You are on page 1of 177

|   



 

 


St. Paul, MN, Nov 14, 2007

Dr Paul Connett
Professor Emeritus of Chemistry
St Lawrence University, Canton, NY

Paul@FluorideALERT.org
www.FluorideALERT.
FluorideALERT.org
org
K


 

 
 

 
Leaflet from Xcel Energy
K


 

 
 

 
Carbon Sulfur  PM Mercury
dioxide dioxide

Leaflet from Xcel Energy


K


 

 
 

 
Carbon Sulfur  PM Mercury
dioxide dioxide

Natural 1192 0.005 1.2 0.07 1 x 10-


10-8
Gas

Leaflet from Xcel Energy


K


 

 
 

 
Carbon Sulfur  PM Mercury
dioxide dioxide

Natural 1192 0.005 1.2 0.07 1 x 10-


10-8
Gas
RDF 5870 1.0 9.6 0.22 6923 x 10-
10-8

Leaflet from Xcel Energy


K


 

 
 

 
Carbon Sulfur  PM Mercury
dioxide dioxide

Natural 1192 0.005 1.2 0.07 1 x 10-


10-8
Gas
RDF 5870 1.0 9.6 0.22 6923 x 10-
10-8

Biomass 3910 0.6 8.1 1.36 1316 x 10-


10-8

Leaflet from Xcel Energy


 |  

Natural Gas Burner for ROCK-


ROCK-TENN
= $ 11.2 million
RDF/biomass Burner
$300 - $500 million ?????
|
1. Waste Management & the Big
Picture
2. The arguments against incineration
3. Incineration air emissions
4. Incineration & dioxins
5. The alternative to landfills and
incinerators


   
!
" # 
   
 

   
  $
$
   
%%     
 


 
 &
 


"'(
"'(   
|  
"'   
 %)
 

 
$!
 **

 
 $

 **
 
 
  




% 
)
)+%


+% 


$,


-
+% 

.

 | 

'    
 

 
$ 
  
 


A LINEAR SOCIETY
A LINEAR SOCIETY

 
A LINEAR SOCIETY

  # 


A LINEAR SOCIETY

  #  



A LINEAR SOCIETY

  #  


 Waste
Advertising/TV

  #  


 Waste
 * 

 *
 

 **

 
By the time a high school
student leaves school, he or she
will have watched over
350,000 TV commercials.

@  

     
$ 




'$
'$

THE MYTH:
The more you consume the happier
you become
THE REALITY:
The more you consume the fatter you
become!
  &
m
  
 $ /
 
%   $ /

00


+ 
A LINEAR SOCIETY

  #  


1 


  



 

A LINEAR SOCIETY
'+(

  #  


1 


  



 




K 
 
% 
'+(

  #  


1 


  



 




K 
 
% 
'+( '+(

  #  


1     2








 

K  K 
   
%  % 
'+( '+(

  #  


1     2








 

K  K 
   
%  % 
| |'K|!K23|

'+( '+(

  #  


1     2








 

K  K 
   
%  % 
' ( |+3K'|K

'+( '+(

  #  


1     2








 

K  K 
   
%  % 
'3"4 

'+( '+(

  #  


1     2








 

K  K 
   
%  % 
#|+

'+( '+(

  #  


1     2








 

K  K 
   
%  % 
u   
   
   
oOverall, source segregation of MSW,
followed by recycling (for paper,
metals, textiles and plastics) and
composting/AD (for putrescible
wastes) gives the lowest net flux of
greenhouse gases compared to other
forms of treatment of bulk MSWơ
- + 
 
