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UMTS ...

… 3G Technology and Concepts

GSM/GPRS network architecture

Radio access network GSM/GPRS core network
BSS

PSTN, ISDN
MSC
MSC GMSC
GMSC
BTS VLR
VLR
BTS
MS
MS BSC
BSC HLR
HLR
PCU
PCU AuC
AuC
SGSN
SGSN EIR
EIR
BTS
BTS
IP GGSN
GGSN
Backbone

database

Internet

3GPP Rel.’99 network architecture

Radio access network Core network (GSM/GPRS-
UTRAN based)

PSTN
Iub RNC
RNC MSC
MSC GMSC
GMSC
Iu CS
BS VLR
VLR
BS
UE
UE Iur HLR
HLR
Uu
AuC
AuC
Iub RNC
RNC SGSN
SGSN
Iu PS EIR
EIR
BS
BS Gn

IP GGSN
GGSN
Backbone

database

Internet

3GPP Rel.’99 network architecture

Radio access network
UTRAN
2G => 3G MS => UE
(User Equipment), often
Iub RNC also called (user) terminal
RNC
BS New air (radio) interface
BS
UE based on WCDMA access
UE Uu Iur
technology
Iub RNC
RNC New RAN architecture
BS (Iur interface is available
BS
for soft handover,
BSC => RNC)

3GPP Rel.’99 network architecture Changes in the core Core network (GSM/GPRS- based) network: PSTN MSC is upgraded to MSC MSC GMSC GMSC Iu CS 3G MSC VLR VLR SGSN is upgraded to HLR HLR 3G SGSN AuC AuC SGSN SGSN GMSC and GGSN Iu PS EIR EIR remain the same Gn AuC is upgraded IP GGSN GGSN (more security Backbone features in 3G) Internet .

4 network architecture UTRAN Circuit Switched (CS) (UMTS Terrestrial core network Radio Access Network) MSC GMSC MSC GMSC Server Server Server Server SGW SGW PSTN SGW SGW MGW MGW MGW MGW New option in Rel.3GPP Rel.4: GERAN (GSM and EDGE Radio Access Network) PS core as in Rel.’99 .

’99 SS7 IP MTP Sigtran .4 network architecture MSC Server takes care Circuit Switched (CS) of call control core network signalling MSC MSC GMSC GMSC The user connections Server Server Server Server are set up via MGW (Media GateWay) SGW SGW PSTN SGW SGW MGW MGW MGW MGW “Lower layer” protocol conversion in SGW (Signalling GateWay) RANAP / ISUP PS core as in Rel. 3GPP Rel.

5 network architecture UTRAN CS core (UMTS Terrestrial PSTN Radio Access MGW Network) New core MGW network part: IMS IMS (IP (IP Multimedia Multimedia HSS HSS System) System) GERAN Internet (GSM and EDGE Radio Access Network) SGSN SGSN GGSN GGSN PS core .3GPP Rel.

3GPP Rel. PS core ..5 network architecture The IMS can establish CS core multimedia sessions PSTN (using IP transport) MGW MGW via PS core between UE and Internet (or Internet / other IMS IMS IMS (IP (IP another IMS) Multimedia Multimedia HSS HSS Call/session control System) System) using SIP (Session Initiating Protocol) SGSN SGSN GGSN GGSN Interworking with the PSTN may be required for some time ..

Iu b.s.s. UMTS bearer service Ext. Radio access bearer service CN b. Radio b.s. Backbone Radio RadioBearer Bearer Radio RadioAccess AccessBearer Bearer . UMTS bearer service architecture TE MT UTRAN CN Iu CN TE edge node gateway UE Core network End-to-end service Local b. b.s.s.

(as defined in 3GPP specs. interactive. background . What is a bearer? Bearer: a bearer capability of defined capacity. streaming. etc. capacity. and traffic flow characteristics Four UMTS QoS Classes • conversational.) Bearer is a flexible concept designating some kind of ”bit pipe” • at a certain network level (see previous slide) • between certain network entities • with certain QoS attributes. delay and bit error rate.

SMS) audio streaming basic conferencing file transfer applications . UMTS QoS (service) classes Conversational Conversational Streaming Streaming Interactive Interactive Background Background low delay reasonably low low round-trip delay is not delay delay critical low delay variation basic QoS requirements speech www store-and- video streaming applications forward video applications telephony/ (e-mail.

