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I know you believe you understand what you think I said BUT I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant
Communication Skills Overview
Effective communication skills are a critical element in your career and personal lives.
We all must use a variety of communication techniques to both understand and be understood.
Most common ways to communicate Sp ea kin e ag s g I al isu V m r W g in it Bo dy Lan gu ag e .
Communication Goals To change behavior To get and give Information To get action To persuade To ensure understanding .
Seven Communication Myths We only communicate when we want to communicate Words mean the same to both the speaker and the listener We communicate chiefly with words Nonverbal communication is silent communication Communication is a one way street The message we communicate is the message that the listener receives There is no such thing as too much information .
something ELSE you have to do nowadays an instrument a way of decreasing chances of burn-out mostly courtesy & common-sense .Communication Skills Communication Skills ARE: part of the art of your job .
Listening and Speaking are used a lot… 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Writing Reading Speaking Listening 9% 16% 30% 45% .
… But not taught enough 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Writing Reading Speaking Listening 9% 16% 45% Am o un t tau 30% gh t .
Listening is needed everywhere… Listening skills form the basis of: Continued learning Teamwork skills Management skills Negotiation skills Emotional intelligence .
… But not practiced effectively 70% of all communication is Misunderstood Misinterpreted Rejected Distorted Not heard .
“Harry always was a poor listener.” .
What if communication were not possible? .
Frustration and Chaos! .
Communication Communication is the process of sending and receiving information among people… Feedback receiver sender SENDER RECEIVER .
Messages not delivered due to “distortion” Feedback Sender Receiver Distortion .
What causes distortion? Speaker Listener Language Wordiness Emotions Perceptions Preconceived notions/expectations Physical hearing problem Speed of thought Personal interests Emotions Attention span No active listening! .
30% of you aren’t paying attention right now! .
Clues that you are not listening Are you simply waiting for your turn to talk? Are you thinking about your reply before the other person has finished talking? .
open posture that shows concentration Ensure mutual understanding Offer acknowledgements (say “uh-huh”) Paraphrase main ideas Confirm next steps .How to be an active listener Set the stage Choose an appropriate physical environment Maintain relaxed.
How to be an active listener Understand body language Make eye contact Consider expression and gestures Suspend judgment Concentrate Keep an open mind Hear the person out Do not react to emotive words .
How can we improve our listening skills? Concentrate Focus on the speaker Maintain an open mind Look for nonverbal cues Do not react to emotive words Ask questions Sit so you can see & hear Avoid prejudices Take notes Ask for clarification .
clarifying both your clarifying both your and their and their understanding understanding .Techniques to improve listening skills PARAPHRASE PARAPHRASE Restate what was Restate what was said in your own said in your own words words SUMMARIZE SUMMARIZE Pull together Pull together the main points the main points of a speaker of a speaker QUESTION QUESTION Challenge speaker Challenge speaker to think further. to think further.
Practice Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is simply restating what another person has said in your own words. Use phrases such as: In other words… I gather that… If I understand what you are saying… What I hear you saying is… Pardon my interruption. but let me see if I understand you correctly… .
facts or data together. Try out these summarizing phrases: “If I understand you correctly. The person summarizing must listen carefully in order to organize the information systematically.Practice Summarizing Summarizing pulls important ideas. your main concerns are…” “These seem to be the key ideas you have expressed… ” . Useful for emphasizing key points and setting the stage for further discussion.
Open-ended questions: Invite unique thought.Two basic types of questions 1. Questions begin with how. reflection or an explanation. . Closed questions: Get a one-word response and inhibit thought. Questions begin with who. what and how come (not why!). when and which 1.
3. 5. 4. then? . Are you feeling tired? Isn’t it a nice day? Was the last activity useful? Is there anything bothering you? So everything is fine. 2.Practice Questioning Rephrase the following closed questions to make them open-ended: 1.
Other helpful techniques to foster communication (both verbal and non-verbal) Nod Your Head Repeat the last word or two of the prior speaker Maintain eye contact Keep an open body position Make encouraging statements Repeat a sentence or part of one .
Let’s practice Tell the person next to you what you did last weekend .
Know what they want to say Establish and maintain relationships Understand others perspective Active listeners Understand and clarify messages .Summary Good communicators….
” 32 .“Communication is the single most important leadership skill.
Communication Communication Oriented Responsive and receptive to questions from participants Ask and persuade rather than order or command Explain the reasons behind changes and policies 33 .
Types of Communication Speaking Listening Non Verbal Writing 34 .
Communication Apprehension Group Discussions Public Speaking One on One Formal Meetings 35 .
