• Nuclear energy. • Nuclear power plants. • Nuclear reactors.
NUCLEAR ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
INSTALLED GENERATING CAPACITY (AS ON 31-06-2006)
THERMAL ( COAL AND GAS) HYDROELECTRIC RENEWABLE NUCLEAR TOTAL
83.7 GW 33.2 GW 6.2 GW 3.2 GW 127 GW
PROJECT REQUIREMENTS BY THE YEAR 2031-32 THERMAL(COAL 390 GW AND GAS) HYDROELECTRIC 150 GW RENEWABLE NUCLEAR TOTAL 97 GW 63 GW 700 GW
NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN INDIA
DIFFERENT TYPES OF REACTORS
• Based on neutron energy.
2.Fast reactor. In these reactors the fission is affected by fast neutrons without any use of moderators. 2. Thermal reactors. In this the fast neutrons are slowed by the use of moderators. The slow neutrons are absorbed by the fissionable fuel and chain reaction is maintained. The moderator is most essential component in these reactors.
• BASES OF FUEL USED
2.NATURAL FUEL. In this reactor the natural uranium is used as fuel and generally heavy water or graphite is used as a moderator. 2. ENRICHED URANIUM. In this reactor, the uranium used contains 5 to 10 % U-235 and ordinary water can be used as moderator.
• BASIS OF MODERATOR USED
1. 2. 3. 4. WATER MODERATOR HEAVY WATER MODERATOR GRAPHITE MODERATOR BERYLLIUM MODERATOR
• BASES OF COOLANT USED 1. WATER COOLED REACTORS 2.GAS COOLED REACTORS 3. LIQUID METAL COOLED REACTORS 4. ORGANIC COOLED REACTORS.
• In a PWR, there are two separate coolant loops (primary and secondary), which are both filled with ordinary water. • The pressure in the primary coolant loop is typically 15-16 Megapascal, which is notably higher than in other nuclear reactors. • Coolant used in PWR is mainly water. It flows at a temperature of 315 °C(600 °F). • The water remains liquid despite the high temperature due to the high pressure in the primary coolant loop (usually around 2200 psig [15 MPa, 150 atm]).
PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR
A PRESSURIZED HEAVY WATER REACTOR
ADVANTAGES OF PWR
• PWR reactors are very stable due to their tendency to produce less power as temperatures increase, this makes the reactor easier to operate from a stability standpoint. • PWR reactors can be operated with a core containing less fissile material than is required for them to go prompt critical. This significantly reduces the chance that the reactor will run out of control and makes PWR designs relatively safe from criticality accidents. • Because PWR reactors use enriched uranium as fuel they can use ordinary water as a moderator rather than the much more expensive heavy water as used in a pressurised heavy water reactor. • PWR turbine cycle loop is separate from the primary loop, so the water in the secondary
DISADVANTAGES OF PWR
• High strength piping and a heavy pressure vessel are required for highly pressurized coolant and hence increases construction costs. • Most pressurized water reactors cannot be refueled while operating. This decreases the availability of the reactor- it has to go offline for comparably long periods of time (some weeks). • Corrosion of carbon steel due to the presence of boric acid in coolant, limits the lifetime of the reactor and also increases
• Water absorbs neutrons making it necessary to enrich the uranium fuel, which increases the costs of fuel production. If heavy water is used it is possible to operate the reactor with natural uranium, but the production of heavy water requires large amounts of energy and is hence expensive. • Because water acts as a neutron moderator it is not possible to build a fast neutron reactor with a PWR design. For this reason it is not possible to build a fast breeder reactor with water coolant. • Because the reactor produces energy more slowly at higher temperatures, a sudden cooling of the reactor coolant could increase power production until safety systems shut
BWR(BOILING WATER REACTOR)
ADVANTAGES OF BWR
• The reactor vessel and associated components operate at a substantially lower pressure compared to a PWR . • Pressure vessel is subject to significantly less irradiation compared to a PWR, and so does not become as brittle with age. • Operates at a lower nuclear fuel temperature. • Fewer components due to no steam generators and no pressurizer vessel. • Lower risk (probability) of a rupture causing loss of coolant compared to a PWR, and lower risk of a severe accident should such a rupture occur
DISADVANTAGES OF BWR
• Much larger pressure vessel than for a PWR of similar power, with correspondingly higher cost. • Contamination of the turbine by shortlived activation products. • Complex operational calculations for managing the utilization of the nuclear fuel in the fuel elements during power production. More incore nuclear instrumentation is required.
