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An algorithm is any well defined computational procedure that takes some values, or set of values as input and produce some value as output. An algorithm is thus a sequence of computational steps that transform the input into output.

3/18/2011

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In addition all algorithm must follow Following criteria:

Input:

Zero or more quantities are externally supplied .

**Output: At least one quantity is produced. certainty: Each instruction must be clear
**

and unambiguous.

**Finiteness: An algorithm must terminates
**

out after a finite number of steps.

**Effectiveness: Every instruction must be
**

very basic so that it can be carried out.

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Analyzing Algorithms

Analyzing an algorithm mean predicting the resources that the algorithm requires . Occasionally resources such as memory, communication bandwidth, or computer hardware are of primary concern, but most often it is computational time we want to measure. In other words The theoretical study of computer-program performance and resource usage.

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Analysis of algorithms

What¶s more important than performance? modularity correctness maintainability functionality robustness user-friendliness programmer time simplicity extensibility reliability

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Performance often draws the line between what is feasible and what is impossible. 3/18/2011 5 . Algorithmic mathematics provides a language for talking about program behavior.Why study algorithms and performance ? Algorithms help us to understand scalability. The lessons of program performance generalize to other computing resources.

of item in the input For example the array size n for sorting. For example: In sorting or computing discrete Fourier transforms the most natural measure is the no. of bits needed to represent the input in ordinary binary notation .Running time & Input size The running time of an algorithm on a particular input is the number of primitive operations or ³steps´ executed. The best notation for ³input size´ depends on the problem being studied. On the other hand in multiplying two integers the best measure is the total no. 3/18/2011 6 .

Generally. The running time depends on the input: an already sorted sequence is easier to sort. because everybody likes a guarantee. 3/18/2011 7 . Parameterize the running time by the size of the input. since short sequences are easier to sort than long ones. we seek upper bounds on the running time.

Frequently storage space required by an algorithm is simply a multiple of data size n.Complexity of Algorithm The complexity of an algorithm M is the functionf(n) which give the running time and/or storage space requirement of the algorithm in term of the size n of input data. Accordingly. unless or otherwise stated the term ³complexity´ will refer to running time of an algorithm. 3/18/2011 8 .

Cases for complexity function Worst case :The maximum value of f(n) for any possible input. 3/18/2011 9 . Average case: the expected value of f(n). Best case: Sometimes we consider case: minimum possible value of f(n) called the best case.

Asymptotic notation Theta notation( ) Big oh notation(O) Small oh notation(o) Omega notation ( ) Little omega notation ( ) 3/18/2011 10 .

we denote (g(n))={f(n): there exist positive constant C1.Theta notation ( ) For a given function g(n).C2 and n0 such that 0 C1g(n) f(n) C2g(n)for all n n0 3/18/2011 11 .

f(n) = (g(n)) C2(g(n)) f(n) C1(g(n)) n0 3/18/2011 n 12 .

We use O-notation. For a given function g(n). When we have only an asymptotically upper bound .Big oh notation(O) The theta ±notation asymptotically bounds a function from above and below. we denote by Og(n) the set of functions Og(n)= {f(n): there exist positive constant C and n0 such that 0 f(n) Cg(n) for all n n0 3/18/2011 13 .

f(n) = O(g(n)) f(n) = O(g(n)) C(g(n)) f(n) n0 3/18/2011 n 14 .

we denote by (g(n)) the set of functions (g(n))={f(n): there exist positive constant C and n0 such that 0 Cg(n) f(n) for all n n0 } 3/18/2011 15 . notation provide an asymptotic lower bound For a given function g(n).Omega notation( ) Just as O-notation provides an asymptotic upper bound on a function.

f(n)= (g(n)) f(n)= (g(n)) f(n) C(g(n)) no 3/18/2011 n 16 .

We formally define o(g(n)) as the set Og(n)= {f(n): for any constant c>0 there exist a constant C >0and n0 >0 such that 0 f(n) < Cg(n) for all n n0 } 3/18/2011 17 . but the bound o-notation to denote an upper bound that is not asymptotically tight.Small oh notation(o) The asymptotic upper bound provided by Onotation may or may not be asymptotically tight.

We use .notation is to -notation is same as o notation to O. there exists a constant n0 >0such that 0 c(g(n)) < f(n) for all nn0 } 3/18/2011 18 .notation. It is defined by : f(n) (g(n)) iff g(n) o(f(n)) Formally we defined (g(n)) as the set (g(n))={ f(n) : for any positive constant c>0.notation to denote a lower bound that is not asymptotically tight .Little omega notation ( ) By analogy .

Comparison of function 3/18/2011 19 .

Reflexivity f(n) = (f(n)) f(n) = O(f(n)) f(n) = (f(n)) 3/18/2011 20 .

Symmetry f(n) = (g(n)) iff g(n) = (f(n)) 3/18/2011 21 .

Transitivity f(n) = (g(n)) and g(n) = (h(n)) imply f(n)= (g(n)) f(n) = O(g(n)) and g(n) = O(h(n)) imply f(n)= O(g(n)) f(n) = (g(n)) and g(n) = (h(n)) imply f(n)= (g(n)) f(n) = o(g(n)) and g(n) = f(n) = (g(n)) and g(n) = o(h(n)) imply f(n)= o(g(n)) (h(n)) imply f(n)= (g(n)) 3/18/2011 22 .