H. H.324 (over circuit switched connections) ITU-T Rec.323 or IETF SIP (over packet switched connections) . Four UMTS QoS (service) classes Conversational Conversational Streaming Streaming Interactive Interactive Background Background • low delay (< 400 ms) and low delay variation • BER requirements not so stringent • in the radio network => real-time (RT) connections • speech (using AMR = Adaptive Multi-Rate speech coding) • video telephony / conferencing: ITU-T Rec.

2 (= GSM EFR) During the call. 10.40 (= US TDMA) using the values 6.75 between transcoders .2 the AMR bit rate 7.15 EFR = Enhanced Codec negotiation Full Rate 4. 7.90 <=> 5.70 (= PDC EFR) at the right 5. Adaptive Multi-Rate coding Adaptive kbit/s <=> 12.95 can be changed.

Transcoding UE UE MSC MSC GMSC GMSC User User BB (e. in PSTN) TC TC Transcoder (AMR/PCM) should be located as far as possible to the right (transmission capacity savings) (possible only if same coding is used at both TC TC ends of connection) Transcoding should be avoided altogether (better signal quality) TFO = Tandem Free Operation (2G) TrFO = Transcoder Free Operation (3G) .g.

large delay => buffer is running out of content! . Four UMTS QoS (service) classes Conversational Conversational Streaming Streaming Interactive Interactive Background Background • reasonably low delay and delay variation • BER requirements quite stringent • traffic management important (variable bit rate) • in the radio network => real-time (RT) connections • video streaming UE UE Source Source • audio streaming Buffer video or audio information is buffered in the UE.

Four UMTS QoS (service) classes Conversational Conversational Streaming Streaming Interactive Interactive Background Background • low round-trip delay (< seconds) • delay variation is not important • BER requirements stringent • in the radio network => non-real-time (NRT) connections • web browsing • interactive games • location-based services (LCS) .

Four UMTS QoS (service) classes Conversational Conversational Streaming Streaming Interactive Interactive Background Background • delay / delay variation is not an important issue • BER requirements stringent • in the radio network => non-real-time (NRT) connections • SMS (Short Message Service) and other more advanced messaging services (EMS. MMS) • e-mail notification. e-mail download • file transfer .

UMTS protocols Different protocol stacks for user and control plane User plane (for transport of user data): Circuit switched domain: data within ”bit pipes” Packet switched domain: protocols for implementing various QoS or traffic engineering mechanisms Control plane (for signalling): Circuit switched domain: SS7 based (in core network) Packet switched domain: IP based (in core network) Radio access network: UTRAN protocols .

Phys. Phys. Phys. Phys.User plane protocol stacks (CS domain) Uu Iu Gn Data Datastreams streams Frame FrameProtocol Protocol(FP) (FP) RLC RLC RLC RLC AAL2 AAL2 TDM TDM TDM TDM AAL2 AAL2 MAC MAC MAC MAC ATM ATM ATM ATM Phys. Phys. Phys. WCDMA UE UTRAN 3G MSC GMSC . Phys.

User plane protocol stacks (PS domain) Uu Iu Gn IP IP IP IP PDCP PDCP PDCP PDCP GTP GTP GTP GTP GTP GTP GTP GTP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP UDP RLC RLC RLC RLC IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 MAC MAC MAC MAC L2 L2 L2 L2 ATM ATM ATM ATM Phys. Phys. Phys. Phys. Phys. Phys. Phys. L1 L1 L1 L1 WCDMA UE UTRAN SGSN GGSN . Phys.

g. MM. CC. radio) interface protocols e. SM transparent to UTRAN RRC RRC PDCP PDCP L3 Signalling (User plane) radio bearers radio bearers L2 RLC RLC Logical channels MAC MAC Transport channels L1 PHY PHY . Uu (air.

Main tasks of Uu interface protocols MAC (Medium Access Control): • Mapping between logical and transport channels • Segmentation of data into transport blocks RLC (Radio Link Control): • Segmentation and reassembly • Link control (flow & error control) • RLC is often a transparent layer PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol): • IP packet header compression (user plane only) .