5  



_    e    -461

Tr en  Me


-
 e
 -
B   e   
-366

e   
e -10
u   
      
K  
|   

  $&
3-4 times more energy can be saved by a
combination of reuse, recycling and
composting compared to incineration
Contact: Dr. Jeffrey Morris,
jeff.morris@zerowaste.com
  $ 
 .'$
.'$ 


   | 3
 ,6778
material   $   $     $
 


 
  $ 
$    


+45  +45    
Newsprint 6.33 2.62 2.4
Fine paper 15.87 2.23 7.1
Cardboard 8.56 2.31 3.7
Other paper 9.49 2.25 4.2
HDPE 64.27 6.30 10.2
PET 85.16 3.22 26.4
Other plastic 52.09 4.76 10.9
6 K  
 

  

$  

$
 
$  


,
$ 
$$
  
 
  
$ $   % 

  
 $
|   
 

 %
%  

|   
$
 

In the US over 300 incinerator


proposals defeated since 1985
US has not permitted a new
trash incinerator since 1995.
|   

 
 
ù 
 $
  
  
 
 
 $  
 $,


ù  $
    


 9%
 
$
 
 $
    

%

    



%

3   


3 
 

77/



 

 $


  


    



%


6
3   
3  K# 
K# 
 

77/
   



  

 $   $


 

  

 


    



%


6 :
3   
3  K# 
K#  K
$
K
$ 
 

77/
   
 $



    

 $   $ $



 
  
  

 

%

3 $

$  %   







 


 
   
  


 

 



 

  


  

  




     
K
   
In Germany & Switzerland fly ash put into nylon
bags and placed in salt mines
In Japan some incinerators vitrify the ash
In the Netherlands they put the fly ash into asphalt
and the bottom ash into road bed
In DenmarkƦ
They send all the ash to Norway
In the US the EPA allows the bottom ash and fly
ash to be mixed together before testing
: |   





 

  

 !
" "
#

  !
$"%" &" '"()*+

 !
 !
 ,'  
' 

'


atalytic oxidizers

  
  
   

@       

  


  

  
|   
 


 %

It wastes material resources


It wastes energy
It wastes the opportunity to fight global
warming and the many other impacts
of extracting and processing virgin
materials
|   !
 

Both morbidity and mortality in large cities


can be related to particulate matter (PM)
(from traffic, power stations and industry)
As the particles get smaller the relationship
gets stronger
A modern incinerator converts hundreds or
thousands of tons of trash each day into
trillions of nanoparticles
These nanoparticles are the most dangerous
of any combustion source
|   !
 

Nanoparticles from incinerators contain:


neurotoxic metals,
stabilized free radicals
thousands of newly synthesized compounds
(including PCBs, dioxins and furans).
Any toxic element used in commerce has
the potential to end up in nanoparticles
produced by incinerators
 

 

 
  $
 %$   
 
,
  
 
,
  

 # $

Nano particles can easily cross the cell


membranes of every tissue
Including the blood brain barrier and
the nuclear membrane
Nanoparticles can carry neurotoxic
metals into the brain
Aggregati di Piombo,
Piombo,Bario
Bario,
,Cromo
Cromo,
,Ferro
Ferro 
Silicio
Silicio  Cervello
Cervello

www.stefanomontanari.net
 # $

Nanoparticles can carry stabilized free


radicals (which cause oxidative stress -
inflammation - many degenerative diseases)
into every tissue in the body
also dioxins and furans
Free Radical Attack

K 

 


! 2
 
|  
Dioxins - major health concerns
ƥ 2
       
/
 


 
%  

|+;;

|+;;     %
,

 
ƥ | 
 $  <  

   

%$
  %    
!$


!$

%  ,
8&
ƥ 2

$     %$ 
   "K  )
ƥ )%$  %%$&
ƥ 


  

   




 
  %    %
 )
2
  
    
Dioxins act like fat soluble hormones
Disrupt at least six different hormonal
systems: male and female sex hormones;
thyroid hormones; insulin; gastrin and
gluocorticoid.
  " % 
% Health
Health Effects
Research Laboratory, US EPA)
Developmental Effects of Dioxins
Environmental Health Perspectives,
Perspectives, 103:
103: 89-
89-
94, 1995