Transpose symmetry f(n) =O(g(n)) iff g(n) = f(n) =o(g(n)) iff g(n) = (f(n)) (f(n)) 3/18/2011 23 .

.INSERTION SORT INSERTION SORT (A) 1 2 3 Cost C1 C2 times n n-1 for j do key 2 to length [A] A[j] Insert A[j] into the sorted Sequence A [1 . j-1] 0 C4 n-1 n-1 n tj j=2 4 i j-1 5 while i>0 and A[i] >key C5 3/18/2011 24 . .

n 6 do A[i+1] A[i] C6 j=2 n 7 8 i A[i+1] i+1 key C7 j=2 C8 n-1 (tj -1) (tj -1) 3/18/2011 25 .

Running time of insertion sort n T(n) =c1n+c2(n-1) +c4(n-4)+c5 j=2 n +c7 (tj-1) j=2 +c8(n-1) tj+c6 j=2 n (tj-1) 3/18/2011 26 .

n and the best case running time is T(n)=c1(n) +c2(n-1)+c4(n-1)+c5(n-1) +c8(n-1) =(c1+c2+c4+c5+c8)n-(c2+c4+c5+c8) 3/18/2011 27 . thus tj =1 for all j=2..3.4«.Best case In insertion sort best case occurs if the array is already sorted then in line 5 when i has its initial value of j-1.

3/18/2011 28 .This running time can be expressed as an+b for constant a and b that depend on the statement cost ci. It is thus a liner function of n.

Worst case If the array is in reverse sorted order then we must compare each element A[j] with each element in the entire sorted sub array A[1«j-1]and so tj=j for j=2.3.««n n (tj-1) =n(n+1) -1 j=2 2 n (j-1)=n(n-1) J=2 2 3/18/2011 29 .

T(n)=c1n+c2(n-1)+c4(n-1) +c5(n(n+1)/2-1)+c6(n(n-1)/2) + c7(n(n-1)/2)+c8(n-1) =(c5/2+c6/2 c7/2)n +(c1+c2+c4+c5/2-c6/2-c7/2+c8)n -(c2+c4+c5+c8) This worst case running time can be 2 expressed as an+bn+c 3/18/2011 30 2 .

j1]are less than A[j] and half are greater . If we worked out the resulting average case running time it turn out to be a quadratic function of the input size . 3/18/2011 31 .just like the worst case running time.Worst case and average case The average case is often as bad as worst case . On average we check half the sub array so tj=j/2.. On average if half the element inA[1«.

Example of insertion sort 3/18/2011 32 .

We really need the worst case running 2 time is an+bn+c for some constant a .Order of growth we use some simplifying abstraction to ease our analysis of INSERTION SORT procedure . and c that depend upon the cost ci . 3/18/2011 33 . b. first we ignored the actual cost of each statement using the constant ci to represent these cost .

We therefore consider only leading term of a formula (e.We thus ignored not only the actual statement costs but also the abstract cost ci. Thus we write that for example has a worst case 2 running tine of (n). an2 ).g. 34 3/18/2011 . We ignore the lower order terms and constant term because they are insignificant for large n. It is rate of growth or order of growth. We also ignore constant coefficient of leading term . We shall now make one more simplifying abstraction.

these algorithm typically follow a D and C approach . we insert the single element A[j] into its proper place . Incremental approach : Insertion sort use incremental approach: having sorted the sub array A[1«. 3/18/2011 35 . They break problem into several sub problem that are similar to original problem but smaller in size. however here mainly we use two methods. yielding the sorted sub array A[1«j] Divide and conquer approach: Many useful algorithms are recursive in structure . solve the sub problem recursively and combine these solution to create a solution to original problem.j-1].Designing Algorithms There are many ways to design algorithm .

if the sub problem size is small enough . the merge sort algorithm follow the divide and conquer paradigm.however jus solve the sub problem in straightforward manner. Conquer: conquer the sub problems by soloing them recursively.Divide and conquer approach The divide and conquer paradigm involve three steps at each level of recursion: Divide: divide the problem into a number of sub problem . Combine: combine the solution of the sub problems into the solution for original problem. 3/18/2011 36 .

4.6> Sorted sequence Initial sequence 3/18/2011 37 .2.2.1.divide and conquer approach in merge sort Operation of merge sort on the array A=<5.3.7.

Analyzing divide and conquer algorithm When an algorithm contain a recursive call to itself its running can be described by a recurrence equation which describe the overall running time of a problem in term of running time of smaller inputs. 3/18/2011 38 . We can use mathematical tool to solve recurrence equation and provide bounds on the performance of the algorithm.

3/18/2011 39 . If the problem size is small enough. let T(n) be running time of on a problem of size n. For merge sort both µa¶ and µb¶ are 2. Let our division of problem yields µa¶ sub problem each of which is µ1/b¶ of the original size. say n c for some constant µc¶ the straightforward solution take constant time (1). we get the recurrence .

we get the recurrences T(n)= { (1) { aT(n/b) +D(n) +C(n) if n c otherwise The method for solving recurrence are given in next slides. If we take D(n) time to divide the problem into the solution and C(n) time to combine the solutions to the sub problems into solution to the original problem . 3/18/2011 40 .

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