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Comparison of Intel Microprocessor 8086, 386, 486, Pentium II
by Hong Li
computer designers became largely dependent upon integrated circuit technology. In 1945. What is a microprocessor ? 2 . Today. but beginning in about 1970. The late 1970s saw the emergence of the microprocessor. During the first 25 years of electronic computers. and more disk storage than a computer bought in 1965 for $1 million. more main memory. a few thousand dollars will purchase a personal computer that has more performance. both forces made a major contribution.Introduction Computer technology has made incredible progress in the past half century. there were no stored-program computers.
This is accomplished by segmenting memory into separate 64K groups of data. It can address 1 Mb of data with only 16-bit address. Hardware and instructions integral to the 8086 control each 64K group. 3 . 10MHz. and 12MHz.The Intel 8086 Microprocessor It is a 16-bit microprocessor chip available in speeds of 8MHz.
The Intel 8086 Microprocessor (continued) Memory Structure Data storage in 8086 memory Paragraphs Program Segmentation and Segment Registers Hardware Registers Flags Input/Output (I/O) Structure 4 .
and Protected Virtual Address Mode (Protected Mode).Intel 386 Microprocessor It is an entry-level 32-bit microprocessor designed for singleuser applications and operating systems such as MS-DOS and Windows. Base Architecture the Intel 386 consists of three major components: a central processing unit (CPU) a memory management unit -.segmentation unit -. a bus interface 5 .the paging mechanism the Intel has two modes of operation: Real Address Mode (Real Mode).
Intel 386 Microprocessor (continued) Registers 6 .
Intel 386 Microprocessor (continued) 7 .
Intel 386 Microprocessor (continued) Instruction Set The instruction set is divided into nine categories of operations Addressing Modes The Intel 386 provides a total of 11 addressing modes for instructions to specify operands Memory organization ± I/O Space ± Real Mode Architecture ± Protected Mode Architecture 8 .
and UNIX system V/Intel 386 applications. y y y y Architectural Overview Real Mode Architecture. OS/2. Protected Mode Architecture On-Chip Cache 9 . Windows.Intel 486 microprocessor The Intel 486 CPU offers the highest performance for DOS. Its 100% binary compatible with the Intel 386 CPU.
Pentium II Microprocessor The Pentium II processor features and benefits can enhance user¶s computing experience: Introduction. Intel MMX Technology. Thesting and Performance Monitioring Features. y Introduction y Product Highlights y Testing and Performance Monitoring Features 10 . Product Highlights.Dynamic Execution Technology.
5 milliontransistor. y The Intel 80486 was a 32-bit data bus structure. 11 . y The Intel 80386 were included a 32-bit data bus structure and the ability to address up to 4GB of memory. which is designed specifically to process video. y The Pentium II processor was a 7. it incorporates the Pentium pro and the Intel MMX technology. with all internal registers 16 bits wide. audio and graphics data efficiently. and the ability to address up to 64GB of memory.Summary y The Intel 8086 It is a 16-bit architecture.
1-3. 12 .intel.cam.cam. The Waite Group.tasc. 1994.htm --http://intel.eng. pp.eng.uk/~dmh/d7/resource/intro/tsld012.com/products/horizonmaster/HTML/irm/in/intel/init/html/intel386.htm --http://developer.htm --http://www2.com/products/horizonmaster/HTML/irm/in/intel/init/html/intel486. "Writing MS-DOS Device Drivers". Lai.com/design/processor/future/overview.htm David A.uk/~dmh/d7/resource/intro/tsld013.References: --http://www.ac.474. D1. pp.com/design/processor/future/roadmap.ac.com/pentiumii/xeon/home. pp. Robert S.htm --http://intel.com/PentiumIII/Xeon/home. Patterson & John L. Pg 2-2---2-85. 461.³ 2nd edition. Pg 3-1---3-30. "Computer Architecture a Quantitative Approach. Pg 1-1---1-66.intel. "Intel Microprocessor: Volume I".htm --http://www. 1994.htm --http://www2. Pg 2-2.tasc. Hennessy.htm --http://developer.D14. "Intel Microprocessor: Volume II". 2nd edition.