Authoritarian Regimes

Case Study: Fascist Japan Chapter 5

Chapter Objectives
‡ The beginnings of Fascism and how it became popular ‡ Factors contributing to the failure of the democratic government in Japan ‡ Reasons for the rise of Fascism in Japan

Essentially«The Chapter is about«
Failure of the Democratic Government ‡Weakness of the Japanese Parliament ‡Corrupt Politicians ‡Lacked Support of Workers and Peasants Impact of Economic Problems ‡Problems at the end of World War I ‡1929 Great Depression

WHAT LED TO THE RISE OF FASCISM IN JAPAN

Fear of Chinese Nationalism ‡Anti-Japanese Protests

Unhappiness with Japanese Leaders who wanted Friendly Ties with the former Allied Powers

Unhappiness with Former Allied Powers 1919 Versailles Treaty 1921-22 Washington Naval Conference Mid-1920s Immigration Issues

(12m) b) ³Unhappiness with the former Allied Powers was the most important reason that led to the rise of fascism in Japan.Chapter Assignment Due in Week 4 a) To what extent did a weak Japanese parliament contribute to the failure of the democratic government in Japan? Explain your answer. (13m) .´ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

come up with a mind-map on what Fascism is about ‡ You may use your textbook as a guide ‡ You have 10 minutes .Activity 1 ‡ What is Fascism? ‡ In groups of 4.

What is Fascism? FASCISM Fascism was spread throughout the world and in Japan. the idea was strongly influenced by the Military Fascism also brought About a sense of belonging .

.

corrupt and inefficient ‡ As a result. the idea appealed to many Japanese . they were unable to solve the economic problems that plagued the people of Japan ‡ Since Fascism valued the nation and worked towards its progress through strong leadership.What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? ‡ Why did Fascism seem so attractive? ‡ The Japanese democratic leaders were weak.

The Damage of Democracy¶s Reputation by Corruption 3. The Limited Power of the Diet 2. Failure to Solve Economic Problems ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Farmer¶s Economic Problems Workers¶ Economic Problems Trade Imbalance Great Depression of 1929 .What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? ‡ The Factors: 1.

What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 1. power remained with the Emperor and the Genro (retired statesmen who served the Emperor) ‡ No power to make decisions or policies ‡ Could not control the ministers as they were under the control of the Emperor . The Limited Power of the Diet ‡ Although there was a parliament (Diet).

.

the military wielded much power over the government . it¶s recommendations were usually overruled ‡ As a result.What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 1. The Limited Power of the Diet ‡ As the Diet had no control over the government.

.

The Damage of Democracy¶s Reputation by Corruption ‡ As Democratic leaders had to be elected into the Diet.What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 2. political parties were formed with large sponsorship from the Zaibatsus ‡ The Zaibatsus sponsored politicians in order to use the close ties to make the government pass laws that would benefit them .

The Damage of Democracy¶s Reputation by Corruption ‡ Because of these close ties.What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 2. there were many rumours of corruption ‡ Due to these accusations. many political parties fought in parliament and disillusioned the Japanese people .

.

.

Failure to Solve Economic Problems ‡ Farmers¶ Economic Problems ‡ Lack of land which led to a lack of profits as the plots were too small to grow more rice Landlords rented land at very high prices which made life difficult for the farmers Tenant unions used violence and tenantlandlord violence was very common ‡ ‡ .What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 3.

.

Failure to Solve Economic Problems ‡ Workers¶ Economic Problems ‡ Poor living and working conditions ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Crowded and unhygienic quarters Worked long hours Locked in working compounds Could only leave their working compounds a few times each month ‡ Fed up. most workers joined Communistsponsored unions .What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 3.

etc) and porcelain However. Japan prospered from global trade Japan exported silk textiles. china (plates.What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 3. there was a trade imbalance because Japan had to import many raw materials and food from abroad to feed its growing population . cups. Failure to Solve Economic Problems ‡ Trade Imbalance ‡ ‡ ‡ Despite its internal problems.

What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan?
3. Failure to Solve Economic Problems
‡ The Great Depression of 1929
‡ Led to a decrease in Japan exports due to protectionism policies (increase in taxes on foreign goods to protect home-made products in difficult economic times) Japan was badly affected because the demand for Japanese silk fell drastically This led to economic depression

‡ ‡

.

What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? High Taxes on Japanese Silk More people bought silk or other type of cloths produced by their home countries thus reducing the demand for Japanese silk Effect of Protectionism on Japan High prices of Japanese silk People in other countries could not afford to buy Japanese silk .

What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 80% Fall in Silk Prices Other businesses were affected Businessmen who Owned silk factories Went bankrupt The Japanese had less money to buy other goods Impact of decrease in silk Price Lower prices led to fewer goods being produced Fewer workers were needed in factories and more Japanese became unemployed .