RRC messages may carry in their payload higher layer signalling information (MM. . CC or SM) that is not related to the air interface or UTRAN. such as measurements and handovers. Radio Resource Control (RRC) messages carry all the relevant information required for setting up a Signalling Radio Bearer (during the lifetime of the RRC Connection) and setting up. Main tasks of RRC protocol Over the air interface. modifying. In addition. and releasing Radio Bearers between UE and UTRAN (all being part of the RRC Connection). RRC also participates in the co-ordination of other Radio Resource Management (RRM) operations.

Layer User Plane Control Plane User Plane Protocol Protocol Signalling Signalling Signalling Signalling Data Data Bearer(s) Bearer(s) Bearer(s) Bearer(s) Bearer(s) Bearer(s) Physical PhysicalLayer Layer . Transport Netw. Transport Netw. General protocol model for UTRAN Radio Network Control Plane User Plane Layer Application Application Data Data Protocol Protocol Stream(s) Stream(s) Transport Network Transport Netw.

RNC and core network.g. Transport Network Layer: signalling bearer for the transport of application protocol messages is set up by O&M actions (i.e. . Iur and Iu interfaces) Radio Network Layer: application protocols (NBAP. RNSAP and RANAP) are used for the actual signalling between base stations.Control Plane (Iub. on a permanent basis). AAL 2 connections). Transport Network Control Plane A signalling bearer (set up by O&M actions) carries a protocol which is used only for the task of setting up data bearers (e.

. User plane data is carried by data bearers which use AAL 5 in case of Iu PS and AAL 2 in all other cases. Iur) • higher-layer protocol information at Iu interface (if not carried by RANAP).g. Iur and Iu interfaces) The User Plane is employed for transport of • user information (speech. IP packets .User Plane (Iub. User data streams are packed in frame protocols (FP) which are used for framing.) • RRC signalling messages (Iub. AMR encoded speech). and carrying of parallel data flows that form the user data signal (e.. error & flow control. video..

Protocol structure at Iub interface

Radio Control Plane RRC
RRC Data
Data
Network
Layer RLC
NBAP
NBAP RLC
MAC
MAC
Frame
FrameProtocol
Protocol

Transport Transport Netw. Transport Netw. Transport Netw.
Network User Plane Control Plane User Plane
Layer
Q.2630.1
Q.2630.1
Convergence
Convergence
Protocols Conv.
Protocols Conv.Pr.
Pr.
AAL
AAL55 AAL
AAL55 AAL
AAL22
ATM
ATM
Physical
PhysicalLayer
Layer

Protocol structure at Iur interface

Radio Control Plane RRC
RRC Data
Data
Network
Layer RLC
RNSAP
RNSAP RLC
MAC
MAC
Frame
FrameProtocol
Protocol

Transport Transport Netw. Transport Netw. Transport Netw.
Network User Plane Control Plane User Plane
Layer
Q.2630.1
Q.2630.1
Convergence
Convergence
Protocols Conv.
Protocols Conv.Pr.
Pr.
AAL
AAL55 AAL
AAL55 AAL
AAL22
ATM
ATM
Physical
PhysicalLayer
Layer

Protocol structure at Iu CS interface

Radio Control Plane User Plane
Network
Layer RANAP CS
CSChannel
RANAP Channel
Iu
IuUP
UP

Transport Transport Netw. Transport Netw. Transport Netw.
Network User Plane Control Plane User Plane
Layer
Q.2630.1
Q.2630.1
Convergence
Convergence
Protocols Conv.
Protocols Conv.Pr.
Pr.
AAL
AAL55 AAL
AAL55 AAL
AAL22
ATM
ATM
Physical
PhysicalLayer
Layer

Protocol structure at Iu PS interface

Radio Control Plane User Plane
Network
Layer RANAP IP
IPApplication
RANAP Application
Iu
IuUP
UP

Transport Transport Netw. Transport Netw.
Network User Plane Control Plane GTP
GTP
Layer
UDP
UDP
Convergence
Convergence
Protocols
Protocols IP
IP
AAL
AAL55 AAL
AAL55
ATM
ATM
Physical
PhysicalLayer
Layer

Transfer of higher-level signalling messages .SRNS Relocation . Application protocols in UTRAN Iub interface (between RNC and base station) NBAP (Node B Application Part) Iur interface (between Serving RNC and Drift RNC) RNSAP (Radio Network Subsystem Application Part) .Link management for inter-RNC soft handover Iu interface (between RNC and core network) RANAP (Radio Access Network Application Part) .Radio Access Bearer (RAB) management .

