Bridging Theory in Practice

Transferring Technical Knowledge to Practical Applications

Introduction to Motor Control

Introduction to Motor Control

Expected Time: ‡ Approximately 90 minutes .Introduction to Motor Control Intended Audience: ‡ Individuals with an interest in learning about electric motors and how they are controlled ‡ A simple understanding of magnetics is assumed Topics Covered: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ What is an electric motor? What are some common types of electric motors? How do these electric motors work? How these motors are controlled.

Agenda ‡ Introduction to Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ What Is Motor Control? ‡ What Are Some Common Types of Motors? ‡ Permanent Magnet DC Motors ‡ Stepper Motors ‡ Brushless DC Motors ‡ Summary of Motors and Motor Control Circuits .

Agenda ‡ Introduction to Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ What Is Motor Control? ‡ What Are Some Common Types of Motors? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Permanent Magnet DC Motors Stepper Motors Brushless DC Motors Summary of Motors and Motor Control Circuits .

What Is a Permanent Magnet? ‡ A piece of iron or steel which produces a magnetic field ‡ Found in nature as magnetite (Fe3O4) lodestones ‡ Magnetic field causes the permanent magnet to attract iron and some other materials ‡ Two ends of the permanent magnet are usually designated North and South ‡ Opposite magnet ends attract and like magnet ends repel .

What Is an Electromagnet? ‡ Electromagnets behave like permanent magnets but their magnetic field is not permanent ‡ Magnetic field is temporarily induced by an electric current .

How Do You Make an Electromagnet? ‡ Start with an iron bar .

How Do You Make an Electromagnet? ‡ Start with an iron bar ‡ Wrap a wire around the iron bar .

How Do You Make an Electromagnet? ‡ Start with an iron bar ‡ Wrap a wire around the iron bar ‡ Connecting a battery causes a current to flow in the wire + Current - .

How Do You Make an Electromagnet? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Start with an iron bar Wrap a wire around the iron bar Connecting a battery causes a current to flow in the wire The current induces a magnetic field creating an electromagnet NORTH SOUTH + Current - .

reverses the polarity SOUTH NORTH - + Current .How Do You Make an Electromagnet? ‡ Reversing the current direction.

reverses the polarity ‡ If the current is stopped.How Do You Make an Electromagnet? ‡ Reversing the current direction. the induced magnetic field decays to 0 SOUTH NORTH - + Current .

Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ We can use electromagnets in electric motors to convert electrical energy to mechanical work Electric Motor Electric Energy + - 12V ‡ Electric motors are used to perform a mechanical task by using electricity ± Open a sunroof ± Lift a power antenna ± Control windshield wiper .

ROTOR STATOR . ± The rotating part of the electric motor is called the rotor.What Is an Electric Motor? ‡ An electric motor has two basic parts: ± The stationary part is called the stator.

creating mechanical motion ROTOR STATOR .What Is an Electric Motor? ‡ Electrical energy creates a rotating magnetic field inside the motor causing the rotor to rotate.

Where Are Electric Motors Used? Electric motors are used in many different automotive applications: Power windows Power seats Power mirrors Fans Windshield wipers Windshield washer pumps Starter motor Electric radio antennae Door locks Information gauges Sunroof Brakes Power steering Fuel pump Water pump Hybrid and electric vehicles Cruise control Throttle plate control Air vents Others .

Agenda ‡ Introduction to Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ What Is Motor Control? ‡ What Are Some Common Types of Motors? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Permanent Magnet DC Motors Stepper Motors Brushless DC Motors Summary of Motors and Motor Control Circuits .

What Is Motor Control ? ‡ The controlled application of electrical energy to a motor to elicit a desired mechanical response ± Start / Stop ± Speed ± Torque ± Position ‡ Significant amount of electronics may be required to control the operation of some electric motors .

Control of Electromagnetics ‡ Much of the physical design of an electric motor and its control system are related to the switching of the electromagnetic field ‡ There is a mechanical force which acts on a current carrying wire within a magnetic field ‡ The mechanical force is perpendicular to the wire and the magnetic field ‡ The relative magnetic fields between the rotor and stator are arranged so that a torque is created. causing the rotor to rotate about its axis .

