Seminar on


Semantic WEB
By: Vikas U. Abnave Roll no 301



the United Kingdom and the United States. India. Germany and Austria. Hong Kong. Mission W3C has sixteen World Offices covering Australia. Hungary. South Korea. and Belgium). Finland. the Benelux countries (the Netherlands. Italy. Morocco. . Web.The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (W3). Luxemburg. To lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term longgrowth for the Web. Israel. Ireland. Greece. Mainland China. Sweden. W3C. Japan. Spain. Korea.


W3C Semantic Web Layer Cake .

An RDF-based model can be represented in XML RDFsyntax. relations between classes . but imposes no semantic constraints on the meaning of these documents. XML Schema is a language for restricting the structure and content elements of XML documents. OWL adds more vocabulary for describing properties and classes: among others.XML provides a surface syntax for structured documents. RDF is a simple data model for referring to objects ("resources") and how they are related.

. is a compact string of characters used to identify or name a resource. For Resource Identifier (URI) A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). as encoded characters) is obtainable via HTTP from a network host named is a URI that identifies a resource (Wikipedia's home page) and implies that a representation of that resource (such as the home page's current HTML code. the URL http://www.wikipedia.

etc.. followed by a colon character. Examples of absolute URIs http://somehost/absolute/URI/with/absolute/path/to/resource.Syntax "http".txt urn:issn:1535- Examples of URI references http://example/resource. "mailto". "ftp". "urn".txt#frag01 .txt ftp://somehost/resource. and then a scheme-specific part. "rtsp". "mms". . called triples in RDF terminology.Resource Description Framework (RDF) The RDF metadata model is based upon the idea of making statements about resources in the form of subjectpredicate-object expressions. Basic RDF Model Example: Ora Lassila is the creator of the resource http://www.

Predicate (Property) Creator Object (literal) "Ora Lassila" Figure 1: Simple node and arc diagram .org/Home/Lassila http://www.Subject (Resource) http://www.w3.

Figure 2: Property with structured value .

The RDF model for these sentences is: Figure 3: Structured value with identifier ."> <s:Creator>Ora Lassila</s:Creator> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> .Representation in RDF/XML as: <rdf:RDF> <rdf:Description about="http://www.

Applications 1. 2.designed to describe people. FOAF (Friend of a Friend) . Many other RDF schemas are available by searching Schema Web . their interests and interconnections.

.What is XML? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ XML stands for EXtensible Markup Language XML is a markup language much like HTML XML was designed to describe data XML tags are not predefined. Atom. RSS.. XML is extended to XHTML. You must define your own tags XML uses a Document Type Definition (DTD) or an XML Schema to describe the data XML with a DTD or XML Schema is designed to be self-descriptive XML is a W3C Recommendation XML is an extension from SGML. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ..

plain text files can be used to store data. 6. XML Can Make your Data More Useful With XML. XML Can be Used to Store Data With XML. 2. . XML and B2B With XML. your data is available to more users. 7. financial information can be exchanged over the Internet. plain text files can be used to share data. 5. XML is Used to Exchange Data With XML. 3. your data is stored outside your HTML. XML can Separate Data from HTML With XML.Features of XML 1. data can be exchanged between incompatible systems. XML Can be Used to Share Data With XML. 4. XML Can be Used to Create New Languages XML is the mother of WAP and WML.

The strict syntax and parsing requirements make the necessary parsing algorithms extremely simple. . and offers several benefits: ‡ ‡ Its robust. allowing almost any information in any written human language to be communicated. both online and offline. Generic XML parsers must be able to recurse arbitrarily nested data structures and may perform additional checks to detect improperly formatted or differently ordered syntax or data Eg: Embedded Applications. It supports Unicode. thus relatively immune to changes in technology. and consistent. XML is also heavily used as a format for document storage and processing.Strengths of XML Some features of XML that make it well-suited for data transfer are: ‡ ‡ ‡ It is simultaneously human and machine-readable format. efficient. logically-verifiable format is based on international standards. Weaknesses of XML 1. It is platform-independent.

. that represents a CD catalog: <?xml version="1.90</PRICE> <PRICE>10.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> version="1 encoding="ISO-8859<CATALOG> <CD> <TITLE>Empire Burlesque</TITLE> <ARTIST>Bob Dylan</ARTIST> <COUNTRY>USA</COUNTRY> <COMPANY>Columbia</COMPANY> <PRICE>10..xml"). . more .. . .The XML Example Document Look at the following XML document ("cd_catalog.90</PRICE> <YEAR>1985</YEAR> <YEAR>1985</YEAR> </CD> .

3. XML is not a replacement for HTML. . while XML is about describing information. HTML was designed to display data and to focus on how data looks. HTML is about displaying information.The Main Difference Between XML and HTML  XML was designed to carry data.  XML is Free and Extensible XML tags are not predefined. You must "invent" your own tags. XML was designed to describe data and to focus on what data is.  XML is going to be everywhere.  XML is a Complement to HTML XML is not a replacement for HTML. 1. XML and HTML were designed with different goals: 2.  XML Does not DO Anything XML was not designed to DO anything.

and is now a W3C recommendation (i.e. RDF. OWL was developed mainly because it has more facilities for expressing meaning and semantics than XML.Ontology Web Language (OWL) OWL is based on earlier languages OIL and DAML+OIL.2001 by James Hendler. OWL is written in XML. . a standard). History: W3c recommended OWL group in NOV 1..

.Sublanguages : OWL Lite supports those users primarily needing a classification hierarchy and simple constraints. OWL DL supports those users who want the maximum expressiveness while retaining computational completeness and decidability. OWL Full is meant for users who want maximum expressiveness and the syntactic freedom of RDF with no computational guarantees.

Future Scope ? .



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