Effects of the Great Depression on Japan CRASH! Loss of Paper Profits Less Employment Less Demand Lower Prices Less Production Less Money in Circulation DEPRESSION Less Bank Credit Less Employment Less Demand Less Building of Factories and Homes .

Failure to Solve Economic Problems ‡ The Great Depression of 1929 ‡ ‡ ‡ The farmers were very badly hit because they produced silk to earn more income Worse still.What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 3. they were hit by a drought in 1932 and made even less money Desperate they even resorted to selling their daughters to make ends meet .

they joined the army or patriotic societies The peasants felt that democracy wasn¶t working and instead believed in national reconstruction.What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? 3. Failure to Solve Economic Problems ‡ The Great Depression of 1929 ‡ ‡ When the economy failed to improve. military strength and respect for authority Many young rural men enlisted in the Japanese army ‡ .

What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? a) To what extent did a weak Japanese parliament contribute to the failure of the democratic government in Japan? Explain your answer. Damage to Democracy¶s Reputation and the Failure to Solve Economic Problems Step 3: Weigh your answer. How far was the weak Japanese parliament responsible for the failure of the democratic government AS COMPARED TO the 2 OTHER FACTORS? ‡ ‡ ‡ . (12m) Step 1: Explain how the weak Japanese parliament contributed to the failure of the democratic government in Japan (Remember to EXPLAIN HOW IT HAPPENED and NOT WHAT IT IS«) Step 2: Explain 2 OTHER FACTORS In this case.

What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons Internal Reasons ‡ American expansion in the Asia-Pacific region threatened Japanese plans to control the area ‡ Paris Peace Conference 1919 ‡ Washington Naval Conference 1921-22 ‡ London Disarmament Conference 1930 ‡ Immigration Laws in the USA in the mid 1930s ‡ Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism ‡ The Showa Restoration ‡ Patriotic Societies ‡ Military¶s great influence over the government ‡ Military take-over of Japan .

more of the Pacific region came under American control including Hawaii and the Philippines ‡ Japanese militarists believed that Japanese and American economic and military interests would come into conflict over who would control the Asia-Pacific . American businessmen were interested in doing business in the Asia-Pacific ‡ The US took control of many Pacific islands to obtain Guano (bat shit) ‡ Other islands were used as bases for American trading ships ‡ By the 1930s.What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons ‡ American expansion in the Asia-Pacific region threatened Japanese plans to control the area ‡ Since the opening of trade with Japan by the American Commodore. Matthew Perry.

.

.

.

What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons ‡ Paris Peace Conference 1919 ‡ As Japan had fought with the Allied Powers in WWI. the Japanese. particularly the Japanese Army. they requested that the League of Nations formally recognise that all races were equal ‡ As the League of Nations refused. were unhappy .

.

What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons ‡ Washington Naval Conference 19211922 ‡ The WNC aimed to reduce the naval forces of the world¶s major powers ‡ For every 5 ships Britain and the USA could build. Japan could only build 3 ‡ The Japanese felt that this was an unfair treaty and an attempt to restrict Japanese naval power .

.

at the LDC to further limit Japan¶s smaller battleships ‡ They were also unhappy that he was trying to improve ties with China ‡ The PM also reduced spending on the Army to end the Great Depression ‡ He was accused by the Army of being too soft and betraying the country ‡ He died in 1931 from wounds sustained in an assassination attempt in 1930 .What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons ‡ London Disarmament Conference 1930 ‡ Many Japanese were unhappy when PM Hamaguchi Osachi wanted to ensure further naval arms reduction with Britain and the USA where he agreed.

.

the USA restricted Asian immigration as part of its isolationist and protectionist policies ‡ All Asian immigration (except for Filipinos) was banned ‡ Asian immigrants could not become US citizens even if they had been living there for a long time ‡ Asians could not marry Caucasians and were not allowed to own land .What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons ‡ Immigration Laws in the USA in the mid 1930s ‡ In 1924.

What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons ‡ Immigration Laws in the USA in the mid 1930s ‡ There was also Asian Segregation (California Alien Law 1931) ‡ These new immigration laws angered the Japanese who saw these policies as a sign that the Americans thought the Japanese were inferior ‡ These laws combined with the effects of the Great Depression caused many Japanese to turn away from Democracy and support Japanese expansion overseas .

.

What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons ‡ Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism ‡ Since 1894. Japan had taken advantage of China¶s weak political situation to gain special trading rights and privileges within China ‡ The Chinese were angered by the dynastic decline and the giving of foreign concessions ‡ Subsequently. there were struggles between the Chinese warlords and the KMT and CCP (who both tried to unite China). These struggles weakened the country .

