Patricia Caldani MS

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Define the cell theory Describe the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Be familiar with the basic organelles and the roles of the different organelles Describe the function of the plasma membrane Explain how active transport differs from passive transport Define osmosis and be able to predict the direction of water movement based upon differences in solute concentration

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Cell is the basic unit of structure and function. Spontaneous Generation: The idea that things or organisms just __________________.

Light microscope (LM): visible light passes through the specimen and then through glass lenses. Electron microscope (EM): focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface. Magnification is the ratio of an object·s image to its real size. Resolving power is a measure of image clarity.

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Composed of smaller parts packaged together to form a fully functioning whole Organelles have their own unique functions, and are ____________________ together

ƒ Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in organisms.Š Š Cell theory lays out the basic rules that apply to the smallest unit of life. This cell doctrine states that: ƒ All organisms are composed of one or more cells. ƒ All cells _________________ only from other cells. .

Š Š Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells .

Š Š Š Š Š Š Pro = ´beforeµ. The only membrane in prokaryotic cells is the plasma membrane--the outer boundary of the cell itself. Ribosomes are their organelle. Always single-celled Reproduce by ______________ fission . karyon = ´nucleusµ Lack a __________________-bound nucleus.

Prokaryotic cells lack characteristic Eukaryotic sub cellular membrane enclosed ´organellesµ .Prokaryotes are molecules surrounded by a membrane and cell wall.

.Š Š SAME As bacteria since they ____________ a nucleus and don·t have membrane bound organelles. DIFFERENT in that they have _______________ that are more like a Eukaryotic cell.

Š Š Eu = ´trueµ. karyon = ´nucleusµ Possess: ƒ Nucleus ƒ Plasma membrane ƒ Organelles Š Eukaryotic cells can reproduce via meiosis and mitosis .

Š differ in size and complexity All cells are surrounded by__________________ membrane. All cells have ribosomes All cells contain chromosomes that have genes in the form of DNA. Š Š Š .

small structures that help carry out the day-to-day operations of the cell.Š Š Š Š Š Š Š Š Š Š There are many organelles inside of the cell . ER Golgi Apparatus Ribosomes Nucleus Mitochondria Lysosomes Chloroplast Vacuoles Vesicles .

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Is the protective layer that covers the cell·s surface. Found in all cells Description :Double layer of phospholipids with proteins Selectively permeable Support Protection Controls _________________________ of materials in/out of cell Barrier between cell and its environment Maintains homeostasis .

but not animal cells Description: Outer layer. . Fungi. prevents excessive uptake of water. & Bacteria. made of cellulose Protects the cell. Rigid & strong .Found only in PLANT cells Gives ______________ to the cell Location: Plant. maintains its shape.

The ER includes membranous tubules and internal. In muscle cells releases calcium to trigger muscle contractions Rough ER looks rough because ribosomes are __________________ to the outside The ribosomes assemble amino acids into units of proteins . fluid-filled spaces Two connected regions of ER: Smooth ER looks smooth because it ________________ ribosomes. involved with the production of lipids (fats). carbohydrate metabolism. and detoxification of drugs and poisons.

Location: All cells except prokaryotes Description Network of tubes or membranes Smooth without ribosomes Rough with embedded ribosomes Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane .A folded membrane that moves material in the cell ER is part of the internal delivery system ER is responsible for moving proteins and other carbohydrates to the Golgi Body.

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-Sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles. and shipping. -Center of manufacturing. -Gathers simple molecules and combines them to make complex molecules . sorting.Many _____________________vesicles from the ER travel to the Golgi apparatus for modification of their contents. warehousing.

Š Ribosomes participate in protein synthesis. Š Š Š Site where translation occurs. Found floating in the Cytoplasm or in the Endoplasmic Reticulum. A ribosome is made up of two subunits . ƒ are the protein ______________ or the protein synthesizers of the cell.

Š Š Š Location: All cells Small bodies free or attached to ER Made of rRNA & protein .

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The cell nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. -The nucleus directs protein synthesis by synthesizing messenger RNA (mRNA).The cell nucleus acts like the brain of the cell. . The cell nucleus contains most of the genes in a eukaryotic cell. Pores: regulate the passage of certain large macromolecules and particles.

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Location: All cells except prokaryotes Found inside the cell's nucleus Function Make ribosomes .

Location: All cells except prokaryotes Surrounds nucleus Double membrane Selectively permeable Function Controls movement of materials in/out of nucleus .

thrive. Chromosomes are made up of DNA. Usually uncoiled and loose strands called chromatin. During reproduction they wrap up very tightly. and reproduce. Completing the Sets Have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) Chromosomes work with other nucleic acids in the cell to build proteins and help in cell division. .Carry all of the information used to help a cell grow. Find chromosomes and genetic material in the Nucleus Loose and Tight Chromosomes are not always visible.

