State of the Philippine Environment

Center for Environmental Concerns ± Philippines

Outline
1. Natural Resources ± Biodiversity ± Forest Resources ± Agricultural resources ± Mineral Resources ± Freshwater and Marine Resources 2. The Philippine Environmental Crisis 3. People¶s Struggle

Great and exciting advances Information technology, automation, genetics and medicine

Greatest challenges Famine and hunger, rapid ecological destruction, breakdown of health systems, social decay and disintegration

processes. clothing.Man¶s interaction with nature ‡Resources for the production of his needs ‡Food. technologies Man¶s interaction with man ‡Relations with others ‡Dominance of a segment of society over others ‡Current dominance of monopoly capital . shelter ‡Tools.

The Philippine Natural Resources .

» Biodiversity ‡ Identified as one of the world¶s biologically richest countries ‡ Has among the highest rates of discovery in the world. ‡ Highest number of endemic endangered species. percentage: 3. ‡ Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area.31 (2000) .

. Makiling has more tree species than the whole of USA.Mt.

The country is one of the few nations that is. in its entirety. placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation. . both a hotspot and a megadiversity country.

2002 1139 435 3131 558 25 788 49% 6% 25% 300.COUNTRY Total species Endemic Species % Endemic Land Area (km2) Philippines Spain Brazil Source: Heaney.965 .171 8.511.780 451.

6% Annual deforestation rate: 2.» Forest Resources Total land area: 30.563 ha Total forest land: 15.009 ha Total forest area: 7.000 ha % of land area: 24% (2005) Primary forest cover: 829.000 ha % of land area: 2.1% .847.001.8% % total forest area: 11.162.

1900s 70% 1988 23% 2010 6% .

000 km2 1500 1900 1950 1990 .000 50.000 150.000 0 1400 (400 years) Spanish colonization 270.Deforestation Forest Cover in the Philippines 300.000 200.000 km2 (40 years) Post EDSA Revolution 8.000 km2 (50 years) Philippine Independence 150.000 100.000 km2 American colonization 210.000 250.

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3 million hectares of prime agricultural lands .» Agricultural Resources ‡13 million hectares or 43% of total land area are classified as agricultural lands ‡10.

Land Monopoly -1/3 of landlords in the country owns 80% of agricultural lands. lease. -of the agricultural areas nationwide about 51% is under tenancy. . and other forms of tenurial arrangements -The most fertile lands are used by businesses while marginal lands are cultivated 7 out of 10 farmers do not have lands to till.

tuna (10%).50% Top agricultural imports: rice (25%). banana fresh (10%).wheat and meslin (9%) .milk and cream and products (8%) .90% B Top agricultural exports: coconut oil (27%). pineapple and products (7%) From a rice exporter to a rice net importer Agricultural trade deficit: P 169 billion Imports ‡ ‡ ‡ Value of total agricultural imports: P 342 billion % agriculture in total imports:13.Exports ‡ ‡ ‡ Value of total agricultural exports: P 173 B % agriculture in total exports: 7.

6th in Chromite deposits. 4th in Copper. ‡Has the potential to be among the 10 largest mining powers of the world ‡Est.» Mineral Resources Considered to be 5th mineralized country in the world ‡3rd in Gold. 5th in Nickel. worth US$840B-US$1 trillion .

Colonial Plunder of Minerals ‡ Spanish colonization .Conquer SSM communities ‡ American colonization .1930s gold boom ‡ Neocolonial puppet governments -Liberalization .Laws = systematic exploitation .

Mining Act of 1995 ‡ 60 priority large-scale mining projects mostly owned by foreign mining TNCs ‡ Only 32 out of hundreds that are allowed have approved Social Development and Management Programs .

Lafayette Mining Inc. 2005 . Rapu.Rapu. Albay.

Mining ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ecological Destruction Human Rights Violations Community Displacement Threats to Health Dubious Economic Gains .

» Marine and Freshwater Resources ‡ Philippines is richest in marine biodiversity ‡ Has the longest discontinuous coastline and one of the richest coral reefs in the world ‡ Overflowing water resources .

‡ 2 out of 5 Filipinos (34%) do not get water from formal sources for domestic consumption ‡Lowest annual per capita availability of freshwater ‡Drinking water costly and privatized ‡Only 65% of Philippine households have access to potable water ‡only 45% of the irrigable lands are irrigated ‡158 of 421 rivers unsafe for drinking . BUT..Freshwater Resources About 90% of the country¶s freshwater resources deemed available for human use.

.500 fish species ‡Rich coral reefs. surpassing the Great Barrier Reef of Australia.Marine Resources ‡Around 2. with 488 out of 800 known species worldwide ‡Longest discontinuous coastline worldwide ‡The Philippines is among the largest fish producers in the world RP regarded as "Center of Marine Biodiversity" in the world.

Marine Resources Depletion ‡ Overfishing: 90% fish stocks depleted in 50 years ‡ Degradation of marine environment: only 4% of coral reefs in good condition ‡ Monopoly control of fishery resources ‡ Open access policies ‡ Privatization of municipal fisheries .

The Philippine Environmental Crisis .

Air Pollution and Climate Change .

Coal Consumption .

Disasters in the Philippines .

Number of Reported Disasters per Country in 2009 Source: CRED.Figure 5. 2010 Figure 6. . Source: CDRC Database. 2009. Disaster Affected Population 2008. 2009.

Philippine economy ‡ Mainly extractive ‡ Export-oriented ‡ Dominated by TNCs. local elite ‡ Dependent on foreign capital and technologies .

Environmental Crisis ‡ Rapid destruction of the environment: ‡ Direct result of rapid. unchecked appropriation of resources for the benefit of a few. environmental destruction environment plunder .

Capitalism as root cause of crisis Characteristics of capitalist production  Production for profit  Anarchic  Wasteful and pollutive  Monopoly on production. raw materials and war . resources. capital  Division of the world ±market.

Role of International Finance     International finance capital Stimulate production and sale of consumer goods Cover debt service burden and budgetary deficits Developing countries forced to follow rescriptions of the IMF and the WB which open up resources and markets .

Philippine Government Large scale plunder of the environment without benefit to the majority of our people Government policies promotes Neoliberal Globalization  Biofuels Act  Oil deregulation law  Mining Act 1995  EPIRA  Forestry Code  Corruption .

Killings of Environmental Activists .

What must be done? .

and prosperity. sovereignty.Rich Natural Resource Base + Skilled Forces of Production Potential for national industrialization. selfsufficiency. .

The struggle for the environment is a struggle for the people. .

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