Generator Management Relay

Protection, metering, and monitoring functions for generators.

Presented by:

John Levine, P.E.
Levine Lectronics and Lectric, Inc. 770 565-1556


Overview Theory Wiring Security


What a Generator looks like
Generator Protection


Generator Protection 4 .

Overview 5 .

load encroachment and energizing ± May lack comprehensive monitoring and communications capabilities ‡ Not provide valuable forensic info that can lead to rapid restoration ± Not be up to ANSI/IEEE Standards! ± Insurance.Why Upgrade? Generator and Transformer ‡ Existing generator and transformer protection (more than 5 years or nondigital) may: ± Cause protection security issues ‡ Tripping on through-faults.91: Guide for Transformer Protection 6 . Asset Reliability and Personal Liability Issues ‡ C37-102: Guide for the Protection of Synchronous Generators ‡ C37. external faults. swings.

Sequence of Events ‡ Ethernet and Serial Communications ‡ Metering of all important parameters 7 .Generator Management Relay Product Overview ‡ Ideal Protection for Induction and Synchronous Generators at 25. 12 samples per cycle ‡ Drawout Case Installation ‡ Powerful Fault Recording: Waveform. 50 and 60Hz ‡ Complete Generator Protection including: ‡ Generator Stator Differential ‡ 2 or 3 Zone Distance Backup ‡ 100% Stator Ground ‡ High speed sampling.

Theory 8 .

Show Generator Theory General Overview and Typical System from Training CD 9 .

Generator Protection System Gr u d St t r r u d Exciter The "Wild" wer System St t r hase System Phase ‡ Internal and External Short Circuits 10 .

Generator Protection Review ± Abnormal Operating Conditions ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Loss of Synchronism Abnormal Frequency Overexcitation Field Loss Inadvertent Energizing Breaker Failure Loss of Prime Mover Power Blown VT Fuses Open Circuits 11 .

Pole Flashover Breaker Failure The "Wild" Power System Abnormal Frequency Loss of Synchronism ‡ Abnormal Operating Conditions 12 .Generator Protection Over Power Ov x i ion Op n Ci i s ion Loss of Fi l Ov x i ion Loss of Fi l Ov x i Exciter G Abnormal Frequency Reverse Power Inadv rtent Energizing.

IEEE PSRC Survey ± Conducted in early ¶90s. showed many areas of protection lacking ± Unwillingness to upgrade: ‡ Lack of expertise ± To recognize deficiency ± To perform the work ‡ ³Generators don¶t trip´ (wrong) ‡ Operating procedures will save the day PSRC = Power System Relay Committee 13 .

101: IEEE Guide for AC Generator Ground Protection C37.ANSI/IEEE Standards ‡ Latest developments reflected in: ± ± ± ± Std.106: IEEE Guide for Abnormal Frequency Protection for Power Generating Plants These are created/maintained by the IEEE PSRC & IAS They are updated every 5 years 14 . 242: Buff Book C37.102: IEEE Guide for Generator Protection C37.

Small Machine Protection IEEE Buff Book 32 Reverse Power 40 Loss of Excitation 51V voltage restraint 51G Ground overcurrent 87 Differential ‡ Small ± up to 1 MW to 600V. 500 kVA if >600V 15 .

Small Machine Protection IEEE Buff Book 32 Reverse Power 40 Loss of Excitation 46 Negative Sequence 51V voltage restraint 51G Ground overcurrent 87 Differential ‡ Medium ± up to 12.5 MW 16 .

Small Machine Protection IEEE Buff Book 32 Reverse Power 40 Loss of Excitation 46 Negative Sequence 49 Thermal Overload 51V voltage restraint 51G Ground overcurrent 64 Ground Relay 87 Differential ‡ Large ± up to 50 MW 17 .

Large Machine Protection IEEE C37. ‡ High Z Grounded 32 Reverse Power 40 Loss of Excitation 46 Negative Sequence 49 Thermal Overload 51V voltage restraint 51G Ground overcurrent 64 Ground Relay 87 Differential 18 .102 ‡ Unit Connected.


