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An Apple a Day Keeps the


Doctor Away.
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Known as father of Medicine.


(said several centuries ago)

³Let Food be Your Medicine´

The Philosophy behind is:


³Focus on Prevention´
‡ The term ³Nutraceutical´ was coined from
³Nutrition´ & ³Pharmaceutical´ in 1989 by

Stephen DeFelice,

MD, Founder and Chairman of the Foundation


for Innovation in Medicine (FIM).

‡ Other words used in the context:


Dietary supplementation, Functional, Multi-
functional Foods, etc.
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³ A food or part of food or nutrient, that


provides health benefits, including the
prevention and treatment of a disease.´
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roadly can be defined as:

‡ Nutrients: Substances which have established


Nutritional functions e.g. Vitamins, Minerals, Amino
Acids, Fatty acids, etc.

‡ Herbals/ Phytochemicals: Herbs or otanical


products

‡ Dietary Supplements: Probiotics, Prebiotics,


Antioxidents, Enzymes, etc.
NUTRIENTS
‡ Most common Nutrients used/ supplemented
as Nutraceutical are:
Minerals and Vitamins.

or in combination

or in combination with other antioxidants


Health enefits of different common
nutrients

‡ Vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins

‡ Vitamin A: Acts as antioxidant, essential for growth


and development, maintains healthy vision, skin and
mucous membranes, may aid in the prevention and
treatment of certain cancers and in the treatment of
certain skin disorders.
‡ Vitamin D: Essential for formation of bones and
teeth, helps the body to absorb and use
calcium

‡ Vitamin E: Antioxidant, helps to form blood


cells, boosts immune system

‡ Vitamin K: Essential for blood clotting


•ater Soluble Vitamins
‡ Vitamin C: Antioxidant, necessary for healthy
bones, gums, teeth and skin. Helps in wound
healing, prevent from common cold

‡ Vitamin  1: Helps in carbohydrate metabolism,


essential for neurological function.

‡ Vitamin  2: Energy metabolism, maintain


healthy eye, skin and nerve function.
‡ Vitamin  3: Energy metabolism, brain function

‡ Vitamin  6: Helps to produce essential


proteins, convert proteins to energy

‡ Vitamin  12: Help in producing genetic


material, formation of RC, maintenance of
CNS, synthesis of amino acids, involved in
metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrate.
‡ Folic acid: Helps in RC formation, formation of
genetic material of cell, very much essential
during pregnancy

‡ Pantothenic acid: Aids in synthesis of


cholesterol, steroids, and fatty acids, crucial for
intraneuronal synthesis of acetylcholine
Vitamins like Compounds
‡ L- Carnitine: Helps in oxidation of fatty acids, role in
oxidative phosphorylation,

‡ Choline: Lipotropic agent, used to treat fatty liver and


disturbed fat metabolism,

‡ Inositol: For amino acid transport and movement of


Potassium and sodium,

‡ Taurine: Helps in retinal photoreceptor activity, bile


acid conjugation, •C antioxidant activity, CNS
neuromodulation, platelet aggregation, cardiac
contractibility, sperm motility, insuline activity,
‡ Minerals:
‡ Calcium: essential for bone and teeth, maintaining
bone strength, nerve, muscle and glandular function,
blood clotting,

‡ Iron: energy production, Hb, oxygen transport,

‡ Magnesium: for healthy nerve and muscle function,


bone formation,

‡ Phosphorous: energy production, phosphorylation


process, bone and teeth, for genetic material,
‡ Cobalt: component of Vit.  12 and  12
coenzymes,

‡ Copper: Hb and collagen production, function of


heart, energy production, absorption of Iron,

‡ Iodine: proper function of Thyroid gland,

‡ Chromium: with insulin it helps in conversion of


carbohydrate and fat into energy, treatment of
diabetes,
‡ Selenium: Antioxidant, functioning of heart
muscle, part of GPX enzyme,

‡ Zinc: Essential for cell reproduction, for


development in Neonates, wound healing,
production of sperm and testosterone
hormone,
‡ Herbals:

‡ Aloe vera: Anti-inflammatory, emollient, wound


healing,

‡ Evening Primrose oil: Dietary supplement of


linoleic acid, treatment of atopic eczema,

‡ Garlic: Antibacterial, antifungal, antithrombotic,


antiinflammatory,

‡ Ginger: carminative, antiemetic, treatment of


dizziness
‡ Ginseng: Adaptogen,

‡ Green tea: Antioxidant, reduces risk of CVD,


enhances humoral and cell mediated Immunity,

‡ Vegetables, fruits, whole grain, herbs, nuts and


various seeds contain an abundance of
phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulphur
compounds, pigments etc. that has been
associated with protection / treatment of certain
disease conditions,
‡Phytochemicals:
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Various Phytochemicals
  
Tocotrienols & Grains Suppressed the growth of
tocopherols diverse tumors cell lines via
initiation of apoptosis and
concomitant arrest of cells in
the G1 phase of the cell cycle
Carotenoids Fruits & Antioxidants, protects against
vegetables uterine, prostate, colorectal,
lung and digestive tract
cancers, and protection to
other antioxidants.
Limonoids Citrus fruits Inhibiting phase I
enzymes & inducing
phase II detoxification
enzymes in liver, provide
protection to lung tissue.
Phytosterols Various Exhibit anti-inflammatory,
plants anti-neoplastic, anti-
pyretic & immune-
modulating activity,
decrease cholesterol
Phenolic Various Antioxidants, lowers the
constituents plants, risk of CHD, diabetes,
wholegrain hypertension etc.
Flavonoids Grapes, wines Action against free
radicals, free radicals
mediated cellular
signaling, inflammation,
allergies, platelet
aggregation, &
hepatotoxins
Catechin & Grapes, Antioxidants, free
gallic acids berries, cocoa, radical scavenging
green tea, ability, inhibition of
acacia spp. eicosanoid synthesis,
reduces CHD
Isoflavonoids Soybeans Treating cancers &
osteoporosis
Anthocyanidins Fruits & flowers Antioxidants & anti-
mutagenic properties
Glucosinolates Cruciferous Activators of liver
detoxification
enzymes, inhibit the
neoplastic effect of
various carcinogens
Indoles Reduces estrogen-
dependent cancer
risk,
Fiber Various Protects against
vegetables, colorectal diseases,
fruits,
Method to enhance active
components in food

‡ Manipulating the diet to get maximum


level of active components
‡ Combination of food ingredients rich in
nutraceuticals
‡ Fortifying food with active ingredients
‡ y fermentation of food products
‡ Changing food habits to natural type of
diet
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‡ Nutraceuticals are present in most of the food


ingredients with varying concentration
‡ Concentration, time and duration of supply of
nutraceuticals influence human health

‡ Manipulating the foods, the concentration of


active ingredients can be increased
‡ Diet rich in nutraceuticals along with regular
exercise, stress reduction and maintenance of
healthy body weight will maximise health and
reduce disease risk