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, 5Cameron et al. (2001) argued that young people under the age of seven would not have the cognitive capacities to
truly exhibit prejudice although they will display in group favouritism towards those they perceive to be the same as
them. Attitudes towards others, however, seemed to have been fixed by about the age of ten so it is the primary
teacher who must work hard in this area and it seems that there is a small window of opportunity0. Reynolds 2009
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‡ I would argue that the solution to this dilemma, a third way if you like, is an entitlement approach to
social education, where students are given the technical mastery and the best available knowledge of
concepts and values as resources for building a desirable society. Students are entitled to be provided
with the concepts, processes and skills associated with contemporary institutions and practices, and
required for effective participation in society, but students are also entitled to apply these learnings in
ways which respect their cultural origins and their personal desires and commitments. Mastery is not
a form of compliance, but an empowering resource for transforming the world in response to future
challenges.

‡ For such learning to be authentic and useful, it must be applied in a collaborative context where decision-making and
action skills are developed through authentic pedagogy as close as possible to real social situations. In this approach,
traditional and contemporary values are not assumed to be absolute, but are seen as resources which allow us to
understand and critique current social arrangements, and to scrutinise the adequacy of these values as a base for
desirable futures. For instance, the ultimate grounds for assessing values of democracy and justice lie in the moral
imperatives of respecting people's individual integrity and worth, and the reflexive criteria which the values provide
for themselves and for each other. In other words, mastery of contemporary knowledge forms and an exploration of
core social values are bases for building desirable futures. As such, they cannot be prescribed as unchanging absolutes
free from critical assessment, nor seen as purely individual choices free from the 9 test of application in collaborative
and democratic action. An entitlement curriculum would then š be discursively empowering (through mastery of
technical discourses); š include a negotiated curriculum (to incorporate present felt needs and develop collaborative
decision-making); š be culturally responsive (to recognise and incorporate different views, perspectives and
aspirations); š include immanent critique focusing on an emancipatory ethos and improvement of the human
condition; focus on active participation, initiative and personal and social adaptability and change; be governed by
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‡ At the 2003 biennial conference Professor Rob Gilbert's keynote address provided an
overview of the past and challenges for the future, on the occasion of SEAA's twenty-first
birthday. This is a wide-ranging discussion that focuses on SOSE and an entitlement
approach to the curriculum that is concerned with teaching about society and environment.
The address was published in # & 
Vol. 21, Spring 2003 retrieved 1st
september, 2010 )3 BB... '%%% % B% B

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‡ Reynolds, R., & Lane, S. (2009). Crossing boundaries between cultures and disciplines: Using
Geography and Creative Arts to build bridges with community groups in one school.Refereed paper
presented at Teacher education crossing borders: Cultures, contexts, communities and curriculumß
the annual conference of the Australian Teacher Education Association (ATEA), Albury, 28 June 1

July. Retrieved 1 sept, 2010 http://atea.edu.au/ConfPapers/2009/Refereed/Reynolds.pdf