Monday, March 21, 2011

Industrial Process Control
EL 4223

Instructor:
Prof. Azhar Hussain Shah Engr. Nabeel Khalid

Engr. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE,UCP

Monday, March 21, 2011

Lecture 1

Engr. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE,UCP

March 21. 2011 Outline Engr.Monday.UCP . Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE.

UCP . Dunn Engr. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. 2011 Recommended Text } Measurement and Control Basics By Thomas A. Johnson Fundamentals of Industrial Instrumentation and Process Control By William C. March 21.Monday. Hughes } Fundamentals of Final Control Elements By Helen Beecroft Ken MacDonald } } } Industrial Process Control Systems By Dale Patrick & Stephen Fardo Process Control Instrumentation Technology By Curtis D.

edu.UCP .pk Engr.edu. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE.pk } Office Hours: Mon & Wed 0900-1100 hrs } E-mail: nabeel.Monday.ucp. 2011 Grading Criteria Theory (2 Credit Hrs.khalid@ucp.) Mid Term Final Term Sessional Total 25% 50% 25% 100% on Note: } Announcements will be available http://online. March 21.

comparing it to some desired value.Monday. use of fire to regulate the temperature of room. March 21. e.g. 2011 What is a Process Control? } Observing a parameter. Engr.UCP . Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. and initiating a control action to bring the parameter as close as possible to the desired Value this is known as process control.

March 21. use of Air Conditioner to regulate the temperature of room. when there will be no human intervention in that process and all the action will take place automatically. Engr. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE.Monday.UCP . 2011 What is an Automatic Process Control? } } Automatic control of an output variable by sensing the amplitude of the output parameter from the process and comparing it to desired or set level and feeding an error signal back to control an input variable.g. Process control will automatic. e.

2011 What is a Automatic Process Control? } } Figure (a) shows manual control system in which valve is controlled manually by a human being after sensing the temperature of water. Engr.UCP . March 21.Monday. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. Figure (b) shows automatic process control in which sensor senses the temperature of the water and controller generates a signal towards actuator to control the temperature of water heater.

Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. 2011 Process Control loop Engr.UCP .Monday. March 21.

Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE.UCP . March 21.Monday. 2011 Feedback path in a Process Control Loop Engr.

UCP . 2011 Process Control with Flow Regulator Engr. March 21.Monday. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE.

(d) the transmitter. (f) the manipulated variable. and (g) the measured variable.UCP . March 21. (b) the transducer. 2011 Example } Figure shows the block diagram of a closed-loop flow control system. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. Engr. (c) the actuator. Identify the following elements: (a) the sensor.Monday. (e) the controller.

2011 Different Process Control systems in pressure are one of the largest divisions in process control field.UCP . } Systems that respond to changes Engr. March 21.Monday. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. } These systems include Hydraulic s Pneumatics Steam or vapor systems Liquid distribution systems.

Monday. 2011 Hydraulic Systems system is commonly found in automatic machinery control and in material forming operations. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. } Popularity of this system can be attributed to the following things Operational simplicity Smoothness of operation Reliability Adaptability Engr.UCP } This type of . March 21.

Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE.Monday.UCP . March 21. 2011 Double-acting Hydraulic System Engr.

2011 Pneumatic Systems } This type of system commonly found their applications in powering of hand tools and lifting and clamping of products during machining operations.Monday. Engr.UCP . Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. March 21.

2011 Static Pressure Systems } This type of system commonly used in industry to distribute liquids in a variety of processing applications.Monday. Engr. March 21. } This type of systems utilizes pressure that is developed as a result of the source being elevated above other system components. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE.UCP .

} The resulting pressure occurs when steam or vapor is forced to pass through the resistance of confined pipes or tubes. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE.UCP . 2011 Steam Pressure Systems } This type of system develops pressure by transforming liquid into vapor when heat is applied.Monday. March 21. Engr.

2011 Temperature Systems } These systems must perform following actions Generate heat provide path for its distribution Initiate some type of control Utilize this energy to do work Record the value of temperature through precise measurement. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. noncontact infrared thermometer etc can be used. RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector).UCP . } For measurement of temperature. March 21. Engr.Monday.

March 21. } Sensing element detects change in level. bin.Monday. or hopper that is available for accomplishing a particular process. 2011 Level Determination Systems } These systems are used to evaluate the amount of material in a tank.UCP . Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. Engr. } These systems are often considered as control function that applies to a variety of different processes.

Monday. 2011 control water.UCP . natural gas. chemicals and an infinite variety of other materials. control of flow are the major functions Where flow rate is the evaluation occurs at specific instant Where totalizing flow is the total amount moves part a given Engr. Nabeel Khalid point during specific period. solvents. } Operation of these systems is based on the followings Actual material that is flowing Density of the material Volume being processed Accuracy Type of control required } Measurement and } These systems are used to monitor and Flow Process Systems of a flow process. Lecturer FOE. March 21.

UCP . principal. March 21. Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. Target principal. Differential pressure =flow.Monday. 2011 Flow Process Systems } A. Electromagnetic } C. Flow measurement with in pipe flow dead pressure Principal. Engr. } B.

Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. Figure: Laminar Flow meters Engr.Monday. March 21.UCP . 2011 Flow Process Systems } Laminar flow: Flow that means in a straight line.

Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE.UCP . March 21. 2011 Flow Process Systems Figure: Liquid vortex flow meters Engr.Monday.

UCP .Monday. March 21.. 2011 Any Questions . Nabeel Khalid Lecturer FOE. Engr.

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