Moderate CA: Overall score is between 55 and 83. High CA’s are more withdrawn in conversation and appear tense and shy. 36 . they even talk with people when they are not particularly motivated to talk.Talking Terror Interpreting Your Score Low CA: Overall score is less than 55. High CA: Overall score is greater than 83. Their level of participation in conversation varies. Low CA’s talk a great deal. Moderate CA’s recognize that at times there are times to talk and times when they should not talk.
Listen To Me! Activity Listener Evaluator Solution-Seeker 37 .
Concentrate intently on the speaker. Be understanding of the other person and use words such as “I see” or “I understand” to confirm your understanding. End the conversation by repeating and confirming what has been discussed. Help person associate problem with the cause. 38 . If there is a problem. etc. Restate what the speaker has said to let him or her know you are listening. Encourage the speaker to develop ability and desire to solve his or her own problem. Practice reinforcing nonverbal behaviors. listen for the cause and single it out. such as leaning forward. Learn to be silent.Show interest. Be alert and attentive. establishing and maintaining eye contact. Imagine yourself in this person’s place.
Good Listening Is An Active Skill Observing – what one does Hearing – what one says and how one says it Feeling – how one is feeling Sensing – what one has not said. but wishes to or means to say 39 .
Have a purpose or reason for listening. Wait before responding. 2. 5. 40 . Provide speaker with verbal and nonverbal feedback 4. 3. Be aware of your attitudes towards the speaker and attempt to listen objectively. Do not formulate your response while the speaker is delivering the message.Listening Skills 1. Ask questions.
Avoid imposing your values on the speaker. 8. Listen in a non-judgmental way. Listen for feelings as well as information. Listen with your eyes as well as your ears. 9. 7. Overlook negative aspects of the speaker’s delivery which might interfere with your understanding the message. 10.6. 41 . Look for important themes.
Nonverbal & Verbal Cues Uh.. Um. 42 ..
I/You Messages YOU I 43 .
go away! 6. You are so inconsiderate! 12. I need some time to myself right now. Who invited you! 8. 10. Sometimes I think you don’t consider how I feel. 9. You don’t listen to me! 2. 7. You lied to me. 2. 5. I wish you would call me more often. 11. 44 . That’s a dumb idea. I 12. 1. 1. Maybe we could try a different idea. 4. I think you can do a little better. I didn’t know you were coming. 6. Leave me alone! 7. Everyone here hates me! 3. You make me so mad. 10. Is something wrong? 8. No one does anything here. You never call me. 3. You did a horrible job. 9. You annoy me. Sometimes I feel I am not being listened to.Change the following You messages to a more positive I message. 5. I don’t think that I was told the complete truth. I sometimes feel people dislike me. Let’s everyone work hard together. 4.get angry at you sometimes when you… 11. I feel that you don’t have time for me anymore.
Reporting your own feelings. Vineyard & Lynch: Secrets of Leadership 45 . Offering alternatives.Review – Communications That Empower Active Listening. Sharing information to help the other person understand your point of view. Paraphrasing. Asking for more information. Checking your assumptions about the other person’s feelings.
Indicate in the space provided the degree to which you agree or disagree with each statement by noting whether you: 5 Strongly Disagree; 4 Disagree; 3 Are Undecided; 2 – Agree; 1 – Strongly Agree. There are no right or wrong answers. Work quickly to record your first impression. You do not have to answer any question you do not wish to answer. 4___ 1. I dislike participating in group discussions. 3___ 2. Generally, I am comfortable while participating in group discussion. 2___ 3. I am tense and nervous while participating in group discussions. 2___ 4. I like to get involved in group discussions. 2___ 5. Engaging in group discussion with new people makes me tense and nervous. 4___ 6. I am calm and relaxed while participating in group discussions. 2___ 7. Generally, I am nervous when I have to participate in a meeting. 4___ 8. Usually I am calm and relaxed while participating in meetings. 2___ 9. Usually, I am calm and relaxed when I am called on to express an opinion at a meeting 4___ 10. I am afraid to express myself at meetings. 4___ 11. Communicating at meetings usually makes me uncomfortable. 3___ 12. I am very relaxed when answering questions at a meeting. 4___ 13. While participating in a conversation with a new acquaintance, I feel very nervous. 3___ 14. I have no fear of speaking up in conversations. 4___ 15. Ordinarily, I am very tense and nervous in conversations. 2___ 16. Ordinarily, I am very calm and relaxed in conversations. 2___ 17. While conversing with a new acquaintance, I feel very relaxed. 4___ 18. I’m afraid to speak up in conversations. 3___ 19. I have no fear of giving a speech. 2___ 20. Certain parts of my body feel very tense and rigid while I am giving a speech. 4___ 21. I feel very relaxed while giving a speech. 4___ 22. My thoughts s become confused and jumbled when I am giving a speech. 2___ 23. I face the prospect of giving a speech with confidence. 47 4___ 24. While giving a speech, I get so nervous that I forget facts I really know.