CANDU(CANADIAN DEUTERIUM URANIUM)
Key 7 1 Fuel bundle 2 Calandria 8 (reactor core) Adjuster rods 9
Heavy water pump Fueling machines Heavy water moderator Pressure tube
Heavy water pressure 10 reservoir
Steam generator 11
Steam going to steam turbine Cold water returning from turbine
Light water 12 pump Building made of RCC
• The "whole idea" of the CANDU design is that the uranium does not have to be enriched, but simply formed into ceramic natural uranium-dioxide fuel. This saves on the construction of an enrichment plant, and on the costs of processing the fuel.
GAS COOLED REACTORS
• Uses graphite as a neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant. • The GCR was able to use natural uranium as fuel. • Two main types of GCR:4.Magnox reactors developed by United Kingdom. 5.UNGG reactors developed by France. • The main difference between these two types is in the fuel cladding material. • Both types used fuel cladding materials that were unsuitable for medium term storage under water, making reprocessing an
• Magnox reactors are pressurised, carbon dioxide-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors using natural uranium (i.e. unenriched) as fuel and magnox alloy as fuel cladding. • Boron-steel control rods were used. • Magnox is short for Magnesium nonoxidising. • Advantage of a low neutron capture crosssection. • Disadvantages are:• It limits the maximum temperature, and hence the thermal efficiency, of the plant. • It reacts with water, preventing long-term
A Typical view of Magnox reactor
UNGG (Uranium Natural Graphite Gaz)
• It was graphite moderated, cooled by carbon dioxide, and fueled with natural uranium metal. • Fuel cladding material, was magnesiumzirconium alloy .
METAL COOLED REACTOR
• Metal Cooled Reactors usually use liquid sodium or a combination of sodium and potassium. Sometimes these are called breeder, fast, or fast breeder reactors. • Liquid metal has great heat transfer properties so that the reactor can be operated at much lower pressures and higher temperatures. • Coolants used are :• Mercury, NaK, molten sodium, molten lead.
ADVANTAGES OF METAL COOLED REACTORS
• High temperature can be achieved in the cycle and that means high thermal efficiency at low cost and low cost power. • The sodium as a coolant need not to be pressurized. • The neutron absorption cross-section of sodium is low and therefore, it is best suited to thermal reaction with slightly enriched fuel. • Then low cost graphite moderator can be used as it can retain its mechanical properties and strength at high temperature . • In other reactors, the loss of coolant increase the reactivity because of the removal of neutron absorber. in each case the reactor must be shutdown by safety rod otherwise it may cause severe over heating. • The reactor size is comparatively small.
DISADVANTAGES OF METAL COOLED REACTORS
• The neutron economy is reduced with an increase in temperature because the high energy neutrons are subjected to resonance peaks when the moderators is hot and increase the chances of non fissionable absorption of neutrons. • It is always necessary to keep the graphite and sodium separate as porous graphite may absorb sodium and increase the absorption capacity of the graphite. The penetration of sodium between the layers of graphite can cause mechanical failure. • It is necessary to shield the primary and secondary cooling system with concrete block and as sodium becomes highly radioactive due to neutron bombardment.
• A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that consumes fissile and fertile material at the same time as it creates new fissile material. • Breeders can be designed to utilize Thorium, which is more abundant than Uranium. • Production of fissile material in a reactor occurs by neutron irradiation of fertile material, particularly Uranium-238 and Thorium-232.
Types of breeder reactors
• The fast breeder reactor or FBR.
Initial fuel charge of plutonium, requires only natural (or even depleted) uranium feedstock as input to its fuel cycle. This fuel cycle has been termed the plutonium economy.
• The thermal breeder reactor.
Initial fuel charge of enriched uranium, plutonium, requires only thorium as input to its fuel cycle. Thorium-232 produces Uranium-233 after neutron capture and beta decay.
VVER(Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reactor or WWER)
• PRIMARY COOLING CIRCUIT
• • • • • • • • • • Reactor. Pressurizer. Steam Generator. Pump. SECONDARY COOLING CIRCUIT Steam generator. Turbine. Condenser. Deareator. Pump.
