Amity Business School

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions

Presented By: Soumya Singh [C-12] Malvica Chak [C-50]
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anxiety. ‡ If understood and applied properly. ‡ Geert Hofstede's research gives us insights into other cultures so that we can be more effective when interacting with people in other countries. this information reduces the level of frustration.Definition Amity Business School ‡ Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimensions can be of great use when it comes to analyzing a country¶s culture. 2 . and concern.

Power/Distance (PD) Amity Business School ‡ It is the degree of inequality that exists ± and is accepted ± among people with and without power. It also means that society members view themselves as equals. powerful leaders were in attendance. Application: In a high PD country like Malaysia (104): ‡ One would probably send reports only to top management ‡ Have closed door meetings where only a select few. 3 . ‡ A high PD score indicates that society accepts an unequal distribution of power and people understand "their place" in the system. ‡ Low PD means that power is shared and well dispersed.

authority. ‡Be aware that you may need to go to the top for answers ‡Use teamwork ‡Involve as many people as possible in decision making. Low PD ‡Flatter organizations. 4 . ‡Large gaps in compensation. and respect. ‡Supervisors and employees are considered almost as equals.Power/Distance (PD) Characteristics High PD ‡Centralized companies. ‡Strong hierarchies. Amity Business School Tips ‡Acknowledge a leader's power.

Application: Countries like Panama and Guatemala where the IDV scores are very low (11 and 6) ‡ Marketing campaign that emphasized benefits to the community would likely be understood and well-received. 5 .Individualism (IDV) Amity Business School ‡ It is the strength of the ties people have with others within the community. ‡ A society with a low IDV score would have strong group cohesion. beyond family and perhaps a few close friends. In countries with a high IDV score there is a lack of interpersonal connection and little sharing of responsibility. and there would be a large amount of loyalty and respect for members of the group. ‡ A high IDV score indicates a loose connection with people.

and an expectation of rewards for hard work. ‡Respect traditions and introduce change slowly. ‡Don't ask for too much personal information. Low IDV ‡Emphasis on building skills and ‡Show respect for age and becoming masters of something.Individualism (IDV) Characteristics High IDV ‡High valuation of people's time and their need for freedom. wisdom. ‡Encourage debate and expression of own ideas. ‡Harmony more important than honesty. ‡Respect for privacy. Amity Business School Tips ‡Acknowledge accomplishments. ‡An enjoyment of challenges. 6 .

Masculinity (MAS) Amity Business School ‡ This refers to how much a society sticks with. traditional male and female roles. they have separate professions from men. to be the provider. Application: Japan is highly masculine with a score of 95. to be assertive and to be strong. the roles are simply blurred. Men are allowed to be sensitive and women can work hard for professional success. ‡ High MAS scores are found in countries where men are expected to be tough. 7 . We see women and men working together equally across many professions. ‡ In a low MAS society. and values. If women work outside the home. we might have greater success if we appointed a male employee to lead the team. ‡ To open an office in Japan.

‡There is a well defined distinction between men's work and women's work.Masculinity (MAS) Amity Business School Characteristics High MAS ‡Men are masculine and women are feminine. 8 . ‡Avoid an "old boys' club" mentality. ‡Advise men to avoid discussing emotions or making emotion-based decisions or arguments. Low MAS ‡A woman can do anything a man can do. ‡Treat men and women equally. Tips ‡Be aware that people may expect male and female roles to be distinct. ‡Powerful and successful women are admired and respected.

Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI) Amity Business School ‡ This is the degree of anxiety society members feel when in uncertain or unknown situations. ‡ Low UAI scores indicate the society enjoys novel events and values differences. ‡ High UAI-scoring nations try to avoid ambiguous situations whenever possible. 9 . They are governed by rules and order and they seek a collective "truth". There are very few rules and people are encouraged to discover their own truth. One should investigate the various options and then present a limited number of choices. ‡ But should have very detailed information available on contingency and risk plans. Application: Belgium is very high on UAI (94) ‡ When discussing a project with Belgian Organization.

‡Need and expect structure. ‡Express your emotions through hands gestures and raised voices. . Tips ‡Be clear and concise about your expectations and parameters. ‡Minimize your emotional response by being calm and contemplating situations before speaking. ‡Express curiosity when you discover differences. 10 Low UAI ‡Informal business attitude. ‡Accepting of change and risk. ‡Differences are avoided.Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI) Amity Business School Characteristics High UAI ‡Very formal business conduct with lots of rules and policies. ‡Do not impose rules or structure unnecessarily. ‡More concern with long term strategy than what is happening on a daily basis.

‡ Likely to be willing to help you execute the most innovative plans as long as they get to participate fully. 11 . ‡ In countries with a high LTO score. ‡ Fifth dimension that Hofstede added in the 1990s: Asian countries with a strong link to Confucian philosophy acted differently from western cultures. ‡ This suggests that one can pretty much expect anything in this culture in terms of creative expression. Application: People in the United States and United Kingdom have low LTO scores. delivering on social obligations and avoiding "loss of face" are considered very important.Long Term Orientation (LTO) Amity Business School ‡ This refers to how much society values long-standing ± as opposed to short term ± traditions and values.

Tips ‡Show respect for traditions. ‡Be respectful of others. and commitment. ‡High creativity. ‡Treat others as you would like to be treated. loyalty. ‡Do not display extravagance or act frivolously. ‡Do not hesitate to introduce necessary changes. individualism.Long Term Orientation (LTO) Amity Business School Characteristics High LTO ‡Family is the basis of society. ‡Reward perseverance. ‡Parents and men have more authority than young people and women. ‡Strong work ethic. ‡Promotion of equality. Low LTO 12 . ‡Expect to live by the same standards and rules you create. ‡Self-actualization is sought.

is the data up to date? How much does the culture of a country change over time. how accurate is the data? The data has been collected through questionnaires. ‡ Secondly. which have their own limitations. Even though this model has proven to be quite often correct when applied to the general population. the averages of a country do not relate to individuals of that country. either by internal or external influences? 13 . ‡ Lastly.Drawbacks of applying the Hofstede Model Amity Business School ‡ Firstly.

Amity Business School Thank You« 14 .

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