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Approaches VS Types
In relation to qualitative research, the terms approaches and types are sometimes used interchangeably.
A general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research.
APPROACHES TO QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
According to Sharan B. Merriam (-) 1. Interpretive qualitative approach 2. Critical qualitative approach 3. Postmodern or post-structural qualitative approach
Interpretative Qualitative Approach
³Learning how individuals experience & interact with their social world´
Critical Qualitative Approach
³Learning how the social and political aspects of situation shape the reality´
³Questioning all aspects of the construction of reality, what is and what is not, how it is organized, and so on´
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
According to Sharan B. Merriam 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Narrative Inquiry Case Study Ethnography Action Research Mixed Method Phenomenology Grounded Theory
Definition Narrative inquiry is the interdisciplinary study of the activities involved in generating and analyzing stories of life experiences (e.g., life histories, narrative interviews, journals, diaries, memoirs, autobiographies, biographies) and reporting that kind of research. (Schwandt, 2007, p. 204)
Charateristics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Flexibility Experiences of an individual Life stories Coding field texts Re-story from the field text Collaboration between researcher and others the importance learning from participants is emphasized
Definition An Exploration of ³a bounded system´ or a case (or multiple cases) overtime through detailed, indepth data collection involving multiple sources of information rich in context. (Cresswell, 1998)
Charateristics (According to Robert K. Yin, 1994) 1. typically to answer questions like ³how´ or ³why´ 2. investigator has a little/no possibility to control the events 3. contemporary phenomenon in a real-life context 4. Case study is an empirical inquiry
Definition A systematic study of a particular cultural group or phenomenon wherein an ethnography researcher focuses on the cultural interpretation.(Frances Julia Riemer, 2008)
Charateristics (According to Nurani, 2008) 1. The observation takes place in natural setting 2. Event is perceived and interpreted by the people in a speech community 3. Holistics 4. Hypothesis emerges as the data collection occurs
Definition An approach that involves both action and research (Burns in Heigham and Crocker, 2008) in which this kind of research focuses on improving quality of an organization (a group) and its performance (North Central Regional Educational Laboratory).
Charateristics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Practical focus The educator- researcher¶s own practice Collaboration A dynamic process A plan of action A sharing research
An approach that combines both qualitative and quantitative research methods in a single study (Crocker in Heigham and Crocker, 2008:15) to understand a research problem (Cresswell, 2008)
arateristics 1. Minimizing weaknesses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
2. Recognizing the value of knowledge as Practical focus Theconstructed through own practice means educator- researcher·s qualitative 3. It rejects the dualism Collaboration
A dynamic process A plan of action A sharing research
Definition A study that describes the meaning of the lived experiences for several individuals about a concept or phenomenon. (Cresswell, 2008)
Charateristics 1. Describe participants¶ experiences of a phenomenon 2. Gain insight into participants¶ lifeworlds 3. Get participants to bracket or suspend their preconceptions 4. Search for the invariant structures or essences of participants¶ experiences
Definition ³is a general methodology for developing theory that is grounded in data systematically gathered and analyzed´. (Glasser& Strauss)
Inductive & Bottom up approach to generate a theory. Theoretical saturation.
inductive or bottom-up approach
Charateristics (according to Glasser & Strauss) 1. 2. 3. 4. Fit Understanding Generality inductive or bottom-up approach Control