Serving RNC and Drift RNC in UTRAN SRNC BS BS Iub RNC RNC Iu UE UE Core Iur network BS BS Iub RNC RNC DRNC Concept needed for: Soft handover between base stations belonging to different RNCs .

Serving RNS (SRNS) Relocation RNS = Radio Network Sub-system = RNC + all base stations controlled by this RNC SRNS Relocation means that the Serving RNC functionality is transferred from one RNC (the “old” SRNC) to another (the “new” SRNC. RANAP provides the signalling facilities over the two Iu interfaces involved (Iu interfaces to “old” and “new” SNRC) for performing SRNC Relocation in a co-ordinated manner. . previously a DRNC) without changing the radio resources and without interrupting the user data flow.

SRNS Relocation (cont.) SRNC BS BS Iub RNC RNC Iu UE UE Core Iur network BS BS Iub RNC RNC Iu DRNC SRNC SRNC provides: 1) connection to core network 2) macrodiversity combining point .

Soft handover concept SRNC BS BS Iub RNC RNC Iu Core Leg 1 network UE UE BS BS Leg 2 Signal Iur combining point is in Leg 3 SRNC BS BS Iub RNC RNC (downlink: DRNC in UE) Legs 1 and 2: Iur interface is not needed Leg 3 is added: Iur interface is needed! .

Micro./ macrodiversity combining (uplink) SRNC BS BS Iub RNC RNC Iu Core network Iur Macrodiversity RNC RNC UE UE Rake Iub combining point receiver DRNC in SRNC Multipath BS BS propagation Microdiversity combining point in base station .

Micro./ macrodiversity combining (uplink) Microdiversity combining: multipath signal components are processed in Rake “fingers” and combined (= summed) using MRC (MRC = Maximum Ratio Combining) Macrodiversity combining: the same bit sequences (with different bit error positions) are combined at the SRNC (usually: selection combining). Hard handover: slow (a lot of signalling) Soft handover: fast selection in SRNC .

Radio Access Bearer (RAB) establishment UE BS RNC Core network (RANAP signaling) RAB assignment request RAB is configured to be used over existing Radio Link(s) (RRC signaling) RAB assignment complete .

Signalling between UE and core network NAS signalling messages (NAS = Non Access Stratum = “not related to UTRAN”) are sent transparently through UTRAN in the payload of RRC/RANAP protocol messages RRC RANAP UE BS RNC MSC MSC or or UE BS RNC SGSN SGSN .

IPSEC) than in GSM .g. Security in UMTS GSM UMTS SIM authentication USIM authentication (PIN code) (PIN code) User authentication User authentication Network authentication Ciphering (air interface) Ciphering (air interface) KASUMI algorithm (known) Signalling data integrity UMTS: larger key lengths IP security (e.

TETRA) Integrity: signalling data integrity (UMTS) Confidentiality (≈ privacy): ciphering of signals over radio interface hiding of user identifiers over radio interface end-to-end encryption (offered by service provider) . TETRA) network authentication (UMTS.Security in digital networks: terminology Authentication: SIM authentication (PIN code) user authentication (GSM. UMTS. DECT.

network element). is the entity the one it claims to be? SIM authentication is local (network is not involved) In GSM. See Security in GSM for more details . Authentication Authentication: Procedure of verifying the authenticity of an entity (user. In other words. only user is authenticated In UMTS.g. network. location updating or connection set-up) and always before ciphering starts. terminal. both user and network are authenticated User/network is authenticated at the beginning of each user-network transaction (e.

e. “Man-in-the-middle” security attack. also volume of user data (not the user data itself) is integrity protected . false BS Data integrity checking is not done in GSM In UMTS. Integrity Data integrity: The property that data has not been altered in an unauthorised manner. signalling messages are appended with a 32 bit security field (MAC-I) at the terminal or RNC before transmission and checked at the receiving end In UMTS.g.

Signalling integrity protection in UMTS Both in Algorithm f 9 terminal and RNC Integrity Key (IK) and other Signalling keys/parameters Signalling message message MAC-I MAC-I MAC-I generation MAC-I checking UE UE RNC RNC MAC-I checking MAC-I generation .

