2000) ³An effort to develop decisions and actions in order to guide what an organization does and why it does it.´ (Evans.What is planning? A future-oriented decision making process. 2007) .´ (Stueart & Moran. ³Preparing for the future by setting goals and determining how to go about achieving those goals. Ward & Rugaas.

‡To coordinate activity across multiple work units.Why do we plan? ‡To prioritize activities. ‡To obtain commitment and support from stakeholders. . thus aiding in resource allocation decisions.

or Medium.Term) ‡Project ‡Specific initiative with beginning.Types of Planning ‡Strategic (Long Term) ‡Operational (Short. middle and end .

Types of Planning Strategic Longer term onceptual Reflection/learning Identification of key opportunities or issues ³Helicopter´ view Operational Shorter term oncrete Action/doing Resolution of existing problems ³On the ground´ view .

(Stueart & Moran. 2008) . (Holland & Ritvo. 2007) ‡³A systematic process that leads to basic decisions. goals and actions to position an organization for future success´.Strategic Planning ‡³A systematic method used by organizations to adapt to expected changes´.

competitors. licensing trends. statements of service values. etc.Strategic Planning ‡Environmental analysis: What seems to be happening here? ‡Marketplace: number of clients/customers. ‡Regulations: privacy and copyright legislation. ‡Business: information service models. . ‡Ethics: codes of professional conduct. etc. potential partners. etc. etc.

Economic indicators ‡Social science research ‡Media ‡Benchmarking data ‡Networking ‡Professional literature ‡User input .Strategic Planning ‡Environmental analysis: Sources of information ‡Census.

Strategic Planning ‡Identify opportunities and constraints: What possibilities are presented? Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats .

Strategic Plans .

(Corrall.Strategic Plans What is strategy? ³Significant patterns of actions that lead towards achievement of goals and objectives´. 1996) . (Porter. 2000) ³Creation of a unique and valuable position´.

Facilities. Budget.Operational Planning ‡Implementation: How the work will be done. ‡Activities ‡Deliverables ‡Schedule ‡Resources: People. Technology ‡Success Factors/Outcomes .

. and both are needed.³Those who fail to plan.Conclusion ‡Planning is a necessity in today¶s environment. ‡Planning is best implemented as a participatory process.´ ‡Strategic and operational planning are complementary. plan to fail. ‡The result of a planning process will never be the same for any two organizations.


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