.

the Chinese demanded an end to the special concessions to Westerners and Japanese in China and Manchuria ‡ Strikes and boycotts hurt Japanese economic interests in China and Manchuria .What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons ‡ Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism ‡ When the KMT succeeded in uniting China.

What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons ‡ Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism ‡ Japanese Kwantung Army Officers in Manchuria realised that a strong and united China could prevent further Japanese expansion in the country ‡ They urged Japan to occupy Manchuria and North China before anti-Japanese feelings became too strong ‡ The Japanese military¶s call for action was supported by many Japanese .

.

greedy and individualistic and Japanese virtues such as self-sacrifice for the nation were promoted .What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? Internal Reasons ‡ The Showa Restoration ‡ From the 1890s the Japanese education system emphasised: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Nationalism Loyalty to the Emperor Self-Sacrifice Obedience ‡ Japan¶s response to the Great Depression and foreign opposition to its growing empire was the ³Showa Restoration´ (Bright Harmony) ‡ Western values were characterised to be selfish.

.

What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? Internal Reasons ‡ The Showa Restoration ‡ The slogan ³Sonno Joi´ (Restore the Emperor and Expel the Barbarian!) ‡ The SR produced youths who were blindly loyal to the Emperor and the nation ‡ These youths also believed in militarism and an aggressive military policy .

.

many patriotic societies with links to the military were set up in Japan (Black Dragon Society.What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? Internal Reasons ‡ Patriotic Societies ‡ Since the 1920s. Cherry Blossom Society) ‡ They were extremely nationalistic and believed in Japan¶s superiority to other nations ‡ They wanted to use an aggressive foreign policy to make Japan strong again ‡ These societies wanted to get rid of democratic leaders and set up a military dictatorship on behalf of the Emperor .

.

‡ Leaders who did not support the military¶s ambitions were often assassinated .What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? Internal Reasons ‡ Army and Navy¶s Great Influence over the Government ‡ The Army and Navy had a great influence over political decisions and acted independently from the government ‡ They wanted to copy the West and acquire more colonies in China and Manchuria ‡ Military success made the Army and Navy popular (e.g. Russo-Japanese War) and helped them gain even more influence over the government.

the Liaodung Peninsula and the southern Sakhalin Island from Russia 1915 ± Japan Issues the 21 Demands to China ‡ Weak Chinese government is forced to accept Japanese advisors ‡ Japan is able to keep Shantung 1905-1910 ‡ Japan¶s control of Korea is achieved .Japanese Military Gains 1894-1895 Sino-Japanese War ‡ Japan defeated China ‡ It took over Taiwan and demanded that China give up control over the Liaodung Peninsula in Manchuria ‡This started the Japanese presence in Manchuria 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War ‡ Japan defeated Russia ‡ First Asian power to defeat a major European power ‡ Signed the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905 1914 Japan joined the Allies in WWI ‡ When Japan entered the war on the side of the Allies. it occupied the German territories of Shantung and parts of the Pacific islands 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth ‡ Gained the right to build a railway in Manchuria which was rich in oil and coal ‡ Took over Port Arthur.

the Japanese government began to follow the aims of the Army . Inukai.What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? Internal Reasons ‡ Military Take-over of Japan ‡ In 1930. was killed for criticising the actions of the Japanese Army in Manchuria ‡ Succeeding PMs felt pressurised to support the Kwantung Army in Manchuria or were already strong supporters of the military ‡ After 1932. after the Manchurian Incident. the new PM. the military brought down the Hamaguchi government by shooting the PM ‡ In May 1932.

What led to the Failure of the Democratic Government in Japan? b) ³Unhappiness with the former Allied Powers was the most important reason that led to the rise of fascism in Japan. How important was unhappiness with the former Allied Powers responsible for the rise of fascism in Japan AS COMPARED TO the 2 OTHER FACTORS? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .´ How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. See Slide 23) Explain how unhappiness with the former Allied Powers was led to the rise of fascism in Japan. (13m) Step 1: You can start by saying that ³Unhappiness with the former Allied Powers was a reason for the rise of fascism in Japan´ BUT there are other factors as well (e.´ Remember to EXPLAIN HOW IT HAPPENED and NOT WHAT IT IS«) Step 2: Explain 2 OTHER FACTORS (Aqmal ~ 2 more factors«not ONE«) Step 3: Weigh your answer.g.

What led to the Rise of Fascism in Japan? External Reasons Internal Reasons ‡ American expansion in the Asia-Pacific region threatened Japanese plans to control the area ‡ Paris Peace Conference 1919 ‡ Washington Naval Conference 1921-22 ‡ London Disarmament Conference 1930 ‡ Immigration Laws in the USA in the mid 1930s ‡ Resurgence of Chinese Nationalism ‡ The Showa Restoration ‡ Patriotic Societies ‡ Military¶s great influence over the government ‡ Military take-over of Japan .