/ Time Neg.Protection F nctions Protection F nctions Incl ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ e: Generator tator Differential Back Distance Protection 100% tator Gro n Generator Unbalance Loss of E citation Acci ental Energi ation Breaker Fail Phase erc rrent ± Voltage Restraint erc rrent Ne tral Inst. eq ence erc rrent Un er / er Voltage er Freq enc Un er / Generator Thermal Mo el RTD Tem erat re ere citation ± Volts/Hert 20 .

Generator Protection 21 .

Generator Protection with GSU Wrap PTs on Low Side 22 .

Generator Protection with GSU Wrap PTs on High Side 23 .

Generator Protection PTs on Low Side 24 .

Generator ± Reverse Power (32) ‡ Should be sensitive to 0.05 pu to properly detect motoring in large steam turbines ± Existing E/M and Static relays not sensitive enough ± May cause shutdown difficulties ± Negative Sequence (46) ‡ Should be sensitive to low values to detect open poles/conductors on system after GSU ± Existing E/M and Static relays not sensitive enough ‡ Long time low level events may cause excessive rotor heating.Desirable Attributes . thermal tripping and damage rotor ± 100% Stator Ground (59N / 59D) ‡ Protects all of the stator winding ± Existing schemes typically only see 90% ± Stop low level fault near neutral from degrading into a high level fault and causing large amounts of damage ± Very secure 25 .

as the breaker is open! 26 . also pole flashover prior to syncing ‡ Most existing schemes do not incorporate ± Many schemes fail due to complexity (reliance on breaker auxiliary switches.Desirable Attributes . mechanical and electric damage can occur to machine in fractions of a second! ± Pole flashovers must be cleared by high speed breaker failure. yard distance relays.Generator ‡ Inadvertent Energizing (50/27) ± High speed tripping of unit after breaker accidentally closed on dead machine. etc. ± If breaker is not tripped rapidly.

Line ± Ground faults ± Delta Connected Generator 27 .

Line ± Ground faults ± Wye Connected Generator 28 .

Protection F nctions Generator tator Differential ‡ tator Phase Differential ‡ D al lo e Percent Restraint erating Characteristic ‡ Directional er ision n er sat ration con itions Distance Back Protection D al lo e Phase Differential ‡ 2 or 3 Zone Mho Distance Protection ‡ Back for rimar line rotection ‡ Config rable Reach an Angle Distance Characteristic 100% tator Gro n Protection ‡ 95% F n amental erVoltage ‡ 15% Thir Harmonic Un erVoltage Two Zone Distance Back 29 .

Protection F nctions Voltage Protection ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Phase er oltage Phase Un er oltage Ne tral er oltage (f n amental) Ne tral Un er oltage (3r Harmonic) Voltage Phase Re ersal Voltage Restraint erc rrent C rrent Protection ‡ Phase. IAC an C stomi able erc rrent C r es ‡ Voltage Restraint increasing sensiti it n er low oltage con itions Freq enc Protection ‡ erfreq enc ‡ Un erfreq enc Un er oltage Tri C r es 30 . Gro n an Negati e eq ence erc rrent Tri ing ‡ IEC. AN I .

Protection F nctions Thermal Protection ‡ Generator Thermal Mo el ‡ RTD Alarming an Tri ing ‡ RTD Biase Thermal Mo el Ina ertent Energi ation ‡ Pre ents Acci entall Closing a to e Generator onto a Li e Line ‡ Arme when Generator is ffline an Voltage is below a re-set le el Thermal Mo el ± Voltage erloa C r es De en ant Loss of E citation (show Training CD) ‡ Uses Im e ance Circle for loss of e citation etection ‡ 2 Zones for fa lt etection an control Volt/Hert ( ere citation) Loss of E citation ‡ Detects changes in the Volts/Hert ratio of the generator or associate transformer 31 .

Wiring 32 .

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Example 37 .

e. serial ort.Enhance Securit Pre ents Unauthori e Access an Pro i e Traceabilit Sec rit A it Trail ‡ Date/time sec rit re ort was generate ‡ Descri tion of the GE M ltilin Rela ‡ Summar of the last time the configuration was change ‡ Histor of last 10 occurrences the configuration was change ‡ Date an time of har ware. ke a . ethernet) Sec rit strateg ± conforms to in str an reg late g i elines 38 . firmware or setting changes to o r rela s ‡ Logging of the MAC a ress of com ters an sers making settings changes ‡ Track metho of how settings changes were ma e (i.

Questions? 39 .

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