Agenda ‡ Introduction to Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ What Is Motor Control? ‡ What Are Some Common Types of Motors? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Permanent Magnet DC Motors Stepper Motors Brushless DC Motors Summary of Motors and Motor Control Circuits .

Types of Electric Motors ‡ There are many different types and classifications of electric motors: Permanent magnet DC motor Stepper motor Brushless DC motor Wound field motor Universal motors Three phase induction motor Three-phase AC synchronous motors Two-phase AC Servo motors torque motors Shaded-pole motor split-phase induction motor capacitor start motor Permanent Split-Capacitor (PSC) motor Repulsion-start induction-run (RS-IR) motor Repulsion motor Linear motor Variable reluctance motor Unipolar stepper motor Bipolar stepper Full step stepper motor Half step stepper motor Micro step stepper motor Switched reluctance motor Shaded-pole synchronous motor Induction motor Coreless DC motor Others..... ..

Permanent Magnet DC Motor ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Similar in construction to the introductory example Metallic contacts (brushes) are used to deliver electrical energy Rotational speed proportional to the applied voltage Torque proportional to the current flowing through the motor Advantages: + Low cost (high volume demand) + Simple operation ‡ Disadvantages: ± Medium efficiency ± Poor reliability (brush. commutator wear out) ± Strong potential source of electromagnetic interference .

8o step angle ‡ A stepper motor controller can move the electric motor one step (in either direction) by applying a voltage pulse ‡ Rotational speed is controlled by changing the frequency of the voltage pulses ‡ Advantages: + Low cost position control (instrument gauges) + Easy to hold position ‡ Disadvantages: ± Poor efficiency ± Requires digital control interface ± High motor cost . 200 steps provides a 1.Stepper Motor ‡ Full rotation of electric motor divided into a number of "steps" ‡ For example.

Brushless DC Motor ‡ Similar to a permanent magnet DC motor ‡ Rotor is always the permanent magnet (internal or external) ‡ Design eliminates the need for brushes by using a more complex drive circuit ‡ Advantages: + High efficiency + High reliability + Low EMI + Good speed control ‡ Disadvantages: ± May be more expensive than "brushed" DC motors ± More complex and expensive drive circuit than "brushed" DC motors .

Agenda ‡ Introduction to Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ What Is Motor Control? ‡ What Are Some Common Types of Motors? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Permanent Magnet DC Motors Stepper Motors Brushless DC Motors Summary of Motors and Motor Control Circuits .

How Does a Permanent Magnet DC Motor Work? ‡ "DC Motors" use magnets to produce motion ± Permanent magnets SOUTH NORTH .

How Does a Permanent Magnet DC Motor Work? ‡ "DC Motors" use magnets to produce motion ± Permanent magnets ± An electromagnet armature SOUTH NORTH .

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotating Armature ‡ Electromagnet armature is mounted on axle so that it can rotate SOUTH NORTH .

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Commutator and Brushes ‡ Electromagnet armature is mounted on axle so that it can rotate ‡ A commutator makes an electrical contact with the motor's brushes SOUTH NORTH .

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Commutator Structure ‡ Commutator is comprised of two "nearhalves" of a ring .

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Commutator Structure
‡ Commutator is comprised of two "near-halves" of a ring ‡ Mounted on the armature's axle to rotate with the rotor

Armature

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Commutator Structure
‡ Armature's windings are connected to the commutator

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Commutator and Brushes
‡ Armature's windings are connected to the commutator ‡ Brushes connect the commutator to the battery

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Electromagnet Polarization
‡ Current flows through the armature's windings, which polarizes the electromagnet
+ -

SOUTH

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotation
‡ The like magnets (NORTH-NORTH and SOUTH-SOUTH) repel ‡ As the like magnets repel, the armature rotates, creating mechanical motion + -

SOUTH

NORTH

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotation Direction? ‡ What direction will the armature spin? ‡ Clockwise? Counterclockwise? + Counterclockwise ? SOUTH NORTH Clockwise ? .

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotation Direction? ‡ To determine the direction of the motor's rotation. we need to use the "Left Hand Rule" .

Left Hand Rule ‡ Start with two opposite ends of a magnet SOUTH NORTH .

