Recommendation on Water Purification Technology

Drinking water for household purpose

By Task Force Nov 2007

Members of Task Force
    

S K Bansal Kaustubh Phadke Manish Shah Sachin Pradhan Prakalp Gahankari

 Champion  Member  Member  Member  Member

Objective of Project

Pure and Safe drinking water
 

Identification of various technologies available in market Recommending purification system

Drinking water - Quality Standards – IS 10500: 1991
Sl. Parameter Name
1 2 3 4 5 pH Hardness Color Turbidity Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

Desired level
6.5 – 8.5 < 600 ppm Less than 5 heizen unit < 5 NTU < 500 ppm

Sl.
9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Parameter Name
Chloride Sulphate Nitrates Residual chlorine Total Plate Count E- Coli MPN

Desired level
< 250 ppm < 200 ppm < 45 ppm Min. 0.2 ppm Less than 1000 nos. Nil (IS 1622) < 3 nos. (IS 1622)

6 7 8

Phenotheyline < 200 ppm alkalinity Calcium Iron < 75 ppm as CaCO3 < 0.3 ppm

MPN : - Maximum Probable Number – Bacterial test PPM: Parts per Million (mg/lit) Nephelometric Turbidity Unit – NTU

Critical Parameters
Sl.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Parameter Name
pH Hardness Color Turbidity Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Residual chlorine Total Plate Count E- Coli MPN

Desired level
6.5 – 8.5 < 600 ppm Less than 5 heizen unit < 5 NTU < 500 ppm Min. 0.2 ppm Less than 1000 nos. Nil (IS 1622) < 3 nos. (IS 1622)

MPN : - Maximum Probable Number – Bacterial test PPM: Parts per Million (mg/lit) / Nephelometric Turbidity Unit – NTU

Scenario in cities
Source of drinking water
Municipal corporation supplied (river & lake water) Bore well

Quality of water
Treated fresh water, chances of bacterial contamination, low TDS High TDS in ground water, some times hard water, low chances of bacterial contamination Water quality unknown, moderate to high TDS in water, chances of bacterial contamination

Tanker supplied water

Approximate drinking/cooking water consumption for a family (4 members)

10 - 16 lit/day (Assuming consumption 2.5 – 4 lit/person/day)

Purification technologies available
Sl Name of Technology Removal efficiency
Dirt/particulate matter 1 Filtration (Zerob, Candle filters) Chlorination (addition of chlorine liquid / tablets) Micron filtration (cartridge filters – multi layer) Bacterial contamination TDS Hardness

Yes

(> 200 micron) 2 3

Yes

(50%)

No No No

No No Yes
(10%)

No Yes

Yes
(100%)

(> 40 micron)

Yes

(95%)

Technology no. 1 to 3 does not need electrical supply

Purification technologies available
Sl Name of Technology
Ultra Violet treatment (UV treatment)

Removal efficiency Dirt/particulate Bacterial matter contamination TDS Hardness

4

No

Yes
(99%)

No

No

5 6 7 8

Ultra Filtration (Membrane filtration) Nano-filtration (Membrane filtration) Reverse Osmosis - RO (Membrane filtration) Water Softening

Yes
(> 0.01 micron)

Yes
(99%)

No Yes
(40%)

No Yes
(20%)

Yes
(> 0.001 micron)

Yes
(99%)

Yes
(> 0.0001 micron)

Yes
(100%)

Yes
(90%)

Yes
(60%)

No

No

No

Yes
(90%)

Technology no. 4 to 8 needs electrical supply

Recommended System (combination of technologies)
Sl Name of System Source of water Municipal Supplied (river / lake water) 1 2 3 4 5 Micron Filtration (Multi layer cartridge) Chlorination and two stage filtration Three - stage filtration cartridge, UV Nano filtration system RO filtration system Bore well / tanker supplied water

Yes Yes Yes No No

No No No Yes Yes

The above systems will satisfy the drinking water quality

Recommended System (combination of technologies)
Sl Name of System Municipal Supplied (river / lake water) Bore well / tanker supplied water Suppliers Cost Approx. range Maintenance (In Rs.) cost (Rs. / year)
1500 – 1800 1600 – 1800 6500 to 7500 Cartridge once in year (500 -600) Change of cartridge and chlorine dosing (800 - 900) Cartridges, UV lamps (1500 – 2000)

1

Micron Filtration (Multi layer cartridge) Chlorination and two stage filtration Three - stage filtration cartridge, UV Nano filtration system RO filtration system

Yes Yes Yes No No

No No No Yes Yes

Aqua Safe, Konark filters, Ion exchange Uniliver, Usha – Brita (Delhi) Eureka Forbes, Kent, Moniba, Modi, Krona, Vaibavi Enterprises, Alpha, Kenstar, Bajaj Eureka Forbes, Kent

2

3

4

12000 to 15000 12000 to 15000

Cartridges, UV lamps, Nano membranes (2600 – 3000) Cartridges, UV lamps, RO membranes (2600 – 3000)

5

Eureka Forbes, Kent, Kenstar, Krona

Conclusions

For river / lake water (municipal supplied)
  

Chlorination with two stage filtration will serve the purpose Supplier: “Pure it” by Unilever Ltd. or equivalent Cost: Rs. 1500 to 1800 + Maintenance (Rs. 500 – 600)/year

In case bore well / tanker supplied water (source of water is suspect)
 

RO system with (mineral enhancement) will serve the purpose Supplier: Kent Mineral RO (Model: Kent Grand / Kent Excell) or equivalent Cost: Rs. 12,000 to 15,000 + Maintenance (Rs. 2600 – 3000)/year