MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM:OVERVIEW (MIS
Presented by:(SLIDE NO.) Viveka.(8-12) Pranali.(25-30) Azhar.(13-19) Vinayak.(1-7) Bhanudhas.(20-25)
It¶s a computer-based system that makes information available to the users with similar needs. The users usually comprise of an organizational entity. The information describes the firm or one of the major systems in terms of what has happened in past, what is happening now and what is likely to happen in the future. The information is made available in the form of periodic reports, special reports and outputs of mathematical simulations. The information output is used by both managers and non managers as they make decisions to solve the firm¶s problems.
A View Of MIS Model.
Organizational problem solver Report writing software
The software¶s output are used by persons who are responsible for solving the firm¶s problems. both data and information are entered from the environment. The database contents are used by software that produces periodic and special reports and its used by the mathematical models that simulate various aspects of the firm¶s operations.The MIS Model
The database contains the data provided by the Accounting Information System. In addition.
. it represents some phenomenon i. A model is an abstraction of something. and this phenomenon is called an entity. For example. if a model represents a firm then the firm is an entity. or if it represents a fluctuation in the firm¶s sales volume then the sales volume becomes an entity.Modeling
Modeling is a management skill for managers. using various models to represent various events or to predict certain happening. an Object or an Activity.e.
usually smaller than the real entity. And as these can be created any where with out much resources hence they are most popular. Graphic and mathematical. The Narrative model :is created by verbal or written description. a clay model of a building.There are four types of models Physical.
. The Physical model: is that exists in a three dimensional form. For example. Narrative.
The Graphic model: is diagram usually two dimensional which make extensive use of graphical entities like graphs and charts. ability to achieve Optimization. A mathematical model can be classified in to three dimensions ± the Influence of Time.
. The Mathematical model :are created using mathematical formulas where the symbols used in the formula represent parts of a phenomenon. the Degree of Certainty.
Decision Support Systems. The Virtual Office. Knowledge Based Systems.
The fundamental work of CBIS is to manage information in an efficient way such that it can be utilized by the managers effectively to solve problems.CBIS consists of following applications: 1) 2) 3) 4) Management Information Systems.
Information is the method of efficiently manage the Resources. they exist physically. There are basically five types of resources that need to be managed by the managers. Machines (includes energy and facilities) 4. Material 3.
.e. they are also known as physical resources. Managers use conceptual resources to manage physical resources. Money 5. 1. Personnel 2. The fifth resource type is not tangible hence called as conceptual resource. Information (includes data) The first four resources are tangible i.
Finally the manager replaces those resources which have become obsolete or inefficient. 1) 2) 3) Resources are acquired and assembled to make it available for use any time. Finally the manager discards all those information which have become obsolete and replaces those with the latest and useful information.
Management of Information 1) 2) 3) The manager ensures that all the necessary data is gathered and then the process of conversion of data to information is done. The manager ensures that the information is received to proper individuals at proper time and in proper form.Management of resources.
This entire process of gathering information.
. The manager always tries to maximize the usage of the assembled resources by minimizing the idle time and functioning at peak of efficiency. using it in the most effective manner and discarding it in proper time is called Information Management.
Non managers. 2. Among other users were the users outside the firm.The users of computer based information are 1. like customers received receipts. In the early years of development of computers in information management the users of the computers were clerical employees who used computers in accounting area. When the concept of MIS was developed then computers were implemented for management support.
. Managers. Persons and organizations included in the firm. 3. billing. stock holders receiving dividend checks etc. etc.
System Elements: The basic elements of a system is as follows 1) Input element. 4) Control mechanism.A system is a group of elements that are integrated with a common purpose of achieving a common objective. 3) Output element. An organization contains resources. 2) Transformation element.
. 5) Objectives. they work hard towards achieving particular objectives that are specified by the management.
A control mechanism monitors the transformation process to ensure that the system meets the objectives laid down by the management. through the transformation element and to the output element. The control mechanism is connected with the resource flow by the means of the feedback loop from output. The control mechanism compares the output with the objectives and accordingly directs the input system to make the necessary changes ( if required).
The resources flow from the input element.
. Open loop & Closed loop System. 3. 2. The various category of systems are 1. Open Systems & Closed System. Sub Systems & Super Systems. Physical Systems & Conceptual Systems.