Left Hand Rule: Magnetic Field ‡ The magnetic field (B) is from the NORTH pole to the opposite SOUTH pole ‡ The pointing finger follows B into screen NORTH SOUTH B .

Left Hand Rule: Current Flow ‡ Current flows in a wire through the magnetic field from left right ‡ The middle finger right. I1 or I2 left I2 NORTH to SOUTH follows I1 .

acting on each wire is in the direction of the F1 thumb I1 SOUTH ‡ The wire with I1 is pushed up. F.Left Hand Rule: Force ‡ The force. I2 down NORTH F2 I2 .

Left Hand Rule: Force ‡ The magnitude of F is give by: |F|=|I|*P*|B| I1 where P is the wire in B length of the I2 NORTH F2 P F1 SOUTH .

Left Hand Rule: Current Loop ‡ If the current flows in a loop. the force(s) will cause the F loop to rotate I SOUTH NORTH F .

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotation ‡ Magnetic field is from right to left ‡ Imagine current flows out of the screen in this cross section + - SOUTH NORTH .

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotation ‡ Magnetic field is from right to left ‡ Imagine current flows out of the screen in this cross section ‡ The force causes the armature to rotate clockwise + - SOUTH NORTH .

the commutator halves will rotate away from the brushes ‡ Momentum keeps the electromagnet and the commutator ring rotating + - SOUTH NORTH .Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotation ‡ At some point.

the current in the windings is reversed + - SOUTH NORTH .Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotation ‡ When the commutator halves reconnect with the other brush.

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotation ‡ When the commutator halves reconnect with the other brush. the current in the windings is reversed ‡ The polarity is reversed and the armature continues + to rotate - SOUTH NORTH .

Permanent Magnet DC Motor Rotation ‡ Magnetic field is from right to left ‡ Imagine current flows out of the screen in this cross section ‡ The force causes the armature to rotate clockwise + - SOUTH NORTH .

Controlling a Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) Motor ‡ Bi-directional PM DC motors are controlled with an "H-Bridge" circuit consisting of the motor and four power switches .

Turning On a PMDC Motor ‡ One switch is closed in each leg of the "H" ‡ One switch is open in each leg of the "H" Current .

Turning On a PMDC Motor in the Other Direction ‡ One switch is closed in each leg of the "H" ‡ One switch is open in each leg of the "H Current .

Controlling a Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) Motor ‡ Unidirectional motors are controlled by a half-H bridge circuit Current .

Controlling a PMDC Motor Options ‡ DC operation ± Rotational speed of the DC motor is fixed at a given voltage and load ‡ PWM Operation ± Average voltage (and rotational speed) can be controlled by opening/closing the switches quickly ‡ Braking ± Shorting the terminals or momentarily reversing the drive ‡ Others .

Agenda ‡ Introduction to Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ What Is Motor Control? ‡ What Are Some Common Types of Motors? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Permanent Magnet DC Motors Stepper Motors Brushless DC Motors Summary of Motors and Motor Control Circuits .

stepper motors move in discrete steps as commanded by the stepper motor controller ‡ Because of their discrete step operation. stepper motors can easily be rotated a finite fraction of a rotation ‡ Another key feature of stepper motors is their ability to hold their load steady once the require position is achieved .Why a Stepper Motor ? ‡ Unlike the permanent magnet DC motor.

causing the rotor to spin one "step" ‡ Full step motors spin 360o/(# of teeth) in each step ‡ Half step motors spin 180o/(# of teeth) in each step ‡ Microstep motors further decrease the rotation in each step .How Does a Stepper Motor Work ? ‡ A stepper motor often has an internal rotor with a large number of permanent magnet teeth ‡ A large number of electromagnet "teeth" are mounted on an external stator ‡ Electromagnets are polarized and depolarized sequentially.

Full Step Motor Operation Half Rotate and Hold ` .

Half Step Motor Operation Half Rotate and Hold ` .

Stepper Motor Control ‡ The stepper motor driver receives square wave pulse train signals from a controller and converts the signals into the electrical pulses to step the motor ‡ This simple operation leads stepper motors to sometimes be called "digital motors" ‡ To achieve microstepping. the stepper motor must be driven by a (quasi) sinusoidal current that is expensive to implement . however.

