WEAK SLOT-AND-FILLER STRUCTURE

9.1 SEMANTIC NETS
The main idea behind semantic nets is that the meaning of a concept comes from the ways in which it is connected . In a semantic net, information is represented as a set of nodes connected to each other by set of labled arcs, which repesent relationships among the nodes.

A Semantic network
Mammal
isa has-part

Person
instance

Nose

Blue

Uniform-color

Pee-Wee-Reese

team

Brooklyn-Dodgers

9.1.1 Intersection search 9.1.2 Representing Nonbinary predicates
isa(person, Mammal) Instance(Pee-Wee-Reese, person) team(Pee-Wee-Reese,Brooklyn-Dodgers) uniform-color(Pee-Wee-Reese,Blue) A semantic Net for an n-place predicate Game
isa Visiting team

Cubs

G23
Home-team

score

5-3

Dodgers

A semantic Net representing sentence

Give
instance agent

BK23
instance object

john

EV7
beneficiary

BK23

Mary

Making some important distinctions 1.
height

john

72

2.

john
height

Bill
height Greater-than

H1 3. john
height

H2 Bill
height

H1
value

Greater-than

H2

H2

9.1.4 Partitioned Semantic Nets
Using partitioned semantics a) Mallcarrier
isa victim

Dogs
isa

Bite
isa assailant

d b) GS
isa

b

m

Dogs
isa isa A

Bite
isa assailant

Mallcarrier
isa victim S1

SA

g

d

b

m

c) Dogs GS Town-dog
isa isa A isa assailant S1 victim isa A S

Bite

constables

g

d

b

c

d)
SA

Dogs
isa

Bite
isa assailant

Mallcarrier
S1 victim

d

b

m

GS

A isa

g

form

Feilder isa: cardinality: *bating-average: Pee-Wee_Reese instance: height: bats: bating-average: team: uniform-color: ML-Baseball-Team isa: cardinality: *team-size: *manager: Brooklyn-Dodgers instance: team-size: manager: players: ML-Baseball-Player 376 .262 Fielder 5-10 Right .309 Brooklyn-Dodgers Blue Team 26 24

ML-Baseball-Team 24 Leo-Durocher {pee-wee_Reese, ..}

Representing the Class of All Teams as a Metaclass Class

Team

instance: isa: *cardinality: instance: isa: cardinality: *team-size:

class class class class {the number of teams that exist} {each team has a size} Mammal class Team 26{the number of baseball teams that exists} 24{default 24 players on a team}

ML-Baseball-Team: isa: instance: isa: cardinality: team_size: *manager:

Brooklyn-Dodgers: instance: isa: team-size: manager: *uniform-color: Pee-Wee-Reese instance: instance: uniform-color: batting-average:

ML-Baseball-Team ML-Baseball-Player 24 Leo-Durocher Blue Brooklyn-Dodgers Fielder Blue .309

Classes and Metaclasses

ML-Baseball-Team Team Class(set of sets)

ML-Baseball-Player

Brooklyn-Dodgers

Pee-Wee-Reese

9.2.3 Slots as Full-Fledged Objects
Representing Relationships among Classes

ML-Baseball-Player
isa isa isa isa isa

Pitcher

Catcher

Fielder

mericanleaguer
instance

Nationalleaguer

instance

Three-Finger-Brown

ML-Baseball-Player is covered by: Pitcher

{Pitcher,Catcher,Fielder} { merican-Leaguer,National-Leaguer} ML-Baseball-Player {Catcher,Feilder} ML-Baseball-Player {Pitcher,Fielder} ML-Baseball-Player {pitcher,Catcher} ML-Baseball-Player {National-Leaguer}

isa: mutually-disjount-with: isa: mutually-disjount-with: isa: mutually-disjount-with:

Catcher

Fielder

merican-Leaguer isa: mutually-disjount-with:

National-Leaguer isa: mutually-disjount-with: Three-Finger-Brown instance: instance:

ML-Baseball-Player { merican-Leaguer} Pitcher National-leaguer

Representing Slots as Frames,I

manager my-manager Uniform-color

color bats Slot Class(set of sets)

. . Pee-Wee-Reese Blue . . Smokey-The-Beat Brown . .

. . Pee-Wee-Reese . .

Blue

Slot

isa: instance: *domain: *range: *range-constraint: *definition: *default: *transfers-through: *to-compute: *inverse: *single-valued: instance: domain: range: range-constraint: default: inverse: single-vlaued:

calss class

Manager

Slot ML-Baseball-Team Person x{baseball-experience x.manager} manager-of TRUE

my-manager instance: domain: range: range-constraint: to-complete: single-valued: color instance: domain: range: transfers-through: visual-salience: single-valued:

slot ML-Baseball-Player Person x(baseball-experience x.my-manager) x(x.team).manager TRUE slot Physical-Object Color-Set top-level-part-of High FALSE

Uniform-color instance: isa: domain: range: range-constraint: visual-saliencd: single-valued:

Slot color team-player color-set not Pint High FALSE

bats

instance: domain: range: to-compute: single-valued:

Slot ML-Baseball-Player {Left,Right,Switch} x x.handed TRUE

Associating Defaults with Slots Bating-average instance: domain: range: range-constraint: default: single-valued: Fielder-batting-average instance: isa: domain: range: range-constraint: single-valued: Slot ML-Baseball-Player Number x(0<=x.range-constraint<=1) .252 TRUE Slot batting-average Fielder Number x(0<=x.range-constraint<=1) TRUE

A Shorthand Notation for Slot-Range Specification ML-Baseball-Player bats:

MUST BE {Left,Right,Switch}

9.2.4 Slot-Values as Objects
Representing Slot-Values John Bill height: height: 72

Representing Slot-Values with Lambda Notation John Bill

height: height:

72; x(x.height>Bill.height) x(x.height<John.height)

9.2.4 Inheritance Revisted
Tangled Hierarchies Bird
isa

fly:yes
isa

Ostrich fly:no
instance

Pet-Bird
instance

Quaker pacifist :no

Republican pacifist:false
instance

Fifi fly:?

instance

DIck

pacifist:?

(a)

(b)

More Tangled Hierarchies Bird
isa

fly:yes
isa

Ostrich fly:no
isa

Pet-Bird

Republican pacifist:false
isa

PlumedOstrich
isa

Quaker pacifist :no

ConservativeRepublican
instance

instance instance

White-Plumed Ostrich
instance

DIck

pacifist:?

Fifi fly:?

(a)

(b)

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