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Things to be Discussed«.
Ä Introducing Reforming.
Ä Need of Reforming
Ä The RONc Concept.
Ä What is Knocking???
Ä Reforming Process PFD.
Ä The Reforming Reactions & Catalyst.
Ä The Process Sections & P&IDs.
0ntroducing Reforming.
Ä Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to
convert petroleum refinery Naphtha, typically having
low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products
called REFORMATE which are components of high-
octane gasoline
Ä As evidence from the name, the term Reforming
Refer to the ³Rearranging the molecular structure´,
just like a straight chain paraffin molecule reform to
a branched chain molecule through a chemical
Reaction.
àeed of Reforming.
Ä To increase Octane Number of the
hydro-carbons, which mean decreasing
anti-knocking ability of the fuel in the
combustion engine, which otherwise
tend to damage the vehicle hardware.
Ä To increase the ease of combustion of
fuel inside the engine .
The ROàc Concept.
Ä Mechanically Octane Number can be
defined as ³The anti-knocking ability
of fuel in the internal combustion
engine´, if little knocking in engine,
means fuel is of good RON.
Ä Chemically Percentage by volume of
iso-octane in a mixture of iso-octane
and n-heptane´.
Ghat is Knocking???
Ä For better operation of an engine, it is
necessary that all molecules, burning in the
engine, should be of same fashion, having
equal ignition temperature, because when
spark is provided, all molecules should burn at
same time to give power stroke.
Ghat is Knocking???
Ä If molecules of varying size enter in the
combustion engine, then small molecules
ignite firstly and gives power stroke, when
piston travel back after power stroke, then
large molecules ignite, so piston want to move
in reverse direction, hence it creates sound in
engine called knocking.
Ä Knocking cause sudden stress on piston
which can damage piston / compression rings.


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Reforming Process PFD.
Some terms needed to understand Reformer PFD
are:
FBRN: Full Boil Range Naphtha.
LSRN: Light Straight Run Naphtha.
HSRN: Heavy Straight Run Naphtha.
HTN: Hydro-treated Naphtha.
RON: Research Octane Number.
The Reforming Reactions.
Following Reaction takes place in
Reforming reactors.
Ä Dehydrogenation.
Ä Isomerization
Ä Dehydro-Cyclization
Ä Hydro Cracking
The Reforming Reactions.
Dehydrogenation.
Ä This Reaction converts Naphthenes to
Aromatics.
Ä Metal Promoted Reaction.
Ä This reaction is highly endothermic.
(+50 Kcal/mol)
Ä Methyl-Cyclohexane (a naphthene) has
RON of 84, when dehydrogenize,
converted to toluene (An aromatic)
which has RON of 107.
0somerization
Ä This Reaction converts straight chain
paraffins to branch chain paraffins.
Ä Acid Promoted Reaction.
Ä This reaction is also endothermic. Requires
2KCal/mol of energy.
Ä Hexane (n-paraffin) when converted to iso-
hexane (iso-paraffin), its octane number
improve from 26 to 73.
Dehydro-Cyclization
Ä This reaction converts Naphthenes to
Aromatic.
Ä Hydrogen is Removed from Naphthenes.
Ä This Reaction is endothermic + 60kCal/mol
and hydrogen is produced
Ä Methyl-cylcohexane converted to toluene
gives 107 octane from 84. (Both Metal &
Acid Promoted)
èydro-Cracking
Ä In this reaction, large molecules of straight
chain paraffins converted to small chain
paraffins.
Ä This reaction consumes hydrogen and is
the only exothermic reaction - 10KCal/mol
occurring in last reactor.
Ä Acid promoted Reaction.
The Reforming Catalyst.
Ä The Plat-forming catalyst is R-56.
Ä This is a UOP Designed catalyst, in which metals
of Pt & Rh are coated homogeneously over the
surface of Alumina base.
Ä The catalyst is Extrude in shape, just like a rice
grain, having off-white color.
Ä Pt & Rh are most expensive metals.
Ä Pt is present 0.25 % and Rh is 0.4 % in catalyst.
Ä The UOP Platforming catalyst has been chosen to
meet yield, activity and stability needs.