Confidentiality Confidentiality: The property that information is not made available to unauthorised individuals. . entities or processes. Example 1: Ciphering (encryption) over the air interface Example 2: Preventing unencrypted transmission of user ID information such as IMSI number over the air interface => Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) is generated (at the end of each MM or CM transaction) and is used at the beginning of the next transaction instead of IMSI.

Example 1: ciphering (encryption) GSM MS MS BTS BTS BSC BSC Core Core Network Network GPRS MS MS BTS BTS BSC BSC SGSN SGSN UMTS Signalling integrity protection UE UE BS BS RNC RNC Core Core Network Network Air interface Both CS and PS information .

. ”spamming” . 3GPP. session hijacking Denial of service (DoS).. Network domain security Circuit switched network => quite good IP-based network (Internet) => rather poor at present (security mechanisms are developed by IETF.) Some security threats in IP-based network: Confidentiality Sniffing (electronic eavesdropping) Integrity Spoofing.

WCDMA Technology … just some basic issues .

Logical / Transport / Physical channels : : RLC RLC RLC RLC Logical channels MAC MAC MAC MAC Transport channels Phy Phy FP FP FP FP Phy WCDMA Phy AAL AAL22 AAL AAL22 Physical channels : : UE Base station RNC .

Logical / Transport channels Uplink Downlink CCCH CCCH DCCH DCCH PCCH PCCH BCCH BCCH CCCH CCCH CTCH CTCH DCCH DCCH DTCH DTCH DTCH DTCH Logical channels Transport channels RACH RACH CPCH CPCH DCH DCH PCH PCH BCH BCH FACH FACH DSCH DSCH DCH DCH .

Transport / Physical channels Uplink Downlink RACH RACH CPCH CPCH PCH PCH FACH FACH BCH BCH DSCH DSCH DCH DCH DCH DCH Transport channels PRACH PRACH PCPCH PCPCH SCCPCH SCCPCH PCCPCH PCCPCH DPDCH DPDCH AICH CSICH DPCCH DPCCH AICH CSICH Physical channels CD/CA. DPCH DPCH CD/CA- PICH ICH ICH CPICH CPICH SCH SCH PDSCH PDSCH PICH .

Physical channels in WCDMA Bit sequences from different physical channels are multiplied with a channelization code (spreading) multiplied with a scrambling code (scrambling) multiplexed in code domain modulated using QPSK. Downlink channels: conventional QPSK modulation DPCH = Dedicated physical channel Uplink channels: Dual-channel QPSK moduation DPDCH = Dedicated physical data channel DPCCH = Dedicated physical control channel .

time multiplexed data and control information: 2560 chips TFCI TFCI Data Data TPC TPC Data Data Pilot Pilot 0 1 2 14 10 ms radio frame . DPCH structure in downlink (DPCH = Dedicated Physical Channel) QPSK modulation.

DPDCH / DPCCH structure in uplink (Dedicated Physical Data/Control Channel) Dual-channel QPSK modulation: 2560 chips Data Data DPDCH (I-branch) Pilot Pilot TFCI TFCI FBI FBI TPC TPC DPCCH (Q-branch) 0 1 2 14 10 ms radio frame (38400 chips) .

Spreading in WCDMA Channelization Channelization Scrambling Scrambling code code code code Channel Channel data data Channel Chip rate Chip rate bit rate (always 3.84 million chips/s) Usage Usageof ofcode code Uplink Uplink Downlink Downlink Channelization code User separation Scrambling code User separation Cell separation .

84 Mchips/s Mchips/s Spreading factor (SF) is important in WCDMA Chip Chip rate rate = = SF SF xx channel channel bit bit rate rate Uplink: Uplink: DPCCH DPCCH SF SF = = 256. Spreading in WCDMA Chip Chip rate rate after after spreading spreading = = 3.84 3. DPDCH DPDCH SF SF = = 44 -.256 256 Downlink: Downlink: DPCH DPCH SF SF = = 44 -.256 256 (512) (512) One bit consists One bit consists of 4 chips of 256 chips . 256.