VIEW OF VVER
• A typical design feature of nuclear reactors are layered safety barriers preventing escape of radioactive material. The VVER reactors have four layers: • Fuel pellets: Radioactive elements are retained within the crystal structure of the fuel pellets • Fuel rods: The zircaloy tubes provide a further barrier resistive to heat and high pressure. • Reactor Shell: A massive steel shell encases the whole fuel assembly hermetically. • Reactor Building: The concrete containment building that encases the whole first circuit is strong enough to resist the pressure
• The main fuel materials which are used are natural uranium (0.7% U-235), enriched uranium, plutonium(secondary fuel) and U-233. • Resources of U-235: Granite rocks 4ppm uranium sediments originated from volcanic rocks Sea water 3% uranium Very low (about 3.3 microgram uranium)
PROPERTIES OF URANIUM FUEL
1. High tensile strength at high temperature is necessary to prevent the buckling of fuel elements and to bear thermal stresses. 2. High thermal conductivity . 3. Better machinability and higher ductility are desired as the cost of machining is reduced. 4. The fuel element must be corrosion resistant so that the element if exposed to the coolant will not corrode away and enter the coolant system. 5. The fuel should have high radiation stability, so that nuclear radiation will not
ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF URANIUM FUEL
• Natural uranium. • chemically stable at room temperature
but oxidizes rapidly even at low temperature (100° C). The uranium is strongly corroded in the presence of water. The uranium melts at 1129°C. • The rate of reaction is less in presence of CO2, therefore, uranium fuel can be operated safely upto 450°C in CO2 cooled reactor.
• Uranium oxide.
• It is a brittle ceramic, produced as a powder and then sintered to form fuel pellets. • Advantages of UO2 fuel over the natural uranium are • As it is already oxidized, it is more stable than natural uranium and presents less problems of oxidation. • UO2 does not present the problems of phase changes. Therefore, it can be used for higher temperature(2750°C melting temperature). • UO2 does not corrode as easily as natural uranium.
DISADVANTAGES OF UO2
• low thermal conductivity (1.80 Kcal/m-hr°C). • The enrichment is necessary with the use of UO2. • Being more brittle than natural uranium, it tries to crack under the thermal stresses. • The UO2 may disintegrate into a powder and this causes serious consequences if the can fails. • The powder is oxidized to U4O9 by carbon dioxide, which is far inferior in physical properties compared with UO2. This
• It is a black ceramic used in the form of pellets. It has high density, high melting point , possesses good thermal conductivity and is free from the trouble of phase change. • It is more stable under irradiation and gives high rate of reaction with CO2. • The use of uranium carbide is not yet economically justified.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FUEL
FUEL DENSI TY Melting point in °C 1129 2750 2350 Specific Thermal heat in conductiv Kcal/kg°C ity in Kcal/mhr-°C 0.037 26.3 0.078 1.80 20.6 Coefficie nt of linear expansion 10 -6°C 18.20 12.9 10.5
Natura 19000 l uraniu 10600 UO2 m UC 13600
• The cladding material is necessary to prevent the fuel from corrosion by the coolant. • Properties of a good cladding material are:• It must have high resistance to corrosion during operation under high temperature and pressure. • It must have high thermal conductivity. • It must maintain high strength. • It must have high melting point. • It should be non-toxic.
CLADDING AND STRUCTURAL MATERIAL
• MAGNESIUM.(used in gas cooled reactors) • low neutron absorption cross-section, high resistance to oxidation. Easily fabricated. • it has high thermal expansion and it catches fire at a temperature above its melting point. • BERYLLIUM. It has low neutron absorption section, high melting point. • Low ductility, more toxic, difficult to fabricate and costly compared with magnesium and stainless steel.
• STAINLESS STEEL. High resistance to oxidation and better machinabilty. • Higher thermal expansion. • This is generally preferred in fast breeder reactors. • ZIRCONIUM. is preferred as best an material due to its better physical and nuclear properties. • High resistance to corrosion even at high pressure and temperature. • The only undesirable characteristic is high cost and scrap left after machining cannot be re-used. • It is generally used in PWR and BWR
• GASES:• better thermal and radiation stability, ease of handling and absence of hazardous conditions. • CO2 is most common coolant used due to its low cost and it is free from toxics and explosion hazards. • LIQUID METAL COOLANT:• Generally Li, Bismuth, lead, sodium are used. • ORGANIC LIQUIDS:• The benzene, biphenyl and terphenyle are
DISPOSAL OF NUCLEAR WASTE
• Ground. This is the cheapest and easy method of disposal because soil absorbs radio-active material easily. Such disposal is permissible mostly in areas of low rainfall at points which are high above the ground level. • AIR. The disposal of radio-active gases into air creates a lot of problems. Because of strong radioactive gases like iodine and strontium are absorbed by the plants and they enters the human body through the food. Cesium is absorbed in muscle and strontium in bones and paralysis the
OCEAN. • At many places the liquid waste is disposed of to the ocean through the pipes carried from the plant to the point of disposal. In disposing the waste into the sea it should not be very harmful to the fish life and seaweed which is harvested for human used. • The danger of disposal in sea water is indirect and depends on the absorption of radio-active elements, like cesium and strontium by plankton and then through the biological chain to the edible fishes
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