Introduction

soil fertility is affected through the organic and inorganic pollutants. There are many different ways that soil can become polluted, such as: ‡ Discharge of industrial waste into the soil ‡ Seepage from a landfill ‡ Percolation of contaminated water into the soil ‡ Rupture of underground storage tanks ‡ Excess application of pesticides, herbicides or fertilizer ‡ Solid waste dumping

The most common chemicals involved in causing soil pollution are: ‡ Petroleum hydrocarbons ‡ Pesticides ‡ Solvents ‡ Heavy metals

Heavy metals Definition: Metals having high atomic weight (more than 50)are considered as heavy metals further they have relative density more than 7in elemental form. .

chlorides. hydroxyl carbonates . . silicates.Chemistry of heavy metals ‡ do not exist in the free state ‡ occur in the form of oxides. carbonates. molybdates. ‡ binding sites.sulphides. etc ‡ of heavy metals are in soluble or very less soluble forms.

. ‡ Found in cell organs. ‡ e. manganese. iron. and zinc . ‡ commonly found in food stuffs.Beneficial heavy metals ‡ heavy metals are nutritionally essential for a healthy life.g. copper.

seeds. Zinc Pumpkin seeds. Involves in tissue repair digestion. cell reproduction. Magnesium Nuts. fish. Green leafy vegetables.and proteinsynthesis. green leafy vegetables and dried apricots. poultry product. pine apple and bran. leafy Selenium Regulates the thyroid hormones and protects against artery clogging.eggs. Natural sources Nuts. Activates and the stress ± busting b vitamins and control insulin levels. .Micronutrients Manganese Functions Crucial in protecting against osteoporosis Carrying oxygen to the brain as well as to the rest of the body. vision. Meat.grains.fish. fertility.oysters and other sea food. Best foot sources are nuts and sea food. Iron Copper Assist in metabolism of iron in the body.and vegetables.

Chromium.e.Deficiency / adequacy and toxicity ‡ some are severe poisons at very low concentrations.g. lower than this it is deficiency which causes certain disease and higher means negative effects on the health which is toxicity . lead ‡ Optimum range is called adequacy.

.Heavy metal pollution in soil ‡ Now a days the use of synthetic products can result in heavy metal contamination of urban and agricultural soils. at the same time it also produce harmful effects on the ecosystem. ‡ man made things (or) synthetic materials are makes our life easy.

‡ Hazardous waste are dumped in to soil have chances of leaking to the ground. .Industrial solid waste ‡ Industries are the major sources of heavy metals to pollute the soil.

. pb and cd are present in the fertilizers ‡ Mixed fertilizers often contain ammonium nitrate phosphorus and potassium ‡ The over use of NPK fertilizers make changes in soil ph.Indiscriminate use of fertilizers ‡ Fertilizer contaminates the soil with impurities ‡ As.

. ‡ It altering the chemical and biological properties of soil.Dumping of solid wastes ‡ More than 90% of hazardous waste is produced by chemicals. ‡ The solid wastages are dumped in to the soil. petroleum and metal-related industries and small businesses such as dry cleaners and gas stations contribute as well.

Zn. Se Cr Hg Zn. Hg. Ni Chlor ±alkali Electroplating Leather Batteries Paints and dyes Textiles Paper and pulp Petroleum refining Cr Pb. Cu. Cr. Cr. Cd.Se Cu. Pb .Cu. Hg Cd. Pb.Hg. Cd. Cu.Zn.Pb.Industry Heavy metals present in the effluents Cd. Cr. Cr.

Industry Fertilizers Heavy metals present in the effluents As. Hg.Pb.Cu. Cr. Cd. Zn Cd.Cd.Cr.Hg As.Pb.Hg. Hg. Cu.se. Hg. Pb.Se Motor vehicles Pharmaceuticals Mining Explosives pestisides . Zn AS.Cu As.Zn As. Mn.Hg. Cr. Se.

including fluorescent light bulbs. ‡ Organo mercurials used in pesticides. auto switches. thermostats. electrical fixtures. Mercury is also used in thermometers. medical equipment. and dental amalgam fillings. .Heavy metals in consumer products ‡ Mercury ‡ Mercury is in many consumer products.

paint pigments. varnishes. ‡ Lead arsenate is used as pesticides. cable coatings. ‡ Storage batteries.Lead ‡ PVC products often contain lead. .

leather products. . ‡ Tetile products also containing cr. tobacco products containing chromium.Chromium ‡ Coloring agents.

.rubber. fungicides plastic. ‡ cadmium sulphide is used in coloring glass. soaps. textiles. cd oxide is used in electro plating.Cadmium ‡ Cadmium is used in various alloy formulations.motor oils. paper . auto mobile tyres. paint and pigments. plastics and silver cadmium batteries.etc. printing inks.

semi-conductors (gallium arsenide).Arsenic: ‡ Arsenic is also in the soil from smelters and some pesticides ‡ Arsenic compounds are still used to make special glass. and drugs. metals. some paints. . dyes. soaps.

redox potential enhanced decomposition of organic matter In general. enzyme activity. an increase of metal concentration adversely affects soil microbial properties respiration rate.Effect of heavy metal pollution in soil ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ changes in physical and chemical conditions of soil environment. which appears to be very useful indicators of soil pollutions . including decrease in pH.

‡ Larger loss of nutrients in soil. nitrogen fixation. ‡ the soil becoming sterile due to heavy metal pollution .‡ soil bacteria convert it to toxic methyl mercury. ‡ Reduced crop yield. through mercury pollution ‡ Increased erodibility.and soil fertility ‡ Imbalance in soil fauna and flora.

Prevention of heavy metal pollution cleaning contaminated soils is extremely expensive and difficult. Prevention is the best method to protect the environment from contamination by heavy metals. .

Some treatments that are available include ‡ High temperature treatments ‡ Solidifying agents ‡ Washing process .

Management of Plants for environmental Cleanup ‡ Research has demonstrated that plants are effective in cleaning up contaminated soil. crude oil. and landfill leacheates. Phytoremediation is a general term for using plants to remove. or contain soil pollutants such as heavy metals. degrade. polyaromatic hydrocarbons. . solvents. pesticides.

is the process of growing plants in metal contaminated soil. The most common plant used for lead extraction is Indian mustard (Brassisa juncea). Plant roots then translocate the metals into aboveground portions of the plant.Phytoaccumulation: The uptake and concentration of contaminants within the roots or aboveground portion of plants. Phytoextraction. .

they are stabilized in the roots. thus. Phytostabilisation: ‡ Plants are used to reduce the mobility of elements.Phytomining: ‡ Use of plants to extract inorganic substances from mine ore. .

Phytovolatilisation: The uptake of a contaminant by a plant. and release the contaminant or a modified form of the contaminant to the atmosphere from the plant. .

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