120 8 480 approx. 30 32 120 approx. 60 16 240 approx. 240 4 960 approx. 480 . 15 64 60 approx. Uplink DPDCH bit rates SF Channel bit rate User data rate (kb/s) (kb/s) 256 15 approx. 7.5 128 30 approx.

456 4 1920 approx. 105 16 480 approx. 6-12 128 60 approx. Downlink DPDCH bit rates SF Channel bit rate User data rate (kb/s) (kb/s) 512 15 approx. 936 . 45 32 240 approx. 20-24 64 120 approx. 1-3 256 30 approx. 215 8 960 approx.

User data rate vs. channel bit rate User User data data rate rate (kb/s) (kb/s) Interesting Interesting for for user user Channel Channel coding coding Interleaving Interleaving Bit Bit rate rate matching matching Important Important Channel Channel bit bit rate rate (kb/s) (kb/s) for for system system .

Services for 3G (and partly 2G) • terminology • basic concepts .

New service concept Content Content provider provider Content Content provider provider Service Service provider provider Service Service provider provider Carrier Carrier provider provider all want to make profit End End user user End End user user .

so that services provided by different service/content providers can be created and seamlessly integrated into the 3G network (this is the meaning of “open” architecture) OSA means in practice: Service Creation Environment (SCE) API = API API API Application Programming 3G network Interface (Standardised) .OSA (Open Services Architecture/Access) OSA is being standardised.

CAMEL (2G & 3G) CAMEL (Customised Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic) is a set of “IN” type functions and procedures that make operator-specific IN services available to subscribers who roam outside their home network. CAMEL = IN technology + global mobility CAMEL Service Environment (CSE) is a logical entity in the subscriber’s home network which processes IN related procedures CSE ≈ SCP in home network .

SSP SSP 1. Call control proceeds up to MSC Typical 2. CAMEL Phase 1 Circuit switched call-related IN procedures Protocol: CAP instead of MAP SCP SCPin inhome home 3. Trigger activated in basic call state model at SSP triggers: 3. network 2. SSP requests information from CSE Calling number 4. 5. MSC MSC 1. network(CSE) (CSE) 4. CSE provides information Called number Cell ID 5. Call control continues .

g. Call control proceeds as normal application: 2. Call control resumes ”your prepaid account is approaching zero” CAMEL Phase 3 IN functionality is extended to include packet switched sessions... Call control is interrupted In prepaid service: (e. CAMEL Phase 2 Non-call-related procedures possible Typical 1. . for announcement) announcement 3.

Virtual Home Environment (VHE) Same subscriber profile & charging/numbering information can be utilised in any UMTS network Home PLMN Visited PLMN UE Certain subscriber Same subscriber profile profile .

Supporting technologies and services .many are already possible in 2G .will (perhaps) be extensively used in 3G LCS Location SMS MMS LCS SMS MMS Positioning Positioning USSD USSD SAT SAT USAT USAT WAP WAP Transport & MExE MExE i-Mode i-Mode Content UE .

may or may not use UE positioning techniques .general LCS architecture in UMTS: PSTN UE UE MSC MSC GMSC GMSC LCS External Client RNC RNC&& GMLC GMLC SMLC SMLC BS BS HLR/AuC/EIR HLR/AuC/EIR LMU LMU SGSN SGSN GGSN GGSN Internet . Location (based) services (LCS) .

Location (based) services (cont.g. may also be the UE .) GMLC = Gateway Mobile Location Center receives service requests from external LCS clients (or UE) and manages the location information SMLC = Serving Mobile Location Center assists in positioning of the UE (e. performs calculations based on measurement results). is usually integrated with RNC LCS client = typically any server requesting location information (to be able to provide the relevant location service to the user).

Positioning methods Cell ID based location information .greatest precision.no expensive positioning solutions required . GPS receiver in UE .differential delays measured UE UE from which the position BS is calculated (in SMLC) BS BS BS Assisted GPS .network must “assist” in indoor environment .inexpensive (and will SMLC therefore be widely used) SMLC BS BS E-OTD (2G). OTDOA (3G) LMU LMU .

.. Java applets) from server in network will be important in UMTS .14): • profile download (ME tells SIM what it can do) • proactive SIM (display text from SIM to ME.g. transfer info from ME to SIM. send short message.) • call control by SIM ME • data download from network to SIM Interaction between ME and SIM SIM Download (e.. SAT (= USAT in 3G) SAT (SIM Application Toolkit) is a set of standardized functions for communication between SIM and ME Applications (GSM 11.