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Reforming Process Section
Reforming process can be divided into four
inter connected sections:
Splitter Section
Hydro-Treating Section
Reforming Section
Stabilizer section.
Splitter Section
Splitter section is used to control the IBP of
the Reformer feed.
The streams from the Splitter section are:
LSRN: (IBP: 31 C, FBP: 91 C)
Solvent Cut: (IBP: 45 C, FBP: 1225 C)
HSRN: (IBP: 96 C, FBP: 158 C)
Splitter Section
Splitter Top Conditions are:
Temp: 96 C, Pressure: 2.8 Kg/Cm2
Splitter Trays: 50
Feed Tray: 37
Splitter Bottom Conditions are:
Temp: 167 C, Pressure: 3.2Kg/Cm2
èydro-Treating Section
The Purpose of the section is to remove the
sulphur in the feed.
The reactor is designed to remove max 158
ppm of sulphur from the HSRN.
Maximum allowable limit of sulphur to
reforming section is < 0.5 ppm.
èydro-Treating Section
The reactor operating condition are:
RIT: 315 C, ROT: 313 C
Pressure: 19 kg/Cm2
Reactor Type: Down flow.
Reforming Section
Plat-forming process consist of
following steps:
Ä Feed Pre-Heating.
Ä Reactor Heater assembly.
Ä Cooling of product stream.
Ä Separator
Feed Pre-èeating
Ä Feed pumped through a high pressure
centrifugal pump from Stripper bottom.
Ä Hydrogen comes from Recycle gas
compressor at high pressure. Both hydrogen
and feed combined through a line.
Ä The combine feed enters in the exchanger
series, where it is pre-heated through the
counter coming hot product stream. This
feed enters in Reformer Heater 1.
èeater & Reactor
Ä A specific ratio of water and chloride is injected
to maintain chloride level over the catalyst
surface, which otherwise may change the catalyst
composition.
Ä The Cl injected, not only maintain Cl level on
catalyst, but also promotes acid promoted
reactions, because it produces acid environment
in reactor.
Ä The Hot feed after exchanger enters in Reformer
First Heater where it is heated up-to 500 oC temp.
Ä Hot feed enters in first Reactor. Reactor is Radial
flow.
èeater & Reactor
Ä This feed is heated again in Second heater of
Reformer where temp is again raised to 500 oC
so that reactions can takes place at this designated
temp & then feed enters in 2nd Reactor.
Ä Temp again drops as a result of reactions, so feed
is again heated to required temp and passes
through 3rd Reactor. The Hot products stream
cooled through feed/Products exchangers and trim
cooler.
Reaction Conditions
Ä Reformer Reactors are operated at 20 Kg pressure
and 500 oC inlet temperature.
Ä System pressure is maintained through separator
(pressure), which operate at 16.1 kg/cm2.
Ä Feed passes through reactor with a specific max
rate called LHSV.
Ä A Specific H2 to HC ratio is maintained to set
residence time of feed within the Reactor system.
(H2/HC ratio = 4.5 min)
Stabilization Section.
Ä A pump takes suction from the separator bottom
and send to stabilizer pre-heat exchanger and then
to Stabilizer.
Ä Stabilize is a high pressure vessel operates at 19
kg pressure.
Ä Purpose of stabilizer is to remove the LPG,
formed by hydro-cracking reaction, which is
occurred in last reactor. In this way, Naphtha
stabilizes and its RVP controlled.
Stabilization Section.
Ä Heated Feed enters in stabilizer feed plate.
Ä The lighter molecules which are formed by
breaking of large chain molecules, travels to top
of the tower.
Ä A condenser condenses the LPG heavy ends
which are circulated back in tower to control
tower temp and pressure.
Ä The un-condensable molecules are fed as gas to
the fuel gas system.
The Reformate.
Ä The final product from bottom is sent to
condenser and trim cooler for cooling without any
pump, as pressure of stabilizers enough for
transferring this liquid to storage.
Ä Final product is named as ³Reformate´, in which
a specific ratio of LSRN is mixed to form PMG.
Ä All Specification of this product are achieved
before marketing.
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