 $
   % %%

H.J. Pluim et al., The Lancet


Lancet,, May 23, 1992.
(Volume 339, 1303)
Examined 38 new born babies, divided them into 2
groups:
Low--exposed (mothers had average 18.6 ppt
Low
dioxins in milk fat, range 8.7 - 28)
High--exposed (mothers had average 37.5 ppt
High
dioxins in milk fat, range 29 - 63)
2
  $3  
**
 ; 
 **
 
 

-
-  2&3
2&3 4
)#.'/() )#.'/()
0)1 0)1

 *$2(*3 5 678 69579 7:6

5;  75 79 758

 675 667< 78=

6-))> 5 68578 6:=7: 7?4

5;  7<6 799 7?4

 7<9 78? 786

66-))>' 5 66676 67 7994

5;  7 75: 754

 67=6 78 7554


  3  
; * 

   3$,
|       

Theo Colborn
John Peterson Myers
Dianne Dumanoski
1994
|=  
N 

 
  

@ 100
|=  
N 

 
  

! 
 

@ 100 O 
|=  
N 

 
  

! 
 

@ "# 100 O 
! !" #Ö"

Ö ÖÖ  
|
  ,
677:
Dioxins and Dioxin
Dioxin--like Compounds in
the Food Supply

Strategies to Decrease Exposure

July 1, 2003
|
  ,677:
Fetuses and breastfeeding infants may be
at particular risk from exposure to dioxin
like compounds (DLCs) due to their
potential to cause adverse
neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral,
and immune system effects in developing
systemsƦ
|
  ,677:
ƦThe committee recommends that the
government place a high public health
priority on reducing DLC intakes by girls
and young women in the years well before
pregnancy is likely to occur.

(by) Substituting low-


low-fat or skim milk, for
whole milk, (and)Ʀ foods lower in animal
fatƦ
! !" #Ö"

Ö ÖÖ ÖÖ#
2 %   

 87
  *
*  $
<  

#

$
   
 

  
%,%  $-
( !-677! 


 



 



$
 
8.!6


8.!6
**!6

When PVC was fed into the high-


high-temperature melter,
a significant quantity of PCDD/Fs, cadmium and lead
was emitted.
Wet scrubbing with rapid quenching, as well as a
low temperature two-
two-step fine filtration, or both of
them together cannot effectively control the volatile
metal species and gas-
gas-phase PCDD/Fs.
The removal of PVC from the feed waste stream
must also be effective to reduce the emissions of the
PCDD/Fs, cadmium and lead species.
   

   





 
 %$
 
 


 
 
 
  7

 
 
 
  7




 

 
 
 
  7




 

@ 



 
 
 
  7




 

@ 





 

 
 
 
  7




 

@ 





 

  A A  



UB)12C-)0%)21+21)(*21'C)-)
-/D%1)B)(0>)2*')1'2$D)7
*'20.DE%)'1*0>)')1')*
'.)1%'0/+301)E%)'*(E21&
()'/(+)'-)'3/D%$)'3(21&-2*3
*3)C/*/()7F 
|   
 


 %
ë  
ë 
 

 
  


 


     

U How do we get rid U How do we handle our


of our waste discarded resources in
efficiently with ways which do not
minimum damage to deprive future
our health and the generations of some, if
environment ?´ not all, of their value ?´
|   .# 
%
Our task in the 21st Century is not to
find better ways to destroy discarded
materials
But to stop making packaging and
products that have to be destroyed!
8 
 %
K   
 
  
>
 ' K6767

 $
 
6767
No to incinerators
No to landfills
No to a throwaway society
Yes to a sustainable society
Zero Waste is an idealistic goal, but
Zero Waste 2020 puts it into a realistic timeframe
Zero Waste is a new direction
Itƞs moving from the back end of waste disposal
to the front end of resource management and industrial design
for sustainability


 
 
%% 
% % 
a problem of
organization,
education and
industrial design
   


  
1) NDU$K%&'N$() 
)
2) C'!!UN$(%&'N$()  *
)
3) G''D%KD%+&)  )
| 
'

