTIS 3/16/2011 42 .voiced are accompanied by vibration of the VOCAL CORDS (ADDucted) Cords open ± voiceless sounds are produced with the vocal cords ABDUCTED.

There are 4 processes involved in speech production:production:- ‡The Air stream Process ‡The Phonation Process ‡The Oro-Nasal Process Oro‡The Articulatory Process 3/16/2011 43 .

State of the soft palate Oro-nasal process Raised Lowered Nasal passage blocked Oral sounds produced Nasal passage open Oral passage blocked Oral passage open Nasal sounds produced 3/16/2011 Nasalized sounds produced 44 .3.

3.State of the soft palate 3/16/2011 45 .

the upper teeth. the active articulator is moved towards the passive articulator.  3/16/2011 In the production of a consonant. 46 . the roof of the mouth and the back wall of the throat (or Pharynx).4-The Articulators  The organs of speech above the glottis are the articulators involved in the production of consonants:   Active articulator  the lower lip and the tongue Passive articulator  the upper lip.

PLACE ACTIVE ARTICULATOR PASSIVE ARTICULATOR Upper lip Upper teeth Upper teeth Alveolar ridge Hard palate Hard palate Velum (soft palate) Uvula 47 Bilabial Lower lip Lower lip Labio-dental Dental Tip of tongue Blade of tongue Alveolar Retroflex Tip of tongue Front of tongue Palatal Velar Uvular 3/16/2011 Middle of tongue Back of tongue .

Articulators Alveolar ridge teeth lips palate velum uvula pharyngeal larynx vocal folds:glottis trachea .

Places of articulation alveolar dental labial post-alveolar/palatal velar uvular pharyngeal laryngeal/glottal .


Sonants: are open voiced sounds relatively unimpeded by the oral valves 3.Consonants: are articulated speech sound A.g. .B). B -The fricatives: Characterized by friction of the air stream.Stops (plosives): Are characterized by complete stoppage of the air stream by the valves.Surds: are any voiceless sounds 2. /z/. /f/. P.Classification of sounds according to laryngeal action and manner of production 1.g. /S/. being forced through loosely closed articulators or narrow 3/16/2011 51 passageway e. building up of pressure in the oral cavity. and sudden release and explosion of the breath (e.

Nasal: A nasal is produced by a stricture of complete oral closure. L.g. N. R. but in this case there is no closure of nasal passage. W. H. Hw.Semi vowels: Involve the least impedance of the 3/16/2011 breath stream of all. The soft palate is lowered and the air passes through the nose.C.g. E. M E-The Glides: Involves relatively little impedance of air stream their distinctive characteristic is that they vary acoustically physiologically during their duration e. J.g. 52 . d3 D. F.g.The affricates: The affricates (also called "affricatives") are combinations of two consonants e. e.

Manner The MANNER of an articulation specifies the DEGREE of STRICTURE. i. a FRICATIVE or an APPROXIMANT. Any speech 3/16/2011 53 sound is therefore identifiable as a STOP. as follows:- STRICTURE Complete Closure DEFINITION Active & passive articulators touching: no air can escape through the oral tract CLASS Stops Articulators close enough to produce audible friction in Close Approximation the airstream.e. . We distinguish 3 different DEGREES of STRICTURE. the narrowing of the oral tract. but air can escape orally Fricatives Open Articulators not close enough Approxim Approximation to produce audible friction ants All speech sounds must fall into one of these three categories. which is required to produce a particular sound.

Sounds according to laryngeal action and manner of production .

consonants and 3.Classification of sounds according to The Place of Articulation This method of classification of sounds is probably most meaningful to the prosthodontist since it highlights those consonants most affected by dental conditions 1. 3/16/2011 55 .Vowels (Sonants) 2.Diphthongs.

3/16/2011 56 .

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