Š Referred to as the ___________ plants of the cell .

Location: All cells except prokaryotes Description: Double membrane Outer membrane smooth Inner membrane folded into cristae Function: A. Breaks down sugar B. Site of aerobic cellular respiration .

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or ______________________________ .Š Š Š Lysosomes hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. Little digestion machines which work when the cell absorbs or eats some food. ƒ Important role in development. These enzymes work best at pH______ ƒ Rupture of one or a few lysosomes has little impact on a cell ƒ Massive rupture of many lysosomes can destroy a cell Š . Š The lysosomes play a critical role in the programmed destruction of cells in multicellular organisms. ƒ called programmed cell death.

Organelle that eats worn out cell parts. and Plant cells Description Small and round with a single membrane Function Breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules . Location: Animal cells. It contains digestive enzymes.

Š Š Š Ducks have no lysosomal activity between digits of toes = webbed feet Chickens have activity = no Lack of apoptosis in humans can lead to webbed fingers called syndactyly .

and thylakoid space. The membranes divide the chloroplast into three compartments: intermembrane space. stroma. Found in leaves and other green organs of plants and algae. The stroma: contains DNA. ribosomes. The thylakoids: flattened sacs that play a critical role in converting light to chemical energy.Sites of _______________________________________ They convert solar energy to chemical energy and synthesize new organic compounds such as sugars from CO2 and H2O. . and enzymes.

oval containing chlorophyll (green pigment) thylakoids : Grana: Stroma: Function: Uses energy from sun to make food for the plant-photosynthesis .Location: Plants and algae Description : Green.

large storage bubble that holds things the plant needs Vacuoles are found in both animal and plant cells. The functions of the vacuole include: Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell Containing waste products Containing water in plant cells Maintaining hydrostatic pressure/turgor Maintaining an _______________________pH Exporting unwanted substances from the cell .

.Plants use cell walls to provide ______________and surround cells. Most of a plant cell's volume depends on the material in vacuoles. A drooping plant has lost much of its water and the vacuoles are shrinking. .

Small sack that moves material in and out of the cell. Location: Plant cells have a single. large vacuole Animal cells have small vacuoles Description: Fluid-filled sacs ________________________ organelle in plant cells Function Store food. water. metabolic & toxic wastes .

Break fatty acids down to smaller molecules that for cellular respiration. Contains an enzyme that converts H2O2 to water.Š Š Š Š Contain enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen. Peroxisomes in the liver detoxify alcohol .

The ____________________-like material inside of the cell membrane. jellylike material (cytosol) Organelles found inside cell membrane Contains the cytoskeleton fibers Function: Supports and protects cell organelles . thick. Keeps organelles in place Location: All cells Description: Clear.

Š Š Š Š Location: All cells Description: Made of microtubules microfilaments Function: Strengthen cell & maintains the shape Moves organelles within the cell .

Plant cell has a rigid cell wall Animal cell membrane is a flexible lipid bilayer. enzymes. and transporters . The lipid molecules have a polar. surface antigens. Different proteins on the surface are used for various functions such as cell surface receptors. hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails.

transport of a substance against the concentration gradient ƒ -requires energy ƒ -must use transport proteins and ATP ƒ .homeostasis maintains constant conditions in a living organism.Š Š Transport Processes . ƒ There are 3 forms: diffusion. Passive transport This is movement across the membrane without any energy input. Membrane control is essential for this. facilitated diffusion and osmosis ƒ Š Active Transport .

glycerol. N2 ƒ Nonpolar: benzene ƒ Small uncharged Polar molecules: H2O.... . Urea. K+Ca2+ . Mg2+ Š Therefore the three characteristics of a molecule that determine the permeability of the membrane to that species are . Cl. ƒ ƒ ƒ 1) polarity ..Š Molecules that pass through the phospholipid bilayer easily..(charged vs uncharged) 3) size . .(large vs small) . ƒ ƒ ƒ Large uncharged Glucose Polar molecules Sucrose Ions (charged) H+ .(Hydrophobic vs Hydrophylic) 2) charge . Na+ . HCO3 . CO2 ƒ Š Molecules that don·t pass through the phospholipid bilayer easily. Hydrophobic molecules (oil soluble): O2.

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brainstorm and list 3 things in and around the house that are semipermeablelet certain things in but not others. .Š Form groups of 3 or 4. Item ________________ Describe the ways in which this item is semipermeable. Š Š Are the things passing through because of active process or passive process? Explain.

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