%$

1. Design for sustainability


2. Clean production

3. Extended Producer Responsibility


 # 

%$*  
'

%$*
ù 3)1*(21% ))(21%/'*(E3'
$))1/'21&()C2DD$D)&D''$**D)'C(8E)('
ù <=G()+B)()%
ù +3$**D)()/')%6=*20)'
ù *'B)'*3)+0.1E01)E
ù H$'21+DD)+*211%+D)121&
ù +'**0/12+2.D2*E
 # 

%$*  

'

%$*
XEROX CORPORATION EUROPE

Recovers copying machines from 16 different


countries
Takes them to huge warehouses in the
Netherlands, where the machines are stripped
down for parts and materials
95% of materials recovered for reuse or recycling!

This is saving Xerox $76 millions a year!!


year!!


 
%
  $&
3

| 
'

%$
Contact Gary Liss at
gary@garyliss.com
For more information on EPR
initiatives contact Bill Sheehan at
Bill@productpolicy.org
|('#|"||(

Community responsibility begins with


Source Separation
One container for compostables
(i.e.the organic fraction)
One (or more) containers for the
recyclables
One container for the residuals
6  9
6  9

0.'*21&
+2D2*E
2 
? <3 

?3 

Aerazione forzata
Aerazione Forzata

 3$
 3 

6  9

0.'*21&
+2D2*E
6  9

*)(2D'
0.'*21&

)+B)(E
+2D2*E
+2D2*E
K'|K' 1'(3K |||(

& ",
6  9

*)(2D'
0.'*21&

)+B)(E
+2D2*E
+2D2*E
  <
 
   
:
:** 
 

6  9

*)(2D'
0.'*21&

)+B)(E
+2D2*E
+2D2*E


)/')I
).2(
6  9

*)(2D'
0.'*21&

)+B)(E
+2D2*E
+2D2*E


)/')I
).2(
!2
 
"   ,1 
Recycle North (27 employees, gross income over
$700,000) offers an excellent model of reuse,
repair, job training and deconstruction - see video.
video.
www.recyclenorth.org
See also Urban Ore, Berkeley
Revolve, Canberra, Australia
Waste Wise, Georgetown, Ontario
EcoCycle, Boulder, Colorado
Eureka Recycling, St. Paul, MN
6  9 Community
Initiatives to
Reduce
waste
*)(2D'
0.'*21&

)+B)(E
+2D2*E
+2D2*E


)/')I
).2(
!2
 
|$

A supermarket chain near Florence is


providing dispensers which allow
customers to refill shampoo and
detergent bottlesƦ
Others wine, water and milk
Alcune iniziative italiane per la riduzione
ùUn pizzico di
creatività a monte
può far risparmiare
milioni a valle
| 

Has a 15 cent tax on plastic shopping


bags - reduced use by over 90% in
one year
80 towns in Australia have banned
plastic shopping bags completely
6  9 Community
Initiatives to
Reduce
waste
*)(2D'
0.'*21&

)+B)(E
+2D2*E
+2D2*E


)'2%/D'
J

)/')I
).2(
!2
 

  
$
 %     
  

 $
Incineration attempts to make the residuals
disappear
Zero Waste 2020 needs to make the residuals
VERY VISIBLE, becauseƦ
Residual Fraction = bad industrial design and poor
purchasing decisions
We need better industrial design, community
organization and individual responsibility to move
towards sustainability
-$3

 
 
Operating in
Nova Scotia



 

 
 


  

 
 K 


  
 

 
 
Operating in
Nova Scotia



 

 
 


  

 
 K 


  

 
I


I

  




 

 
 


  

" 
 


 
 K 
'K' ;
'

  

 
I

  


   
 