Agenda ‡ Introduction to Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ What Is Motor Control? ‡ What Are Some Common Types of Motors? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Permanent Magnet DC Motors Stepper Motors Brushless DC Motors Summary of Motors and Motor Control Circuits .

brushes have increasing difficulty in maintaining contact ± Sparks and electric noise may be created as the brushes encounter flaws in the commutator surface or as the commutator is moving away from the just energized rotor segment ± Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement.Why a Brushless DC Motor ? ‡ Many of the limitations of the classic permanent magnet "brushed" DC motor are caused by the brushes pressing against the rotating commutator creating friction ± As the motor speed is increased. brushes may not remain in contact with the rotating commutator ± At higher speeds. and the commutator itself is subject to wear and maintenance ‡ Brushless DC motors avoid these problems with a modified design. but require a more complex control system .

the polarity of the electromagnets is switched by the motor control drive circuitry ‡ The motor can be easily synchronized to a clock signal.How Does a Brushless DC Motor Work ? ‡ A brushless DC motor uses electronic sensors to detect the position of the rotor without using a metallic contact ‡ Using the sensor's signals. providing precise speed control ‡ Brushless DC motors may have: ± An external PM rotor and internal electromagnet stator ± An internal PM rotor and external electromagnet stator .

Example Brushless DC Motor Operation ‡ This example brushless DC motor has: ± An internal. permanent magnet rotor .

Example Brushless DC Motor Operation ‡ This example brushless DC motor has: ± An external. electromagnet stator .

Example Brushless DC Motor Operation ‡ This example brushless DC motor has: ± An external. electromagnet stator. with magnetic field sensors .

Brushless DC Motor Construction A com a com A a c b a B com b c c C C com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Operation A com a 1 c b a B com C C b c c com A a com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Operation A com a com A a c b a B com b c c C C 2 com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Operation A com a com A a c b a B com b c c C C 3 com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Operation A com a com A a c b a B com b c c C C com b B 4 .

Brushless DC Motor Operation A com a com A a c b a B com b c c C C com b B 5 .

Brushless DC Motor Operation A com a 6 c b a B com C C b c c com A a com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Operation A com a 1 c b a B com C C b c c com A a com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Control Circuit A1 B1 C1 A a c A2 B2 C2 C com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Control Circuit A1 B1 C1 A 1 a c A2 B2 C2 C com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Control Circuit A1 B1 C1 A a c A2 B2 C2 C 2 com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Control Circuit A1 B1 C1 A a c A2 B2 C2 C 3 com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Control Circuit A1 B1 C1 A a c A2 B2 C2 C com b B 4 .

Brushless DC Motor Control Circuit A1 B1 C1 A a c A2 B2 C2 C com b B 5 .

Brushless DC Motor Control Circuit A1 B1 C1 A 6 a c A2 B2 C2 C com b B .

Brushless DC Motor Control Circuit A1 B1 C1 A 1 a c A2 B2 C2 C com b B .

Agenda ‡ Introduction to Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ What Is Motor Control? ‡ What Are Some Common Types of Motors? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Permanent Magnet DC Motors Stepper Motors Brushless DC Motors Summary of Motors and Motor Control Circuits .

What Is an Electric Motor? ‡ An electric motor converts electric energy into mechanical motion Electric Motor Electric Energy + 12V - ‡ Electric motors are used to perform a mechanical task by using electricity ± Open a sunroof ± Lift a power antenna ± Control windshield wiper .

Poor reliability .Digital interface .High cost .Medium efficiency .Types of Electric Motors Permanent Magnet DC Motor Advantages: Stepper Motor Brushless DC Motor Disadvantages: + Low cost + Position control + High efficiency (high volume) (low cost + High reliability + Simple operation control circuits) + Low EMI + Speed control .Complex control .Maybe higher cost .Bad EMI .Poor efficiency .

Agenda ‡ Introduction to Electromagnets and Electric Motors ‡ What Is Motor Control? ‡ What Are Some Common Types of Motors? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Permanent Magnet DC Motors Stepper Motors Brushless DC Motors Summary of Motors and Motor Control Circuits .

Introduction to Motor Control .

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