MExE Mobile Execution Environment (MExE) provides standardized application execution environments for UE. contains WAP browser) MExE Classmark 2 UE can execute PersonalJava applications (subset of J2SE) MExE Classmark 3 UE is J2ME compatible Standard Edition : Micro Edition see: www..mexeforum.e.. defined in classmarks: MExE Classmark 1 UE is WAP compatible (i. .org Evolution continues .

USSD SMS = Short Message Service USSD = Unstructured Supplementary Services Data SMS USSD • 160 ASCII characters (max) • 182 ASCII characters (max) • in all GSM terminals • in all GSM terminals • store-and-forward service • connection oriented (=> delay) transactions (small delay) • transport of messages • transport of technical data • SMS transaction always • terminal or application in initiated by terminal network initiates session very popular not much used (yet) . SMS vs.

interesting new services can be implemented.images .text . . MMS MMS = Multimedia Messaging System Offers the possibility to send messages to/from MMS capable handsets comprising a combination of .video GPRS or 3G packet domain can be used for transport.sounds . When combined with LCS information and IN (CAMEL) features.

USSD. .. WTP (similar functionality as HTTP) 2G/3G 2G/3Gtransport transport SMS. 3G packet transport .g. WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) Transports WML (Wireless Markup Language) information between terminal and WAP Gateway (using its own set of protocols) UE UE 2G/3G WAP WAP Internet Internet networ Gateway Gateway Server Server WAP browser k WML / HTML WML / translation HTML / XML content WML WML WML is a subset of XML WAP WAPprotocols protocols e.. GPRS.

Service interaction example 3G subscriber is hungry and asks for a list of nearby located restaurants (from appropriate “Internet Server”). See: Kaaranen et al: Network scenario: CAMEL CAMEL UMTS Networks (CSE) (CSE) UE UE WAP WAP Internet 2G/3G Internet Gateway Gateway Server networ Server k GMLC MExE MExE GMLC .

user contacts (via WAP Gateway) the “Internet Server” containing relevant information. CAMEL CAMEL (CSE) (CSE) UE UE WAP WAP Internet 2G/3G Internet Gateway Gateway Server WAP networ Server browser k GMLC MExE MExE GMLC . Example. Step 1 By use of his/her WAP browser in the UE.

Step 2 The 2G/3G network retrieves subscription information (e. Example. CAMEL CAMEL Charging (CSE) (CSE) info UE UE WAP WAP Internet 2G/3G Internet Gateway Gateway Server networ Server k GMLC MExE MExE GMLC .g. state of “prepaid” account) from the user’s CSE (Camel Service Environment).

Step 3 “Internet Server” acts as a “LCS client” and requests the 2G/3G network to investigate where the user is located. CAMEL CAMEL (CSE) (CSE) UE UE WAP WAP Internet 2G/3G Internet Gateway Gateway Server networ Server k GMLC MExE MExE GMLC Where is UE located? . Example.

CAMEL CAMEL (CSE) (CSE) What can UE display? UE UE WAP WAP Internet 2G/3G Internet Gateway ? networ Gateway Server Server k ? MExE GMLC GMLC MExE . Step 4 The “MExE compatible Internet Server” prepares the information according to the MExE capabilities of UE (in this case MExE Classmark 1: WAP). Example.

Example. Step 5 Now the “local restaurants” information is downloaded to the user and displayed in the appropriate form. Menu on display: Restaurant 1 CAMEL CAMEL Restaurant 2 Restaurant 3 (CSE) (CSE) Restaurant 4 UE UE WAP WAP Internet 2G/3G Internet Gateway Gateway Server networ Server k GMLC MExE MExE GMLC .

Mobility and Services.46/eopetus/intro3g/start. Artech House.. ISBN 1-58053-287-X Web material: e-learning course “Introduction to 3G” contains audio and flash animations (you need loudspeakers.158. ISBN 0-471-48654-X Korhonen. Wiley.htm Required course material . Introduction to 3G Mobile Communications. UMTS Networks: Architecture. access to course only within the HUT computer network) http://130.233. 2001. Further information on 3G systems and services Links: see slides Books: Kaaranen et al. 2001.