+D Or
12B)('2*E Technical College

'K' ;
'
'K' ; '
Improve capture rate of reusables,
recyclables and clean compostables (Captain
Garbage - make it fun!)
Recommend waste avoidance strategies for
local businesses
Develop some local uses for some materials
Recommend better industrial designs to
industry on packaging etc
Develop alternatives to some of the toxics in
products (batteries, paint, solvents etc)
6  9 Community
Initiatives to
Reduce
waste
*)(2D'
0.'*21&

)+B)(E
+2D2*E
+2D2*E

)'2%/D
+())121&
I
)')+3
+2D2*E

)/')I
).2(
!2
 
;


'
   !
'
 3$
Is the key link between Community
Responsibility and Industrial
Responsibility
 
 %$

Need a network of local research


centers linked to state, regional and
federal research institutes working on
a SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
|;| |'K|

WE CONVERT 3 TONS OF TRASH


into:
1 ton of ASH
That nobody wants!
|;; ' K
6767'K+(
WE CONVERT 3 TONS OF TRASH
into:
1 ton of compostables
1 ton of recyclables
and
1 ton of EDUCATION!


 | 
$.

ù If we canƞt reuse it,


it, recycle it or compost
it,,
it
ù Industry shouldnƞt be making it and
ù we shouldnƞt be buying it!!!
K 

$ 
6767
%   
Jobs!

Jobs !!

Jobs !!!
Nova Scotia

50% diversion in 5 years (Halifax ~ 60%)


1000 jobs created collecting and treating
discarded materials
Another 2000 jobs created in the
industries handling the collected material
Nearly all the separated materials are re-
re-
used in Nova Scotiaƞs own industries.

|  

 
www.GRRN.org

www.ZWIA.org

www.CRRA.org

www.ecocycle.org
 %,K


Passed law oNo Waste by 2010ơ


Currently over 70% diversion
Setting up a oResource Recovery Parkơ
to locate all the industries which can
make products out of separated
materials
 

The city of Markham (north of


Toronto) has diverted 70% from
landfill in 2 years.
Contact: Councillor Erin Shapiro
eshapero@markam.ca
www.Markham.ca
# |
 ,
 
Whole island has door to door
collection of recyclables and
compostables
  

Over 50% of communities


have declared a Zero Waste
strategy
 3 

Population = 850,000
Very little space
50% waste diverted by 2000
63% waste diverted by 2004
75% waste diverted by 2010
(goal)
100% (or very close!) by 2020 ƛ
Zero Waste
m3 
:0
K  ëKKë  Kë
  K K  
 K

 
  


 $
    ë  K 
K
 ë ë
ë K
 KK  
K   KKë
 K K  

K

K
K'|K' 1'(3K |||(

& ",
|$

Italy has pioneered new odoor to doorơ


collection systems to maximize the
collection of clean organic material
Important work done by Enzo Favorino
from the Agricultural School in the
Parco Monza, near Milan.
 @ < 
A87B 
 



***   
 &


Comune Populazione % rifiuto


differenziato

Sonnino 7,154 54%


Sermoneta 7,000 64%
Lenola 4,200 65%
Monterosi 3,029 54%
Bassiano 1,670 50%
Castelforte 4,700 52%
|$

Over 600 communities in Italy are


achieving over 50% diversion using
odoor to doorơ collection systems
In the North,
North, Novara - (population =
100,000) at 70% diversion in 18
months
In the South,
South, Near Salerno 4
communities over 70%
|$

The Treviso region - 22 communities


averaging 76% diversion
RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI
AUMENTO % RACCOLTA DIFFERENZIATA

=G

:G

?G

8G

5G 73,82% 7#,,3%


70,-2%
,#,,-%
9G

G 33,,-%
27,18%
6G

G

K  
K 6 
K  
K 9 
K 5 
K 8
65  65  65  6=     
,

,

!,

5,

6,

,

,

9,
,

,

AUMENTO % RACCOLTA DIFFERENZIATA





 ! , 9


, 



 
  .  ,5
 ,5

/    ,6




5,!


0 .     5, 





!,!