These are very simple systems that do not require monitoring.
An open loop system does not have a feedback or control mechanism. In case of closed loop systems there is a feedback mechanism that monitors the output with respect to objectives. For example simple space heaters. For example room air conditioners.
For example. These systems require the help of systems in the environment to accomplish their completion. here the centralized air conditioning system is an open system. A closed system does not have connection with the environment with which its connected.Open systems are connected to their environment through resource flows.
. Closed systems exist in controlled laboratory conditions. They are kept in ideal conditions which are not possible in actual environment. a centralized air conditioning system requires a cooling plant for it to cool the entire building.
fuel injection system. it consists of many sub-systems like acceleration system. The super-system decides the constrains and resources to be put on its subsystems. Its existence depends up on the existence of its super-system. The supersystem is responsible for monitoring the overall working of its sub-systems. The proper functioning of the sub-systems ensure proper functioning of the entire system. The sub-system contributes in the proper working of the entire system.
. For example an Automobile system. it is a super-system which has under its control the state government systems which form the sub-systems. breaking system etc. every subsystem is responsible for the proper functioning of the entire automobile system. A super-system is a system which contains many sub-systems.A sub-system is a system that exists in another system. a Central government system. For example..
. a computer is a physical system which has practical implementations and inter acts a lot with the users. Both Physical and Conceptual systems require each other for proper functioning and effective practical implementation respectively. information and mental concepts. Conceptual systems can make the physical resources work in a proper manner. Conceptual Systems use abstract and conceptual resources. For example. They basically consist of data.Physical Systems use physical resources or tangible resources. A physical system is completely practical oriented and interacts continuously with the environment. A physical system represents a working model for any conceptual system.
The concept of using computers as Management Information System was promoted. They were the computers using the silicon technology. The MIS initiated that the computers should be applied for the management of information. firms generally ignored the information needs of managers. Now a days the term Accounting Information System (AIS) is used to describe those applications. This concept was adopted slowly by larger firms. The first computers were only used for accounting applications.The Initial Focus on Data During the first half of twentieth century. The revised focus on Decision Support A Decision Support System (DSS) is an information-producing system aimed at a particular problem that a manager must solve and the decisions the manager must take. The name given to these early computer based applications was Electronic Data Processing (EDP). when punch cards were used. The manager can be located any where. These DSS were used widely in the organizations. The New Focus on Information In 1964. at any level in the organization. a new generation of computing equipment was introduced that influenced strongly on the manner in which computers were employed.
e-mail. interest was focused on another computer application called Office Automation (OA) which facilitates communication and increases productivity among the managers and office workers through the use of electronic devices.The Current Focus on Communication
During the time DSS evolved. The selectric typewriter could type the information stored in the magnetic tapes. In a collective term it was given the name Virtual Office. This lead to an OA application called word processing.
. OA got started in 1964.
The Office Automation grew to such levels that applications such as video conferencing. desktop publishing etc started. when IBM announced its Magnetic tape and electronic typewriter (called Selectric typewriter).
They are collectively called CBIS ( Computer Based Information System). The computer portion of the information processors contain each of the computer based application areas :. and decisions are made based on the available information. Information is presented both in oral as well as in written form using information processors. DSS (Decision Support System).
.AIS ( Accounting Information System). The CBIS collectively provides necessary information for problem solving. Virtual Office and Knowledge Based Systems.Managers make decisions to solve problems. MIS (Management Information System).
Programmers. Information Specialists Information specialists have the complete responsibility of developing and managing the computer based systems in the firm. Network Specialists. Database Administrators.The firms using computers realized that there was a need to form separate organizational units of specialists who would be responsible for implementing the systems.
. There are five main categories of information specialists: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) System Analyst. These specialists were known as Information Specialists. Operators.
Virtual Office and Knowledgebased Systems for the entire organization. The MIS incorporates Decision Support Systems.There are two basic ways through which problems can be solved using MIS. 1.
2. It helps the managers to pinpoint the location of problems and causes. The MIS provides problem-solving information that is created by the efforts of the entire organization. The MIS keeps a continuous supply of information to the managers. The managers use MIS for primary identification of problems and possible solutions. Organizational wise Information Resources. Problem Identification and Understanding.