CAMPOMANES Department of History University of Asia and the Pacific (UA&P)

With the new men that will spring from her bosom and the remembrance of the past, she will perhaps enter openly the wide road of progress and all will work jointly to strengthen the mother country at home as well as abroad with the same enthusiasm with which a young man returns to cultivate his father·s farmland so long devastated and abandons due to the negligence of those who had alienated it.
Filipinas Dentro a Cien Años




nationalist movement: The Philippine Revolution . 1960. The Revolt of the Masses. 1956)  Renato Constantino (The Philippines: A Past Revisited. 1975. Teodoro Agoncillo (History of the Filipino People. The Continuing Past. 1976) crucial period in our history is the 19th c.

Who defines the nationalist perspective? .

Reform : Revolution Ilustrados: Masses Liga Filipina: Katipunan RIZAL: BONIFACIO basic class antagonism .


Francisco .Pintura ni Carlos ³Botong´ V.

ƒ ƒ ƒ accepted Agoncillo s essentialist characterizations masses possessed a revolutionary consciousness born of praxis under colonial oppression ilustrados provided a coherent political theory to the inchoate revolutionary consciousness of the inarticulate masses (European liberalism) .

ƒ ƒ ƒ Katipunan efforts thwarted by reformism and collaborationist politics of the ilustrados Rizal as the prime example of this counterrevolutionary class Veneration without Understanding : Filipino s misplaced veneration of Rizal as key factor in the lack of understanding and disregard of the Philippine Revolution .

ƒ ƒ What are the historical facts? How was Rizal read in the nineteenth century and the Philippine Revolution? .

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Of all the nineteenth century heroes. why was Rizal the most venerated in the nationalist movement? What was it in Rizal s life and work that struck a chord in the popular imagination? What was Rizal s nationalist agenda? How was it received by the revolutionaries? Were the Liga and the Katipunan perceived as ideologically and strategically opposed organizations? .

ƒ ƒ Did the revolutionaries perceive Rizal as an assimilationist and opposed to the Revolution? Did they perceive Reform and Revolution as opposed political agendas (the way the Left in contemporary times take them to be?) .

Tagalog Christ (peasant folk) Rizal assimilated into the realm of the familiar (in terms of the Pasyon idiom) ƒ . elite) 2.ƒ ƒ Setsuo Ikehata: Ileto s as a challenge to the dominant Agoncillo-Constantino paradigm Rizal s opposite and irreconcilable texts : 1. Liberal reformist (modern.

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Ikehata: Constantino could not think of ideology or theory except in its Western European modern rationalized sense Ikehata: Katipunan suffused with a preexistent worldview that articulated liberation using the language and structure and logic of the Pasyon independence kalayaan Ileto reproduced Agoncillo s dichotomy in a non-Marxist paradigm .

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ dichotomization. Jaena. homogenization Are there no conflicts within each of the classes? Ideological struggles struggle within classes. between power blocs (Gramsci) misconception: del Pilar. Rizal had the same political agenda Rizal and Bonifacio .

imprisonment of Teodora Alonzo. Biñan. Enlightenment education. medical studies. whipping incident 1882-1887 : European sojourn.1861-1882 : Calamba. patriotism Noli me tangere 1887-1888 turning point: Calamba Hacienda Case . Gomburza. Ateneo.

historical. Indios Bravos. El Filibusterismo 1892-1896: Rizal and the Revolution. arrest and martyrdom . Katipunan. Exile to Dapitan. ethnological. break with del Pilar and Soli. Liga Filipina.1888-1892: second sojourn radicalization. and linguistic studies.

ƒ ƒ ƒ Critical examination of his correspondences (1887-1892) show that Rizal was a subversive. Calamba Hacienda Case 3. break with del Pilar . A different Rizal from what the Americans and Constantino constructed and propagated Correspondences (Critical Hermeneutics): 1. Reform or Revolution? 2.

ƒ as early as 1887. Rizal had expressed that independence through peaceful struggle is impossible and that seeking assimilation was a mistake .

(Letter of 21 Feb.The Filipinos had long wished for Hispanization and they were wrong in aspiring for it. 52) . 1887. It is Spain and not the Philippines who ought to wish for the assimilation of the country. Rizal-Blumentritt.

one or two representatives. But. quos vult perdere Jupiter. All that we ask is greater attention. we do not want separation from Spain. and greater security for our persons and our properties.A peaceful struggle shall always be a dream. Spain could always win the appreciation of Filipino if she were only reasonable. better government. prius dementat! (Letter of 26 Jan 1887. better education. for Spain will never learn the lesson of her South American colonies« But under the present circumstances. 44) . Rizal-Blumentritt.


Letter of June 19. then I too shall advocate violent means. 1887. when all Filipinos prefer to die rather than to endure their miseries any longer. Rizal-Blumentritt . that is to say. when there remains to us no other hope than to seek ruin in war. But if the government drives us to it.I can assure you that I have no desire to take part in conspiracies which seem to me premature and risky to the extreme.

From 1887-1892: Rizal had no illusions about the Reform Movement though he appreciated its tactical value. ƒ .ƒ Campaign for reforms and the struggle for independence are not mutually exclusive.

they should reject any offer of such representation but. What can we do! (Letter to del Pilar of April 1890) .I believe that only intelligence can redeem us. If our countrymen felt otherwise than they do. in the material and in the spiritual« Parliamentary representation will be a burden on the Philippines for a long time. representation is good. the way we are. It is better to be tied in the ankles than elbow to elbow. with our countrymen indifferent.

The propaganda for assimilation is necessary but separatist propaganda should be even more active for the practical thing is to seek adherents in shaking off the yoke [of Spain entirely] since we would not obtain [assimilation] and even if we did (which is almost impossible) we would work for independence. 1892) . Jan. banding together. making ourselves into apostles to gain men and money (Antonio Luna to Rizal.

ƒ ƒ In the Noli. independence. prior to 1887.Rizal: the root of the problem was colonialism itself ƒ In the long run. he still hoped for an enlightened government. not assimilation ƒ Filipinos should work for the enlightenment of the Filipinos in the Philippines. .

ƒ ƒ ƒ Publication of the Noli Me Tangere (1887) Calamba Hacienda Case (1888-1891) Manifestation of 1888 .

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