RISULTATI QUANTITATIVI





    . 5,





9,9




1 .     9,5







5,6


 5,!



 ,!



2 3  5,6






 ,5 



. 9,!5



5,!!




  $ .  5,!6

,5


,9!


!, 


  ,!



 ,5


 , 




,
11  5
11  

3   ,!




6,

/   !,!



5,6 

  !5,9



,69


 2 6,9



 ,6


4    5!,96


5,


/    ,55





9,9




!,


,!5




  /  55,6






,9



4    . !6,


, 9







/ 1 4  5  ,!
5,6
DIFFERENZIATA COSTA DI PIU?
K  K                        K  
K
   
K  K   K      
K  K

" " "" "

  " 


 " "" "

 " "" "




 " !

  " 

 " "" "
 " "# 

 # "  $%
;

 " "" " 


& 2C

'(
& 2C

# " "" " C 
  2    
2 


 " "" " C 
      
2 


" "" "
         !""" !""  !""! !"" !"" !""#
K 
 
  
   
<# 

#  C

<|  # *
# * 1%1
1%1


<D  
1|2
On the Road to Zero Waste:
Part 1: Nova Scotia, Canada
Part 2: Burlington, Vermont, US
Part 3: Canberra, Australia
Part 4: San Francisco

ZERO WASTE: Idealistic Dream or Realistic Goal?


+2K2';|#

 
6 
   
   

7
+'K%N'$'NG!
;Km"'|+0
Have no imagination
have no vision
have no sense of humor
are obsessively tidy
confuse being clever with being wise
have more faith in machines than people
believe science and technology can fix every
problem
believe man is the centre of the universe
And a womanƞs place is in the kitchen!
" 
 
  
%
&
 A A
O

67 
7  A
97  
57 
 

 A
O

%

Is too important to be left to owaste


expertsơ
We need all sectors involved if we are
to move towards a sustainable society
As far as sustainability is concerned
the waste problem is a fabulous place
to start
Sustainable Education
agriculture

Architecture
Industrial
Design &
Labor Zero Waste 2020
Unions

Sustainable
Energy
Community Sustainable
development Economic
Development
U3)1 E/ $/2D% 1 21+21)(*(" E/
() %B)(*2'21& * *3) -(D% *3) E/
() 1* +D)B)( )1/&3  )2*3)(
.D2*2+DDE ( *)+312+DDE  * ()+B)(
E/( %2'+(%)% ()'/(+)'F
U3)1 E/ $/2D% 1 21+21)(*(" E/
() %B)(*2'21& * *3) -(D% *3) E/
() 1* +D)B)( )1/&3  )2*3)(
.D2*2+DDE ( *)+312+DDE  * ()+B)(
E/( %2'+(%)% ()'/(+)'F
  

P
 

  


  


  

 
  

 

 

 
  
 

 

To Citizens:
Donƞt let the oexpertsơ take your common sense
away
To Politicians:
Put your faith back in people - stop trying to solve
all your problems with overpaid consultants and
magic machines
To Activists:
Have Fun!
2
(2+2+D"
2D%2BD
$(/+2
";$ 
+% 
(Chorus)
We donƞt want incineration
We donƞt want incineration
We donƞt want incineration
We know thereƞs a better way!
";$ 
+% 
While we recognize our landfills
All are swelling with the waste
This doesnƞt justify
A bad decision made in haste!
Let us put our heads together
So the problem may be faced
And we must do it now!
";$ 
+% 
(Chorus)
We donƞt want incineration
We donƞt want incineration
We donƞt want incineration
We know thereƞs a better way!
";$ 
+% 
Mine eyes have seen the garbage
Thatƞs a smoldering on the grate
We must stop incineration
Before it is too late
Unless we wish the dangers
We had better separate
And we must do it now!
";$ 
+% 
(Chorus)
We donƞt want incineration
We donƞt want incineration
We donƞt want incineration
We know thereƞs a better way!