Atmospheric pollution in terms of changes in temperature of the surrounding atmosphere due to release of hot vapours from nuclear power plants, industrial effluents, domestic sewage, etc., is termed as ¶thermal pollution·.

€ 1:Power Plants: Coal fired power plants constitute the major source of thermal pollutants. . Their condenser coils are cooled with water from nearby lakes or rivers and discharge hot water back increasing water temperature.

c.t. This hot water enters into the rivers. . release heat in water. e.€ 2:Industrial Effluents: Industries generating electricity requires huge amount of cooling water for heat removal. Other industries like textile. canals thereby raising the temperature. paper.

€ 3:Cooling Towers: In the evaporative-type cooling tower. . Heat energy released from cooling towers in the atmosphere cause thermal pollution. warm water is allowed to fall over large surface areas while natural or forced air drafts cause evaporation and cooling to occur.

€ 4:Domestic Sewage: It is usually discarded into rivers. . lakes or canals with or without waste treatment which increases water temperature.

the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is raised and thereby earth·s temperature increases. .€ 5: Due to combustion of coal and petroleum products.

Daphnia can have a lifespan of 108 days in 8°C but its life span at 28°C is only 29 days.€ 1:Life Span: Increase in temperature of water decrease the life of aquatic organisms. .

€ 2: Respiration: Raising temperature of rivers cause lowered dissolved oxygen because of lower solubility of oxygen at higher temperature which affects the rate of respiration of fish. The oxygen consumption for most fish becomes four-fold as the temperature of water is raised to the maximum at which they are able to survive. .

Excessive temperature. etc. Above a level of temperature fish fails to reproduce. A rise in temperature also decreases the time taken by fish·s eggs to hatch. nest building. .€ 3:Reproduction: Rise in temperature due to thermal pollution cause health hazards in terms of their biological activities such as reproduction. however. retard the normal development of eggs. hatching.

protozoa's and microorganism multiply rapidly becoming food for aquatic creatures. .€ 4:Food chain: In oxygen rich water bacteria. decrease in dissolved oxygen due to thermal pollution decreases bacteria. protozoa·s and microorganism which affects food chain process. Thus.

the average temperature of cities is almost 10°c greater than that of villages. .€ 5:Atmosphereic temperature: Due to thermal pollution.

.€ 6:Morphology: Temperature differences during growth and development give rise to morphological changes in aquatic organisms. under the influence of thermal pollution. A variety of fish. show agape jaws and eye abnormalities.

The bacteria Chondroccus is believed to be responsible for the massive kills of Blue Black Salmon. .€ 7:Increased vulnerability to disease: Activities of several pathogenic microorganisms get accelerated by higher temperature of water which increases diseases.

€ 8:Due to increase in earth·s temperature green house effect takes place to produce floods. .

The hot water released from industries should be passed through these cooling towers to control temperature. .€ 1: Cooling towers: Appropriate cooling towers are to be employed to reduce temperature.

.€ 2:Artificial lakes: Man-made lakes should be used for cooling hot water released from industries.

.€ 3:Improved electric generating plants: The efficiency of electrical energy productive machines should be increased to convert heat into electricity.

€ 4:Warm-water irrigation: A promising idea that is being investigated in several places is warm water irrigation in the hopes of stimulating and enhancing plant growth and protecting fruit trees from killing frosts(freezing temperature). .

. It would be of no use in summer when the thermal pollution has been likely to be worse due to heavy production of electricity for air conditioning.€ 5:Heating of buildings: In winter or cold places exhausted steam is being used to heat buildings such as institution having own power plants.

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