Talking Terror Score Sheet
This score sheet will help you compute an overall communication apprehension score and a summary of your apprehension in four specific situations: group, meeting, dyadic (one on one), and public. Group Score: Question 2 ___ Meeting Score: Question 8 ___ +Question 4 ___ + Question 9 ___ +Question 6 ___ + Question 12 ___ Total ___ Total ___ - Question 1 ___ Question 7 ___ - Question 3 ___ Question 10 ___ - Question 5 ___ Question 11 ___ Total ___ Total ___ Add 18 Add 18 Final Score ___ Final Score ___ Dyadic Score: Question 14 ___ +Question 16 ___ +Question 17 ___ Total ___ -Question 13 ___ -Question 15 ___ -Question 18 ___ Total ___ Add 18 Final Score ___ Public Score: Question 19 ___ +Question 21 ___ +Question 23 ___ Total ___ -Question 20 ___ -Question 22 ___ - Question 24 ___ Total ___ Add 18 Final Score ___
Overall Communication Apprehension (CA) = Add your group, meeting, dyadic, and public scores. Overall CA Score = ____
5. The man pushed his way in before the owner locked the door. Someone took jewelry out of the case. and its contest were removed. 2. A dog appeared and began barking. The story is about two people and a dog. The store was protected by a guard dog. 4. He demanded that one of the jewelry cases be opened. 49 . The man ran away. 6. The man was not carrying anything. The robber ran away. 8. True or False 1. Someone unlocked the jewelry case.Jewelry Store The Story A business person was about to lock up the jewelry store when a man holding a bag pushed his way in. 3. The owner unlocked the jewelry case. The man demanded jewelry from the owner. 7.
50 . your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word. As soon as you move one step from the bottom.Drucker on Communication “Colleges teach the one thing that is perhaps most valuable for the future employee to know. But very few students bother to learn it. This one basic skill is the ability to organize and express ideas in writing and speaking.
As soon as you move one step from the bottom. This one basic skill is the ability to organize and express ideas in writing and speaking.Drucker on Communication “Colleges teach the one thing that is perhaps most valuable for the future employee to know. 51 . your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word. But very few students bother to learn it.
In the very large organisation …. 52 .Drucker on Communication And the further away your job is from manual work. the larger the organization of which you are an employee. the more important it will be that you know how to convey your thoughts in writing or speaking. This ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a person can possess”.
Welcome to the Business Communication Class! 53 .
Importance of communication in Uma Bhushan Business .
The Communication Process Phase 1 Sender has an idea Phase 6 Receiver sends feedback Phase 2 Sender encodes idea CHANNEL AND MEDIUM Phase 5 Receiver decodes message Phase 3 Sender transmits message Phase 4 Receiver gets message SITUATION 55 .
Why communicating as a manager is different? Levels of responsibility and accountability Organization culture P&G .`oral’ culture shorter turnaround time tight deadlines Organisational dynamics Personality preferences of bosses 56 .`written’ culture 3M Canada .
Communication and Business High importance in three main business dimensions: Obtaining a job Doing a job Maintaining and improving a job 57 .
Improved stakeholder response Quicker Problem Solving Stronger Decision making Enhanced professional image EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Increased productivity Clearer promotional materials Stronger business relationship Steadier work flow .
Pearson Education 59 .Writing 9% Speaking 30% Listening 45% Reading 16% Source: Business Communication Today 7th ed.
Pearson Education 60 .Courier express mail Phone message slips Pager/Cell Phone Post-it notes Fax documents Postal Service mail Interoffice mail Voice mail Email Phone Calls 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Average number of messages received daily (per employee) Source: Business Communication Today 7th ed.
Flow of communication Upward. downward and laterally Formal and informal 61 .
President Vice President of Finance Vice President of Marketing Vice President of Research and Development Vice President of Production Head Accountant Sales Manager Director of Advertising and Promotion Plant Manager Industrial Sales Director Retail Sales Director Special Projects Supervisor Advertising Production Chief Line A Supervisor Line B Supervisor Line C Supervisor 62 .
because the reality they describe is so complex 63 .Communication truths Meanings sent are not always received (our mental filters differ) Meaning is in the mind – not in the symbols (mainly words) used The symbols we use are imperfect.
Little shared experience Meanings dissimilar Misunderstanding Average amount of shared experience Meanings similar Average of understanding Large amount of shared experience Meanings very similar High degree of understanding 64 .
Communicating in business Internal-operational: With employees to run its day-to-day operations External-operational: with outsiders like suppliers. other businesses. customers etc Personal: informal exchanges of information not related to operations 65 .
Across Formal Power Lines Unofficial Lines of Power 66 . Down.Internal Communication Official Structure The Grapevine Formal Chain of Command Informal Networking Up.
External Communication Formal Contacts Informal Contacts Marketing Employees Public Relations Managers 67 .
speeches. reports.Internal Planned communication among insiders (letters. face-to-face conversations. investors and other outsiders (email. websites and new release) Casual communication with suppliers. and phone calls) Informal Formal 68 . email) that follows the company’s chain of command Casual communication among employees (email. and phone calls that do not follow the company’s chain of command External Planned communication with outsiders (letters. memos. customers. memos. face-to-face conversations. reports.
compelling writer and speaker 4.Top Mgt Comm at top levels with other execs. Entry level Basic spelling.Supervisor Organize sentences. reports etc and internally e. Upper Mgt Effective with outside exposure like luncheon talks. memos. paragraphs and messages with coherence 1. comfortable with large groups & media.e letters. Middle Mgt Effective with common business media i.g with newsletters. company spokesperson.Five stages of Executive Communication Stages Characteristics Importance of language rules Message complexity Audience Size Exposure to subordinates Breadth of topics 5. staff meetings 2. union negotiations 3. grammar and pronunciation skills 69 .
presentations.Media Richness Including notes. meetings. and standard reports Including Voice mail and teleconferencing 70 . bulletins. videoconferences LEANER Unaddressed documents Addressed documents Telephone and email Face-to-face RICHER Including fliers. memos and letters Including conversations.
Low Low Medium
Characteristics of Effective Messages
Practicality Factual Basis
Clarity and Conciseness
Less Structured Harder to Classify
More Spontaneous Less Control
More Structured Easier to Study
Conscious Purpose More Control
Usage of Business Communication Channels Writing 9% Receiving Sending Speaking 30% Listening 45% Reading 16% 74 .
Communication Challenges in Today’s Workplace Advances in Technology Workforce Diversity Globalization Team-Based Organizations 75 .
Communication Barriers Perception and language Restrictive environments Distractions Deceptive tactics Information overload 76 .
Overcoming Barriers Audience-Centered Approach Open Communication Ethical Communication Efficient Messages 77 .
Biases Education Age Status Style Audience-Centered Approach 78 .
Communication Climate Overall Structure Flat Corporate Culture More Open Level of Feedback High Tall Less Open Low 79 .
Ethical Communication Recognize Ethical Choices Make Ethical Choices Business Principles Motivate Ethical Choices 80 .
Efficient Messages Send Fewer Messages Minimize Distractions Concise Business Communication Develop Communication Skills 81 .
Types of Communication Skills 82 .
Types of Communication Skills Visual Skills Spoken Skills Reading Skills Technological Skills Written Skills 83 .
Visual Skills 85% of our learning comes from visual stimuli Combining spoken and visual stimuli enhances learning Visual communication involves 4 basic intellectual skills Literacy: writing & reading Numeracy: numbers and mathematical notations Articulacy: art of spoken communication Graphicacy: visual communication of relationships 84 .
interpersonal skills and listening skills 60% of each workday is spent listening. 85 .Spoken Skills Takes up more of an executive’s time than other types of communication Includes oral communication.
letters etc Ability to do `rapid reading’ helps 86 . reports.Reading Skills Executives spend enormous time reading emails. memos.
teleconferencing. internet. email.Technological Skills Is the ability to appropriately use technological tools in an information society Tools incl. voicemail etc 87 . computers.
documentation and analytic discipline 88 . justification. in an organized way Writing provides analysis. brevity and force of logic. precision.Written Skills Research shows high importance of communication in career advancement Involves writing with clarity.
The role of writing Managers do most of their own writing and editing Documents take on lives of their own Writing is a career sifter 89 .
90 . I pretend that I’m writing to my sisters. they are not experts in accounting or finance. Though highly intelligent.Warren Buffet on writing Write with a specific person in mind. They will understand plain English but jargon may puzzle them. When writing Berkshire Hathaway’s annual report. My goal is simply to give them the information I would wish them to supply me if our positions were reversed.
I don’t need to be Shakespeare. I must thought have a sincere desire to inform.Warren Buffet on writing To succeed. No sisters to write to? Borrow mine: just begin with Dear Doris and Bertie” 91 .
Any questions? 92 .